Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Heavy Oil Reservoirs:  Fluid Tracing Challenges Tor Bjørnstad Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Kjeller, Norway
<ul><li>Established 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>About 600 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover: MNOK 750 </li></ul><ul><li>Main...
Purpose of my visit here: <ul><li>O ffer to Pemex  services  with state-of-the-art technology within reservoir description...
Contents <ul><li>About tracers </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional use of tracers in reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer types,...
Visionary thinking
Reservoir characterization Reservoir model incl. dynamic properties Geological (or static) reservoir  model Well logs Bios...
Tracer Technology: Definitions
What is Tracer Technology? <ul><li>Tracer Technology  may roughly be defined as a   monitoring technology of physical, che...
Tracer category 1: Passive tracers <ul><li>Passive or conservative (or also, less precisely, called ideal) tracers :   </l...
Tracer category 2: Active tracers <ul><li>Active (also, less precisely, called non-ideal or reacting) tracers:   </li></ul...
There are various tracer types <ul><li>It is found to be practical to divide oilfield tracers into   three types   (not ki...
The “IFE Tracer Club”- different phases Tracer Technology development sponsored by major oil companies.
Tracers in reservoirs: Reservoir description and flow-field mapping
Water expels oil 8 km 2 km
Tracing of  injection  fluids P referential flow directions H orizontal and vertical communication between wells P ermeabi...
Field tracer production profiles P roduction curves for HTO in various production wells also illustrating how break-throug...
North Sea field example <ul><li>Use of well-to-well TT on the SNORRE-field showed  surprising fluid flow directions  of wa...
North Sea oil  reservoir –  FAWAG process Flow pattern from I1, I2 and I3  <ul><li>Overlap of gas- contacted areas </li></...
Tracer response after WAG PMCH responses from I2 PMCH P4 P5 P7 P8 P9 I2 I3 P6
Tracer Types, Sampling, Analysis and Modeling
Isotopic ratio tracers Example: Ratio of  12 C  and  13 C  which varies in different fluids and C-containing matter.  The ...
Radioactive tracers for IWTT Organic molecules : CH 2 T OH,  14 C H 3 OH CH 3 14 C HOHCH 3 , CH 3 C T OHCH 3 Inorganic mol...
Non-radioactive polyfluorinated interwell water tracers H F COOH H H H H F COOH H H H F H COOH F H H H H COOH F F H H H CO...
“ Water” samples from flow line
Non-radioactive gas tracers P erfluorinated cyclic hydro-carbons with coordinated light hydrocarbon (methyl) groups are ex...
Gas Tracer sample container General version, pressurized New, for PFC-tracers, non-pressurized
GC-MS/MS
HPLC spectrometer
Fluorescense of produced waters and tracers Gullfaks water IFE-WTN-1,3 IFE-WTN-1,3,6 Fluorescein Tap water Heidrun water I...
Isotope mass spectrometer
LSC scintillation vial 12 mL scintillation cocktail + 8 mL distilled sample intimately mixed
Liquid scintillation counting  - analysis of HTO in produced water Channel number (Energy) Counting rate HTO spectrum, sam...
Heavy Oil Production – Tracing Challenges
Oil Classification Type API gravity Density (kg/m 3 ) Viscosity (cP) Bitumen << 10 1000 ++ > 10.000 Extra heavy oil < 10 1...
Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) Steam  injection Steam  soaking Backpro- duction
Tracers for CSS <ul><li>Requirement:  Tracers stable at temperatures  of 200-300   C </li></ul><ul><li>For water vapor:  ...
Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) Cold heavy oil Combustion zone Coke zone Mobil oil Injected air and water
Tracers for THAI <ul><li>Requirement:  Tracers stable at oil com- bustion temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>For air: 127 Xe ,...
SAGD principle SAGD = Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Steam injection Oil production Vapor heats up a compartment  around ...
Statement “ D uring the startup and early operation of horizontal  SAGD  wells, it is important to understand the flow dis...
Tracers for SAGD Requirement:  Tracers stable at temperatures  of 200-300 C For water vapor:  H T O, CH 2 T OH For water ...
Low Temp. Solvent (VAPEX) Production well Injection well Draining diluted  and deasphalted oil
Tracers for VAPEX presently in pilot tests Requirement:  Temperature is not a stability  issue for the tracers but they  m...
SAGD and VAPEX combined -high-temperature recovery – in pilot stage Production well Injection well Mobilized oil
Tracers for combined  SAGD and VAPEX Requirement:  Tracers for water vapor, water  condensed phase and gas  phase stable a...
Outlook
Tracer development line 1945 1955 1975 1985 2008 2015 He-gas 131 I - , HTO <ul><li>SCN -  (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Co(CN) 6 3...
Tracer molecules become constantly more complex Are these among the future candi-dates?? Borrowed from Nick D. Kim
Fluorescent and radioactive  nano-particles Particle core emission Particle core and functional layer emission Particle co...
Surfactant: Alpha-olefine sulphonate labelled with radioactive nuclides CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH = CH  CH 2  35 S O 3 -  Na...
Tor Bjørnstad Tracer injection pump IFE personnel Tracer operations in the North Sea 1
Tor Bjørnstad Learning to operate the gas tracer sampling kit
Hybrid End
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

110510 tracers in heavy oil

3.508 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Tracers in heavy oil. A presentation by Tor Bjørnstad, Institute for Energy Technology, 2011

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie, Business
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

110510 tracers in heavy oil

  1. 1. Heavy Oil Reservoirs: Fluid Tracing Challenges Tor Bjørnstad Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Kjeller, Norway
  2. 2. <ul><li>Established 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>About 600 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover: MNOK 750 </li></ul><ul><li>Main activity areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and environmental technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research under contract </li></ul>Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) 21.09.11 Tor Bjørnstad
  3. 3. Purpose of my visit here: <ul><li>O ffer to Pemex services with state-of-the-art technology within reservoir description (tracer technology), corrosion, flow assurance and pipeline transportation developed in our own laboratories. </li></ul><ul><li>I nvite Pemex as an industrial participant along with other major oil companies into our various and ongoing Joint Industry Programs (JIPs) on R&D and technology development . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contents <ul><li>About tracers </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional use of tracers in reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer types, sampling, analysis and modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy oil recovery methods – tracing challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook – new functional tracers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Visionary thinking
  6. 6. Reservoir characterization Reservoir model incl. dynamic properties Geological (or static) reservoir model Well logs Biostratigraphy Sedimentology Geochemistry Seismics Reservoir modelling Tracer data Production data
  7. 7. Tracer Technology: Definitions
  8. 8. What is Tracer Technology? <ul><li>Tracer Technology may roughly be defined as a monitoring technology of physical, chemical or biological processes whereby a tracer species, which can be readily analysed on-line (in-stream, in-vivo) or off-line (in vitro), is added to the process in order to follow the process development and describe its mechanisms . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tracer category 1: Passive tracers <ul><li>Passive or conservative (or also, less precisely, called ideal) tracers : </li></ul><ul><li>The requirement is that the tracer shall passively follow the fluid phase or phase fraction into which it is injected without any chemical or physical behaviour different from that of the traced component itself. In addition, the tracer must not perturb the behaviour of the traced phase in any way, -neither must the fluid phase or its components perturb the tracer behaviour. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tracer category 2: Active tracers <ul><li>Active (also, less precisely, called non-ideal or reacting) tracers: </li></ul><ul><li>The tracer is taking active part in the process in qualitatively predictable ways , and is used to measure a property of the system in which it is injected. The degree of the active part-taking is a quantitative measure of the property to be determined. </li></ul>
  11. 11. There are various tracer types <ul><li>It is found to be practical to divide oilfield tracers into three types (not kinds!) based on their principally different production, treatment and analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules with special Stable-Isotope Ratios (  D ,  13C etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-radioactive chemical species </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive atoms or molecules </li></ul>
  12. 12. The “IFE Tracer Club”- different phases Tracer Technology development sponsored by major oil companies.
  13. 13. Tracers in reservoirs: Reservoir description and flow-field mapping
  14. 14. Water expels oil 8 km 2 km
  15. 15. Tracing of injection fluids P referential flow directions H orizontal and vertical communication between wells P ermeability strata S weep volumes L arge-scale hetero-geneities Injection well Production well Stratified reservoir
  16. 16. Field tracer production profiles P roduction curves for HTO in various production wells also illustrating how break-through has been missed in two cases D esign of experi-ment done with ECLIPSE on existing reservoir model FROM WELLS IN A NORTH SEA RESERVOIR 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 (Thousands) TIME FROM FIRST INJECTION (DAYS) 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 INJ.
  17. 17. North Sea field example <ul><li>Use of well-to-well TT on the SNORRE-field showed surprising fluid flow directions of water and gas. </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in a partly new stratigraphic model which again changed the reservoir model . Infill wells can be placed with increased reliability. </li></ul>Injection well Production well Water tracer Gas tracer
  18. 18. North Sea oil reservoir – FAWAG process Flow pattern from I1, I2 and I3 <ul><li>Overlap of gas- contacted areas </li></ul><ul><li>Development of gas caps both from I1 and I2 </li></ul>P10 P9 P11 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P7 P8 I1 I2 I3 P6
  19. 19. Tracer response after WAG PMCH responses from I2 PMCH P4 P5 P7 P8 P9 I2 I3 P6
  20. 20. Tracer Types, Sampling, Analysis and Modeling
  21. 21. Isotopic ratio tracers Example: Ratio of 12 C and 13 C which varies in different fluids and C-containing matter. The standard is an established reference, such as ocean water .
  22. 22. Radioactive tracers for IWTT Organic molecules : CH 2 T OH, 14 C H 3 OH CH 3 14 C HOHCH 3 , CH 3 C T OHCH 3 Inorganic molecules: H T O, 22 Na + , 125 I - , ( 131 I - ), ( 82 Br - ), 36 Cl - , 35 S CN - , S 14 C N - , ( 35 S O 4 2- ), 56 Co (CN) 6 3- , 57 Co (CN) 6 3- , 58 Co (CN) 6 3- , 60 Co (CN) 6 3- Co(CN) 5 ( 14 C N) 3-
  23. 23. Non-radioactive polyfluorinated interwell water tracers H F COOH H H H H F COOH H H H F H COOH F H H H H COOH F F H H H COOH H F F H F COOH H H F H F COOH F F F H F COOH H H H
  24. 24. “ Water” samples from flow line
  25. 25. Non-radioactive gas tracers P erfluorinated cyclic hydro-carbons with coordinated light hydrocarbon (methyl) groups are excellent gas tracers PMCP PMCH CARBON FLUORINE 1,2,4-PTMCH PDCB 1,3-PDMCH
  26. 26. Gas Tracer sample container General version, pressurized New, for PFC-tracers, non-pressurized
  27. 27. GC-MS/MS
  28. 28. HPLC spectrometer
  29. 29. Fluorescense of produced waters and tracers Gullfaks water IFE-WTN-1,3 IFE-WTN-1,3,6 Fluorescein Tap water Heidrun water IFE-WTN-2,7 Emission wavelength (nm) Exitation wavelength (rel) Norne water
  30. 30. Isotope mass spectrometer
  31. 31. LSC scintillation vial 12 mL scintillation cocktail + 8 mL distilled sample intimately mixed
  32. 32. Liquid scintillation counting - analysis of HTO in produced water Channel number (Energy) Counting rate HTO spectrum, sample 1: 82 ± 4 Bq/l HTO spectrum, sample 2: 10 ± 2 Bq/l Background spectra
  33. 33. Heavy Oil Production – Tracing Challenges
  34. 34. Oil Classification Type API gravity Density (kg/m 3 ) Viscosity (cP) Bitumen << 10 1000 ++ > 10.000 Extra heavy oil < 10 1000 + > 1000 Heavy oil 10 – 22.3 920 - 1000 > 100 Medium oil 22.3 – 31.1 870 - 920 10 - 100 Light oil > 31.1 < 870 < 10
  35. 35. Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) Steam injection Steam soaking Backpro- duction
  36. 36. Tracers for CSS <ul><li>Requirement: Tracers stable at temperatures of 200-300  C </li></ul><ul><li>For water vapor: H T O, CH 2 T OH </li></ul><ul><li>For water cond. phase: Naphtalene-sulphonic acids </li></ul><ul><li>For steam/gas phases: Various PFCs </li></ul>
  37. 37. Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) Cold heavy oil Combustion zone Coke zone Mobil oil Injected air and water
  38. 38. Tracers for THAI <ul><li>Requirement: Tracers stable at oil com- bustion temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>For air: 127 Xe , 133 Xe , 85 Kr , 4 He </li></ul><ul><li>For water vapor: H T O </li></ul><ul><li>For water cond. phase: 22 Na + , Cl - </li></ul><ul><li>For CO 2 : 14 C O 2 </li></ul>
  39. 39. SAGD principle SAGD = Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Steam injection Oil production Vapor heats up a compartment around the well and mobilizes the oil The mobilized oil is drained into the lower production well
  40. 40. Statement “ D uring the startup and early operation of horizontal SAGD wells, it is important to understand the flow distribution of bitumen and water along the horizontal reservoir interval. I f this distribution is understood, the distribution of steam, injected either at the heel or toe of the steam injector, can be adjusted to optimize the startup and early operation of the SAGD pair”. JPT
  41. 41. Tracers for SAGD Requirement: Tracers stable at temperatures of 200-300 C For water vapor: H T O, CH 2 T OH For water cond. phase: Naphtalene-sulphonic acids For steam/gas phases: Various PFCs
  42. 42. Low Temp. Solvent (VAPEX) Production well Injection well Draining diluted and deasphalted oil
  43. 43. Tracers for VAPEX presently in pilot tests Requirement: Temperature is not a stability issue for the tracers but they must be stable against biodegradation For light injected HC: T - or 14 C -labelled propane, isopropane, butane, isobutane, pentane etc. For cond. aq-phase: FBA, Naphtalene-sulphonic acids, H T O and several more
  44. 44. SAGD and VAPEX combined -high-temperature recovery – in pilot stage Production well Injection well Mobilized oil
  45. 45. Tracers for combined SAGD and VAPEX Requirement: Tracers for water vapor, water condensed phase and gas phase stable at temperatures of 200-300  C as for SAGD Additional: Radiolabelled light HC tracers as for VAPEX
  46. 46. Outlook
  47. 47. Tracer development line 1945 1955 1975 1985 2008 2015 He-gas 131 I - , HTO <ul><li>SCN - (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Co(CN) 6 3- (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Radiolabelled </li></ul><ul><li>natural gases </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohols </li></ul><ul><li>Lab studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>inorg. & org. w & g </li></ul><ul><li>Non-radioactive </li></ul><ul><li>w & g </li></ul><ul><li>New high-temperature gas and water tracers </li></ul><ul><li>Tracers for heavy oil EOR </li></ul><ul><li>Oil-partitioning tracers. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional nano-tracers </li></ul><ul><li>PFC gas tracers </li></ul><ul><li>FBA water tracers </li></ul><ul><li>New gas tracers </li></ul><ul><li>New water tracers </li></ul>
  48. 48. Tracer molecules become constantly more complex Are these among the future candi-dates?? Borrowed from Nick D. Kim
  49. 49. Fluorescent and radioactive nano-particles Particle core emission Particle core and functional layer emission Particle core and multifunctional layer emission
  50. 50. Surfactant: Alpha-olefine sulphonate labelled with radioactive nuclides CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH = CH  CH 2  35 S O 3 - Na + OH CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na + OH 14 C H 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na + OH CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  C T  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na +
  51. 51. Tor Bjørnstad Tracer injection pump IFE personnel Tracer operations in the North Sea 1
  52. 52. Tor Bjørnstad Learning to operate the gas tracer sampling kit
  53. 53. Hybrid End

×