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  1. 1. Lecture-5 Solar Power System 2/7/2023 1
  2. 2. Solar Energy Systems 2/7/2023 2
  3. 3.  The annual, monthly, daily and hourly records of the amount of solar radiation received at any given location over the earth’s surface are essential for the design of solar energy systems.  Therefore, solar radiation measurements are made continuously at monitoring stations of different countries.  Measurements may include, direct component at normal incidence, diffuse component at a horizontal surface, global radiation on a horizontal surface, total radiation on an inclined surface, ground reflected radiation, and spectral distribution over certain wavelength bands. Solar Energy Measurement 2/7/2023 3
  4. 4.  A variety of instruments are used for the measurement of solar radiation. They are categorized into two groups: pyranometers and  pyrheliometers.  Pyranometers are used to measure the total radiation, incident on a horizontal surface from the entire sky.  They can also measure the diffuse component if covered by an appropriate shade band.  Operation of most pyranometers is based on measurement of temperature difference between black and white elements using a thermopile. Solar Energy Measurement 2/7/2023 4
  5. 5.  Low cost, low sensitivity to tilt and temperature, pyranometers are built with silicon photovoltaic cell.  Pyrheliometers measure the intensity of the direct solar radiation at normal incidence.  Most used for routine measurements operate on the thermopile effect so are similar to pyranometers in this respect.  They differ in that mechanically they must follow the sun to measure the direct sunlight only and avoid the diffuse component.  In practice, direct solar radiation is measured by attaching the instrument to an electrically driven equatorial mount for tracking the sun. Solar Energy Measurement 2/7/2023 5
  6. 6.  The diffuse component is avoided by installing a collimator tube over the sensor with a circular cone angle of about 50.  Apart from the direct solar radiation records, there may be records of bright sunshine hours and approximate cloud cover for the location under interest.  Sunshine recorders are devices that measure hours of bright sunshine, not energy. These devices are sensitive only to the direct component of solar radiation when it is above some imprecise threshold.  The Campbell sunshine recorder is the classic recorder widely used throughout the world. 2/7/2023 6
  7. 7. PV system 2/7/2023 7
  8. 8. Cont’… 2/7/2023 8
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  10. 10. Cont’… 2/7/2023 10
  11. 11. Cont’… 2/7/2023 11
  12. 12. Cont’... 2/7/2023 12
  13. 13. Major system components  Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system type, site location and applications.  The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances). • PV module  converts sunlight into DC electricity The solar array consists of one or more PV modules which convert sunlight into electric energy. 2/7/2023 13
  14. 14. Cont’...  The modules are connected in series and/or parallel to provide the voltage and current levels to meet your needs.  The array is usually mounted on a metal structure and tilted to face the sun. • Solar charge controller  regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life.  Although charge controllers can be purchased with many optional features, their main function is to maintain the batteries at the proper charge level, and to protect them from overcharging. • Inverter  converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC appliances or fed back into grid line.  An inverter is required when you want to power AC devices. 2/7/2023 14
  15. 15. Cont’… • Battery  stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand  The battery bank contains one or more deep-cycle batteries, connected in series and/or parallel depending on the voltage and current capacity needed.  The batteries store the power produced by the solar array and discharge it when required. • Load  is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as 2/7/2023 15
  16. 16. Cont’… lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc.  These are the appliances (such as lights or radios), and the components (such as water pumps and microwave repeaters), which consume the power generated by your PV array. • Auxiliary energy sources  is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources.  These components provide the interconnections and standard safety features required for any electrical power system.  These include: array combiner box, properly sized cabling, fuses, switches, circuit breakers and meters. 2/7/2023 16
  17. 17. Cont’… 2/7/2023 17
  18. 18. What Factors Affect Solar PV System Efficiency • Temperature. Solar panel efficiency varies with temperature. ... • Soiling. Material that accumulates on the surface of PV panels can block light from reaching the solar cells, thereby reducing the generated power. ... • Shading. ... • Mismatch. ... • Inverter Efficiency. ... • Age. 2/7/2023 18
  19. 19. PV System Engineering 4 PV stand-alone power system with battery 5 A traveling clinic uses photovoltaic electricity to keep vaccines refrigerated in the African desert area 2/7/2023 19
  20. 20. 20 Cont’… 2/7/2023
  21. 21. 21 Cont’… 2/7/2023
  22. 22. Cont’… 2/7/2023 22
  23. 23. 23 Cont’… 2/7/2023
  24. 24. 24 Cont’…  The lift-force VAWT does not experience any starting torque!!! This may be a critical issue for certain applications.  Turbines connected to the electricity grid can use the electric generator as a starting motor.  In stand-alone configurations, either electricity storage devices (again using the generator as a starting motor) or integrated drag-force turbines (as start turbines) can be applied in order for the VAWT to spin up to a point where the lift force can take over. 2/7/2023
  25. 25. 25 Cont’…  All main power train components (gearbox, generator, brakes and main bearing) are placed on the ground, allowing for easy access for maintenance and lower stress on the tower.  Yaw mechanism for facing the wind is not needed – the turbine accepts wind from any direction.  The blades are easier to manufacture (symmetrical airfoils without any twist or taper).  All these features result in a simple machine, easily scalable to large dimensions, at lower costs than a horizontal axis one. 2/7/2023
  26. 26. Cont’… 2/7/2023 26
  27. 27. Residence Device and Load Calculating  As a first step, the electrical devices available at the residence are itemized with their power ratings and time of operation during the day to obtain the average energy demand in Watt-hour per day.  The total average energy consumption is used to determine the equipment sizes and ratings starting with the solar array and ending with system wiring and cost estimate as explained below.  The site under investigation is located at 12°19’ N 35°12’ E with an elevation of 2300 meters above sea level and with a time Zone of Africa/Addis Ababa UTC/ GMT+03. The Site has an annual solar irradiance of above 1200 kWh/m2. 2/7/2023 27
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  29. 29. Sizing and Selecting of the Solar Array  Before sizing the array, the total daily energy in Watt-hours (E), the average sun hour per day Tmin, and the DC voltage of the system (VDC) must be determined.  Once these factors are made available we move to the sizing process.  To avoid under sizing, losses must be considered by dividing the total power demand in Wh/day by the product of efficiencies of all components in the system to get the required energy Er.  According the power, the selected panel is (Mitsubishi - MF180UD4, 180- Wp, 24-V, 7.45-A).  The Specification of PV panel stated below 2/7/2023 29
  30. 30.  Manufacturer: MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC.  Model name: PV-MF180UD4.  Cell type: Poly-crystalline Silicon.  Number of cells: 50 cells.  Maximum power rating STC (Pmax): 180 watts.  Open circuit voltage (Voc): 30.4V.  Short circuit current (Isc): 8.03A  Maximum power voltage (Vmp): 24.2V. Maximum power current (Imp): 7.45A. 2/7/2023 30
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  35. 35. Sizing of the Battery Bank 2/7/2023 35
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  39. 39. Sizing of the Voltage Controller According to its function it controls the flow of current. A good voltage regulator must be able to withstand the maximum current produced by the array as well as the maximum load current. Sizing of the voltage regulator can be obtained by multiplying the short circuit current of the modules connected in parallel by a safety factor Fsafe. The result gives the rated current of the voltage regulator. According to selected controller (Xantrex C-60, 24-V, 60-A), the rated current of the voltage Controller I and taking the safety factor is 125% in this design. I=Isc*Np*Fsafe =8.03*8*1.25=80.3Amps 2/7/2023 39
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  41. 41. Sizing and Selecting of The Inverter When sizing the inverter, the actual power drawn from the appliances that will run at the same time must be determined as a first step. The power of devices that may run at the same time is: PTotal= 2,595Watt. The inverter needed must be able to handle about 2595-W at 220-Vac. So the selected inverter is Latronics inverter, LS3024, 3000-W, 24-Vdc, 220-Vac. 2/7/2023 41
  42. 42. Block diagram of the all system of PV 2/7/2023 42
  43. 43. Equipment Power Usage Daily load (kWh) 3 light 100W each 3hr/day 0.9 2 light 60W each 2hr/day 0.24 Fridge 150W 10hr/day 1.5 Freezer 150W 10hr/day 1.5 Iron 1000W 1hr/day 1.00 TV 60W 4hr/day 0.24 Washing machine 2.2cycles Twice a week 0.63 Dish washer 1.9kWh/cycle Once a day 1.9 Total daily load 7.91 2/7/2023 43
  44. 44. Top countries by cumulative solar PV capacity in 2019  China: 204,700 MW (32.6%)  United States: 75,900 MW (12.1%)  Japan: 63,000 MW (10.0%)  Germany: 49,200 MW (7.8%)  India: 42,800 MW (6.8%)  Italy: 20,800 MW (3.3%)  Australia: 14,600 MW (2.3%)  United Kingdom: 13,300 MW (2.1%) 2/7/2023 44
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