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Personal Informatics & HCI

  Ian Li
  HCI Institute
  Carnegie Mellon University



Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI  ...
Gnothi seauton.




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   2
Know thyself.




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   3
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   4
Personal Informatics
  A class of systems that help people 

  collect and reflect on their behavior 

  to gain self-knowl...
http://personalinformatics.org/tools

  Physical Activity

  Finance

  Electricity

  Diabetes

  Health

  Mood


Ian Li...
HCI can help with the design of
  personal informatics systems.




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   7
Human-Computer Interaction
  The study of interaction between people and
  computers

  Intersection of computer science, ...
Why HCI?
  Personal informatics systems must provide
  users with different kinds of support.
  •  Make daily usage easier...
Alice
                                              •  20 years old
                                              •  Famil...
1. Alice prepares.




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   11
2. Alice collects data.
                                                   Mon   
1573
                                   ...
3. Alice transcribes data. 
  Transcribe to Excel




                                       M
          T
 W Th
 F
 Sa
 S...
4. Alice reflects on the data.

                                                           Active



                      ...
5. Alice takes action.
                                                             Walk in the park
                     ...
PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 20...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection
  The stage when people collect information
...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
  •  Rememberin...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Collection Barriers
  •  Using the tool
               ...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection
  The stage when people reflect on their
  per...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
  •  Lack of time
  •  Self-criticis...
PREPARATION   COLLECTION   INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




  Reflection Barriers
                                    ...
Properties of the Stages
  1.  Barriers cascade
  2.  Stages are iterative
  3.  User- vs. System-driven
  4.  Facets




...
3. User- vs. System-driven

     User-driven
                                  System-driven




Ian Li   Personal Informa...
3. User- vs. System-driven
                                             Mon   
1573
                                      ...
3. User- vs. System-driven



                                                   User-driven
   System-driven

  Collectio...
3. User- vs. System-driven
  Design Guideline
  Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven
  and system-driven stages.



...
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sha...
PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 20...
IMPACT
  Different from most personal informatics
  systems for physical activity:

  •  Collects physical activity inform...
Two prototypes – Two studies
  IMPACT 1.0
                                      IMPACT 2.0
  Manual collection
           ...
IMPACT 1.0




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   32
Awareness of opportunities
  “It turns out I get the most walking done to
  and from work…and walking around my
  neighbor...
IMPACT 2.0




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
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Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   35
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   36
No difference
  Compared to other systems:
  •  No visualizations
  •  Steps-only visualizations




Ian Li   Personal Inf...
Long-term value
  Six months later, users who collected
  contextual information reflected on their data
  better.




Ian ...
Collection vs. Reflection
                                                   Short-term   Long-term
                       ...
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sha...
Barriers       Example Quote

                                                      Tool (13/67)   “not having ready acces...
Experience Sampling
  Collect self-reports from users
  •  3 questions per self-report
  •  10 self-reports per day
  •  2...
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   43
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   44
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   45
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   46
Experience Sampling




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Experience Sampling+Feedback




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   49
Increased compliance by 23%




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
Maintained compliance
                                              Control
         A+I
    A+M

                        ...
Personal Insights
  “When I was doing something productive my
  mood was not high. My mood was highest
  when I was playin...
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sha...
PREPARATION        COLLECTION          INTEGRATION   REFLECTION   ACTION




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 20...
System Issues
  Value of self-reflection is not immediate

  Low participation by users




Ian Li   Personal Informatics &...
System Issues
  Value of self-reflection is not immediate
  Use sharing as initial motivation
  Low participation by users
...
http://moodjam.org




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                     57
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   58
Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
   59
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sha...
Barriers       Example Quote

                                                      Tool (13/67)   “not having ready acces...
System Issues
  Access to collection tool

  Lack of integration of data sources

  Most tools collect only one type of da...
Grafitter
  Access to collection tool
  Support multiple social media
  Lack of integration of data sources
  Cull data aut...
Supports multiple social media
  Twitter
  Delicious
  Instant Messenger
  Blogger




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI...
Flexible and easy-to-enter
  Extension of Twitter hashtags
  #mood(happy) Just had ice cream.
  A long day #work(11) and i...
http://grafitter.com




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                      66
Grafitter
  Up since February 2009
  Continuing development
  •  Support privacy
  •  Additional visualizations
  •  Multi-...
Introduction
   Model of Personal Informatics
   Collection vs. Reflection
   Maintaining Compliance
   Increase Use by Sha...
http://ianli.com/dd/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       69
http://tinyurl.com/actionshot/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                                 70
http://belikeben.com
  Be Like Ben




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       71
http://ianli.com/tlc/




Ian Li   Personal Informatics & HCI   June 2010
                       72
Thank you!
  ianli@cmu.edu


  http://ianli.com

  http://personalinformatics.org
  http://personalinformatics.org/lab/mod...
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Personal Informatics and HCI, Ian Li, June 2010

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In this talk, I describe why Personal Informatics is an interesting challenge for HCI and how HCI can help with some of the issues found with personal informatics systems. I provide an brief overview of a model of personal informatics systems and delineate the problems people encounter when using such systems. I discuss the many projects I have done that explore some solutions for the problems.

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Personal Informatics and HCI, Ian Li, June 2010

  1. 1. Personal Informatics & HCI Ian Li HCI Institute Carnegie Mellon University Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  2. 2. Gnothi seauton. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 2
  3. 3. Know thyself. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 3
  4. 4. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 4
  5. 5. Personal Informatics A class of systems that help people 
 collect and reflect on their behavior 
 to gain self-knowledge Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 5
  6. 6. http://personalinformatics.org/tools Physical Activity Finance Electricity Diabetes Health Mood Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 6
  7. 7. HCI can help with the design of personal informatics systems. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 7
  8. 8. Human-Computer Interaction The study of interaction between people and computers Intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, and design Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 8
  9. 9. Why HCI? Personal informatics systems must provide users with different kinds of support. •  Make daily usage easier and facilitate use over a long period of time. •  Organize the data. •  Help users understand the data. •  Help users act on new knowledge. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 9
  10. 10. Alice •  20 years old •  Family history of heart disease •  Wants to be more active, but doesnʼt know how because sheʼs busy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 10
  11. 11. 1. Alice prepares. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 11
  12. 12. 2. Alice collects data. Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 12
  13. 13. 3. Alice transcribes data. Transcribe to Excel M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 13
  14. 14. 4. Alice reflects on the data. Active Inactive Inactive M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 14
  15. 15. 5. Alice takes action. Walk in the park instead of watching TV M T W Th F Sa Su M T Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 15
  16. 16. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 16
  17. 17. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection The stage when people collect information about themselves (e.g., inner thoughts, behavior, social interactions, and their immediate environment). Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 17
  18. 18. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool •  Remembering •  Lack of time •  Motivation •  Finding data •  Accuracy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 18
  19. 19. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Collection Barriers •  Using the tool One problem is:
 •  Remembering “Keeping up the •  Lack of time motivation to do so; •  Motivation like finding payback for the investment of •  Finding data time and effort.” •  Accuracy Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 19
  20. 20. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection The stage when people reflect on their personal information. •  Users may reflect immediately (short-term) •  Or after several days or weeks (long-term) Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 20
  21. 21. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers •  Lack of time •  Self-criticism •  Visualization •  Interpretation •  Sparse data •  No context Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 21
  22. 22. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Reflection Barriers “Itʼs hard to get a •  Lack of time holistic view of the •  Self-criticism data since the time filters are at most one •  Visualization month and Iʼd like to •  Interpretation look at several •  Sparse data months at once.” •  No context Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 22
  23. 23. Properties of the Stages 1.  Barriers cascade 2.  Stages are iterative 3.  User- vs. System-driven 4.  Facets Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 23
  24. 24. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 24
  25. 25. 3. User- vs. System-driven Mon 1573 Tue 4392 Wed 4537 Thu 5842 Fri 10258 Sat 7528 Sun 1368 Mon 1497 Tue 1837 User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 25
  26. 26. 3. User- vs. System-driven User-driven System-driven Collection Integration Reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 26
  27. 27. 3. User- vs. System-driven Design Guideline Consider the tradeoffs between user-driven and system-driven stages. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 27
  28. 28. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 28
  29. 29. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 29
  30. 30. IMPACT Different from most personal informatics systems for physical activity: •  Collects physical activity information 
 and context (e.g., type of activity, location, people) •  Visualizations to help users become aware
 of factors in their lives that affect their physical activity. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 30
  31. 31. Two prototypes – Two studies IMPACT 1.0 IMPACT 2.0 Manual collection Semi-automated collection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 31
  32. 32. IMPACT 1.0 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 32
  33. 33. Awareness of opportunities “It turns out I get the most walking done to and from work…and walking around my neighborhood for an hour or two made a difference.” P35 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 33
  34. 34. IMPACT 2.0 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 34
  35. 35. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 35
  36. 36. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 36
  37. 37. No difference Compared to other systems: •  No visualizations •  Steps-only visualizations Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 37
  38. 38. Long-term value Six months later, users who collected contextual information reflected on their data better. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 38
  39. 39. Collection vs. Reflection Short-term Long-term Reflection Reflection IMPACT 1.0 Manual GOOD NOT GOOD Collection IMPACT 2.0 Automated NOT GOOD GOOD Collection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 39
  40. 40. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 40
  41. 41. Barriers Example Quote Tool (13/67) “not having ready access to a computer at the time symptoms happen” P6 Memory “Forgetting to record it. Because I (12/67) am often not at my personal computer.” P57 Lack of time “not difficult, time consuming at PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION (11/67) times.” P16 Finding “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting data (7/67) enough to make me want to write it down, other times I canʼt find any worthy writing material.” P54 Accuracy “Guestimating mass of food (6/67) matching homemade or restaurant foods against database entries” P5 Motivation “keeping up the motivation to do (5/67) so, finding payback for the investment of time and effort.” P4 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 41
  42. 42. Experience Sampling Collect self-reports from users •  3 questions per self-report •  10 self-reports per day •  28 days •  840 pieces of information from user Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 42
  43. 43. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 43
  44. 44. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 44
  45. 45. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 45
  46. 46. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 46
  47. 47. Experience Sampling Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  48. 48. Experience Sampling+Feedback Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  49. 49. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 49
  50. 50. Increased compliance by 23% Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010
  51. 51. Maintained compliance Control A+I A+M 1 Compliance Rate 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 51
  52. 52. Personal Insights “When I was doing something productive my mood was not high. My mood was highest when I was playing games.” “Apparently, I am least productive with work (Word, Excel) at night when I use AIM. I never use AIM in the morning, thus much more productive with work.” Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 52
  53. 53. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 53
  54. 54. PREPARATION COLLECTION INTEGRATION REFLECTION ACTION Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 54
  55. 55. System Issues Value of self-reflection is not immediate Low participation by users Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 55
  56. 56. System Issues Value of self-reflection is not immediate Use sharing as initial motivation Low participation by users Sharing increases participation Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 56
  57. 57. http://moodjam.org Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 57
  58. 58. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 58
  59. 59. Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 59
  60. 60. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 60
  61. 61. Barriers Example Quote Tool (13/67) “not having ready access to a computer at the time symptoms happen” P6 Memory “Forgetting to record it. Because I (12/67) am often not at my personal computer.” P57 PREPARATION COLLECTION Lack of timeREFLECTION INTEGRATION “not difficult, ACTION time consuming at (11/67) times.” P16 Finding “Sometimes life isnʼt interesting data (7/67) enough to make me want to write it down, other times I canʼt find any worthy writing material.” P54 Accuracy “Guestimating mass of food (6/67) matching homemade or restaurant foods against database entries” P5 Motivation “keeping up the motivation to do (5/67) so, finding payback for the investment of time and effort.” P4 Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 61
  62. 62. System Issues Access to collection tool Lack of integration of data sources Most tools collect only one type of data Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 62
  63. 63. Grafitter Access to collection tool Support multiple social media Lack of integration of data sources Cull data automatically Most tools collect only one type of data Flexible and easy-to-enter format Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 63
  64. 64. Supports multiple social media Twitter Delicious Instant Messenger Blogger Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 64
  65. 65. Flexible and easy-to-enter Extension of Twitter hashtags #mood(happy) Just had ice cream. A long day #work(11) and itʼs not over. Lunch with friends #lunch(amy, bob) Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 65
  66. 66. http://grafitter.com Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 66
  67. 67. Grafitter Up since February 2009 Continuing development •  Support privacy •  Additional visualizations •  Multi-faceted reflection Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 67
  68. 68. Introduction Model of Personal Informatics Collection vs. Reflection Maintaining Compliance Increase Use by Sharing Easing Data Integration Other Projects Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 68
  69. 69. http://ianli.com/dd/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 69
  70. 70. http://tinyurl.com/actionshot/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 70
  71. 71. http://belikeben.com Be Like Ben Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 71
  72. 72. http://ianli.com/tlc/ Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 72
  73. 73. Thank you! ianli@cmu.edu
 http://ianli.com
 http://personalinformatics.org http://personalinformatics.org/lab/model/ Funded by Ian Li Personal Informatics & HCI June 2010 73

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