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He suggested that such nanomachines, nanorobots and nanodevices ultimately could be used to develop a wide range of atomically precise microscopic instrumentation and manufacturing tools.
Tooth durability and appearance may be improved by replacing upper enamel layers with covalently bonded artificial materials, such as
Nanotechnology in dentistry
M.D.S in PEDODONTICS
HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
TECHNIQUES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
NANODENTISTRY AND ITS APPLICATION
NANOMATERIALS FOR PERIODONTAL
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‘Nano’ is derived from the Greek word, meaning ‘dwarf ’.
Is a prefix literally refers to 1 billionth of a physical size.
According to defintion of the ‘National Nanotechnology
direct manipulation of materials at the nanoscale
General :- “Science Of The Small”
The central idea of nanotechnology is to employ individual
atoms and molecules to construct functional structures.
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Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter
on an atomic and molecular scale.
Generally ,nanotechnology deals with developing
materials ,devices, or other structures with at least one
dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.
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One nanometer (nm)
is one out of billionth of
a meter (10-9m)
Nano scale is larger
than “Atomic scale” and
smaller than “Micro
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“Richard Feynman” said "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at
an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech describing
molecular machines building with atomic precision. It is often held to
have provided inspiration for the field of nanotechnology.
The Japanese scientist “Norio Taniguchi “of the Tokyo University of
Science was the first to use the term "nano-technology" in a
Nanotechnology and Nano-science got a boost with development of
Cluster science and the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
(STM). The scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging
surfaces at the atomic level.
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The discovery of fullerenes.
IBM researcher “Don Eigler” was the first to manipulate atoms using a
scanning tunneling microscope . He used 35 Xenon atoms to spell out the
Discovery of carbon nanotubes by a japanese scientist, Sumio Lijima.
An improved walking DNA nanorobot invented.
Designing of a small protein that performed the function of natural goblin
First programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors invented.DR ASHWITHA 8
1. Energy storage, production and conversion
2. Agricultural productivity enhancement
3. Water treatment and remediation
4. Disease diagnosis and screening
5. Drug delivery systems
6. Food processing and storage
7. Air pollution and remediation
11. Vector and pest detection and control.
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Metal oxide nanoparticles,
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Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance
of comprehensive oral health by employing
nanomaterials, biotechnology, including tissue
engineering, and ultimately, dental nanorobotics.
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Nanorobot 'an artificially fabricated objects able to freely
diffuse in the human body and interact with specific cell at
the molecular level by itself.’
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines
or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of
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•DIAMETER:-0.5-2MICRONS, PARTS WITH DIMENSIONS 1-100nm
•THE EXTERIOR CARBON DIAMONOID STRUCTURE
•SPIDER LIKE BODY.
•ON BOARD NANO COMPUTERS.
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o Nanorobots are able to distinguish
between different cell types by checking
their surface antigens.
o Building nanorobots involves sensors,
actuators, control, power,
communications and interfacial signals
across spatial scales and between
organic/inorganic as well as biotic/
o When the task of the nanorobots is
completed, they can be retrieved by
allowing them to effuse themselves via
the usual human excretory channels.
They can also be removed by active
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o The powering of nanorobots can be done by metabolizing
local glucose, oxygen and externally supplied acoustic
o controlled by onboard computers capable of performing
around 1000 or more computations per second.
o Communication with the device can be achieved by
broadcast type acoustic signaling. A navigational network
installed in the body provides high positional accuracy to all
passing nanorobots and keep track of the various devices in
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The most interesting venue for speculation on the
nanorestoration of tooth structures is that of
nanotechnology mimicking processes that occur in nature
(biomimetics), such as the formation of dental enamel.
Through an affordable desktop manufacturing facility,
fabrication of a new tooth in the dentist's office within the
time & economic constraints of a typical dental office visit,
complete dentition replacement therapy will become
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Chen et al
utilizing nanotechnology simulated the natural
biomineralization process to create the dental
enamel, using highly organized microarchitectural
units of nanorod-like calcium hydroxyapatite crystals
arranged roughly parallel to each other
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sapphire or diamond, have 20 to 100 times the hardness
and strength of natural enamel, or contemporary ceramic
veneers as well as good biocompatibility.
Pure sapphire and diamond are brittle and prone to
resistant as part of a nanostructure composite material
that possibly includes embedded carbon nanotubes.
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Orthodontic nanorobots could
directly manipulate the
periodontal tissues, including
gingivae, periodontal ligament,
cementum and alveolar bone,
allowing rapid and painless tooth
straightening, rotating and vertical
repositioning within minutes to
This is in contrast to current molar-
uprighting techniques, which
require weeks or months to
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small dentifrobots [1-10 micron], crawling at 1-
10 microns/sec, would be inexpensive, purely
mechanical devices, that would safely
deactivate themselves if swallowed, and would
be programmed with strict occlusal avoidance
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Dentition renaturalization procedures may become a
popular addition to the future dental practice, made
possible through esthetic dentistry.
patients who desire to have their old dental amalgams
excavated and their teeth remanufactured with native
Full coronal renaturalization procedures in which all
fillings and crowns are removed, and the affected teeth
are remanufactured to become indistinguishable from
the original teeth .
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Dentin hypersensitivity may be caused by
changes in pressure transmitted
hydrodynamically to the pulp.
Natural hypersensitive teeth have eight times
higher surface density of dentinal tubules and
diameter with twice as large than non
Reconstructive dental nanorobots, using native
biological materials, could selectively and
precisely occlude specific tubules within
minutes, offering patients a quick and
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First described by Iijima in 1991
Sheets of graphene that can be rolled into
These are carbon rods about half the diameter
of a molecule of DNA that not only can detect
the presence of altered genes but also may help
researchers pinpoint the exact location of those
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Superior Flexural strength, modulus of
elasticity and translucency.
Reduced filling shrinkage.
Excellent handling properties.
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Beun and colleagues compared the physical
properties of nanofilled, universal
hybrid and microfilled composites, and observed
a higher elastic modulus with the nanofilled
RBC than most of the hybrids tested.
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Nanosolutions produce unique and dispersible
nanoparticles, which can be added to various solvents,
paints & polymers in which they are dispersed
Nano technology in bonding agents ensures homogeneity
and that the adhesive is perfectly mixed everytime
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• Used as a final coating over esthetic
• Nanotechnology uniformly
disperses nanofillers for higher wear
resistance, preventing abrasion and
• Smooth high luster finish retained
• Better wear and stain resistance
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• protect tooth surfaces against the damage caused by
cariogenic bacteria as the bacteria can be removed easily
from such polished surfaces.
• This also leads to less staining of the teeth and better
Before nano particle polishing after nano particle polishing
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Impression material is available
with nanotechnology application.
Nanofillers are integrated in
vinylpolysiloxanes, producing a
unique addition of siloxane
impression material. The
material has better flow,
improved hydrophilic properties
and enhanced detail precision.
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Scientists have achieved
a subtle surgical
operation on a
particular living cell, by
means of a needle that is
just a few billionths of a
nanosized stain less steel
needles, which will
make cell surgery possi-
ble in the near future.
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Nanoneedle-mediated intracellular delivery.
From Drug delivery: Puncturing cells en masse
Mark R. Prausnitz
Nature Materials 14, 470–471 (2015)
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Drugs can be incorporated into
nano spheres composed of a
biodegradable polymer, and this
allows for timed release of the
drug as the nanospheres degrade
facilitating site-specific drug
Recently triclosan loaded
nanoparticles prepared using poly
( lactide coglycolide), poly (d,l -
lactide) and cellulose acetate
phthalate for reduction of
inflammation. DR ASHWITHA 52
Tetracycline incorporated into
microspheres is available as Arestin for
drug delivery by local means into
A nanostructured 8.5% doxycycline gel
was observed to afford periodontal
surface preservation following
experimental periodontal disease in rats.
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The most popular ones to date
are nanoHAP (n-HAP) bone
grafts, which are available in
crystalline and titanium-
These n-HAP composite bone
graft scaffolds are highly
biocompatible, have superior
mechanical properties, and
induce better cellular responses
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A clinical study comparing the use of
nanocrystalline HAP (NHAP) paste vs open
flap debridement (control) in intrabony
defects demonstrated clinically significant
outcomes in the NHAP group, with a clinical
attachment level gain of 3.6 ± 1.6 mm vs the
control group’s gain of 1.8 ± 1.2 mm.44 This
indicated that the use of an NHAP paste
significantly improved the clinical outcome
when compared to open flap debridement.
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particulate sizes ranging from 200-900 nm, while the
conventional CaSO4 bone graft particle size ranges from 30-
These nanoparticles are further condensed into pellets of
more resistant to degradation and lasts longer (12-14
weeks) than conventional CaSO4 (4-6 weeks). This rate of
degradation matches the rate of bone growth in the
intrabony defects, resulting in better treatment outcomes
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Nanocalcium phosphate, walled Carbon
nanotubes, ZnO into an alginate polymer matrix
Carbon nanotubes- provide a strong, flexible, and
inert scaffold on which cells could proliferate and
deposit new bone,
ZnO nanoparticles provide the antibacterial
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• Nanotechnologies are
increasingly used for surface
modifications of dental
implants as surfaces
properties such as chemistry
and roughness play a
determinant role in achieving
and maintaining their long-
term stability in bone tissue.
• HA , naonodiamonds
Nanotechnology is part of a predicted future in which
dentistry and periodontal practice may become more high-
tech and more effective looking to manage individual dental
health on a microscopic level by enabling us to battle decay
where it begins with bacteria.
Construction of a comprehensive research facility is crucial to
meet the rigorous requirements for the development of
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Nanotechnology has tremendous potential, but
social issues of public acceptance, ethics,
regulation, and human safety must be addressed
before molecular nanotechnology can be seen as
the possibility of providing high quality dental care
to the 80% of the world's population that currently
receives no significant dental care.
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SUHAIL Et al Role of Nanotechnology in Dentistry Scholars
Journal of Applied Medical Sciences 2014; 2(2D):785-789
Mayuresh Et al. Nanotechnology: A Boon to Dentistry JDSOR
Shaeesta Et al. Current applications of nanotechnology in
dentistry: a review General dentistry; 2014
LING et al. Nanotechnology and its role in the management
of periodontal diseases Periodontology 2000,2006; 40: 184–
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