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Multimedia Needs Assessment

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Multimedia Needs Assessment

  1. 1. Multimedia-Based Instructional Design 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  2. 2. Multimedia Instructional Design Process
  3. 3. Needs assessment is the systematic process of: – Determining goals – Identifying discrepancies between actual and desired conditions – Establishing priorities for action (Lee
  4. 4. Five Types of Need • 1. Normative need – A need that is compared to a standard • 2. Felt need – What people think they need • 3. Expressed or demanded need – Supply and demand • 4. Comparative need – Some people have a particular attribute; others don’t • 5. Anticipated or future need – Projected demands
  5. 5. Process of conducting a needs assessment 1. Determine the present condition 2. Define the job 3. Rank the goals in order of importance 4. Identify discrepancies 5. Determine positive areas 6. Set priorities for action
  6. 6. Front-end analysis to obtain more detailed information about exactly what is to be developed
  7. 7. Types of Front-End Analysis 1. Audience analysis – Identify the background, learning characteristics, and prerequisite skills of the audience. 2. Technology analysis – Identify existing technology capabilities 3. Task analysis – Describe the job-related tasks performed as a result of the training or performance support 4. Critical-incident analysis – Determine what skills or knowledge should be targeted in the multimedia intervention or training program. 5. Situational analysis – Identify environmental or organizational constraints that may have an impact on goals and multimedia design.
  8. 8. Cont. Types of Front-End Analysis 6. Objective analysis – Write the objectives for the job tasks to be addressed 7. Media analysis – Select the appropriate media delivery strategy 8. Extant-data analysis – Identify existing training materials, manuals, references, and syllabi 9. Cost-benefit analysis – Identify cost and benefit, and return on investment.
  9. 9. Instructional Design Phases and Time Ratio
  10. 10. Audience Analysis identifies the background and some of the learning characteristics of the target population
  11. 11. Information about the target audience • Experience with the training medium • Learning preferences • Language ability or preference • Previous training or job experience • Demographics and special requirements • Attitudes toward content • Language skills of the audience
  12. 12. Technology Analysis • Available communication technology. • The technology available for reference or performance support. • The technology available for testing and assessment. • The technology for distribution. • The technology for delivery. • The expertise.
  13. 13. Analyze available communication technology • Phone conferencing • E-mail • Chat room technology • Newsgroup technology • List-server technology
  14. 14. Analyze the technology available for reference or performance support • Determine whether or not online reference materials in hypertext markup language (HTML) and linked documents are available • Determine whether or not employees have access to performance support files or help systems
  15. 15. Analyze the technology available for testing and assessment • Determine whether or not electronic self-assessment, testing, or certification is available • Define the issues of security
  16. 16. Analyze the Technology for Distribution • Determine whether CD-ROMs, disks, or other materials are used for courses, reference material, or help files and, if so, how they are distributed • Determine whether file transfer protocol (FTP) is used to download courses or files.
  17. 17. Analyze the Technology for Delivery • Determine whether dedicated audio and video servers are used for delivering courses • Determine whether employees have access to multimedia PCs • Find out whether a video teleconferencing or educational TV system is used for distribution of information
  18. 18. Analyze the Expertise • Determine if the equipment, hardware, software, and maintenance required for each technology is available: – Video production – Audio production – Graphics production – Help or reference-system development – CBT authoring and development – Web and HTML development – Testing, database, and statistical-programs
  19. 19. Situational Analysis 1. Analyze the job environment. – Physical and environmental factors such as noise, ventilation, or temperature – Management support of training and employee development – Teamwork – Empowerment – Delegation and control – Feedback – Work processes and policies – Safety issues – Coaching and mentoring
  20. 20. cont. Situational Analysis 2. Analyze delivery environment. – Access to training facilities – Availability of instructors, coaches, and mentors – Physical and environmental factors such as noise, ventilation, and temperature
  21. 21. Task Analysis breaking the job down into duties and tasks, as well as determining the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) that job performers must have
  22. 22. Task Analysis Diagram
  23. 23. Critical Incident Analysis • Determine the critical tasks. • Determine important but nonessential tasks. • Determine the tasks you will deselect.
  24. 24. Issue Analysis Issue Analysis Model
  25. 25. Objective Analysis Objectives determine what you include in the content, whether the solution produces knowledge or performance, how the effectiveness of your solution is measured, and the media you choose to deliver the solution
  26. 26. System Flowchart
  27. 27. Domains of Learning
  28. 28. Levels in the Cognitive Domain
  29. 29. Levels in the Affective Domain
  30. 30. Levels in the Motor and Psycho motor Domain
  31. 31. Five Parts of an Objective
  32. 32. Learned Capabilities and Accompanying Verbs for Developing Performance Objectives
  33. 33. Media Analysis A systematic and careful media selection decision is essential to successful and cost-effective resolution of business problems
  34. 34. Types of Delivery Media • Instructor-led • Computer-based • Distance broadcast • Web-based • Audiotapes • Videotapes • Performance support systems (PSS) • Electronic performance support systems (EPSS)
  35. 35. MEDIA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE • Rate Each of the Factors • Summarize Findings • Place the Resulting Media in a Hierarchy • Match Media Advantages and Limitations
  36. 36. Four Levels of a Blended Solution Learning Environment Level 4 Face to Face Environments Level 3 • Classroom Virtual Learning • Workshops Environments • Conferences • Synchronous web-based • Online learning communities of practice • User groups • Chat rooms • Email • Video teleconference • Audio teleconference • Web conferencing
  37. 37. Four Levels of a Blended Solution Learning Environment Level 2 Self Instructional Environments • Programmed learning materials • Asynchronous web-based training • Asynchronous computer-based training Level 1 Performance Support Environments • Online help systems • Reference manuals • Help desks • Internet
  38. 38. Cost Analysis • Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) – is used to determine whether or not you will undertake a project. • Return on investment (ROI) – is often measured after a project has been implemented, in order to determine its actual benefit.
  39. 39. Rapid Analysis Method • Ask 9% – Validate responses from all groups and reconcile the gaps • Listen 50% – Complete information about the issue to use during observation phase to validate and reconcile difference between what is said and what is actually done.
  40. 40. cont. Rapid Analysis Method • Observe 40% – Validate responses from various groups; identify gaps between the various needs and the actual situation in the environment. • Report 1% – Groups’ acceptance or rejection of recommendations (note: at this point the design of the intervention can begin at the appropriate level of training, performance, and organization; includes partial acceptance of recommendations with all groups understanding how much impact intervention(s) can have at the accepted level).