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Instructional planning - Janardhanan G

  1. Associate Professor Centre for Environmental Management National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research Taramani, Chennai - 600 113, India
  2. Robert Glaser (1960)
  3. Contd. 1. To ensure the right allocation - teaching time - each topic - avoid running out of material. 2. To prevent unnecessary overlapping - repetition of information. 3. To teach - topics in a logical sequence. 4. To select - most suitable instructional methods - materials - media
  4. 5. To budget - for the instructional resources required - to procure - prepare them. 6. To revise the instructional materials - in the light of the feedback obtained - the previous year - semester. 7. To provide a variety of activities - learning experiences - for the students. 8. To enhance teacher’s self confidence - in his/her ability - teach in an interesting - effective way - by designing a number of tactical alternatives.
  6. • The main emphasis while preparing a Course Plan is on the allocation of time for teaching the various units of the syllabus of a course.
  7. 1. Title of the Programme : 2. Name of the course : 3. Total No. of periods allotted for the course : Unit No. Title of the Unit No. of periods allotted Time allotted for tests & feedback Time allotted for revision Total
  8. • The unit plan will enable the teacher to identify  resources needed (materials and media)  teaching strategies (methods) and  evaluation procedures to be used
  9.  Objectives of the lesson  Maturity, interest and abilities of the target group  Time available  Facilities available
  10.  Students’ general ability level Their learning styles Their prerequisite knowledge and skills in the subject Their attitude towards learning that subject
  11. • The resources (Instructional materials and media) needed are to be identified:  Handouts  Work Sheets  Chalk board  Magnetic board  Charts  OHP transparencies  Audio tapes  Video tapes  Multimedia Learning Packages  Films  Models  Actual apparatus or equipment  Demonstration Kits  Slides
  12.  Lesson refers to the learning experiences provided during a single period of instruction.  The duration - of an Instructional period - one to three hours.  A Lesson - is highly structured to facilitate - ensure the participation of the learners.  During a lesson - lot of opportunities - provided to the learners - for interaction - practice
  13. • Lesson Plan is a blue print for a period of instruction. It lists the activities in which the students and the teacher will be engaged in at different phases of a lesson.
  14. Structuring involves: (i) Breaking down a complex topic into simple and small teaching points and (ii) Organising the various teaching points in a logical sequence
  16. Engage (INTRODUCTION) •Ask a question •Make connection between prior and current knowledge •Get students excited Explain (DEVELOPMENT) •Teach Concepts and relate to real life situation •Presenting information and examples •Providing practice and feedback Extend (CONSOLIDATION) •Summarizing the lesson •Providing thought for further expansion of concepts Evaluate (CONCLUSION) •Student self-evaluation •Assignments •Evaluation guides teaching for value addition
  17. 1. Programme : 2. Course : 3. Lesson Number : 4. Date & Time : 5. Lesson Title : 6. Entering Behaviour : 7. Specific Instructional objectives: Phase Instructional events Resources / Aids Time (in minutes)Teacher Activity Student Activity (Prerequisites)
  18. Method Teacher activity Student Activity 1. Lecture Describes or Explains or Illustrates (with or without aids) Listens 2. Drawing practice Draws a diagram on the chalkboard Looks at the diagram, Observes the method of drawing and practices 3. Questioning Asks questions and provides feedback Answers questions 4. Tutorial Guides the students Solves problems Contd.
  19. Method Teacher activity Student Activity 5. Discussion Leads discussion Participates in discussions 6. Demonstration Demonstrates Observes 7. Seminar Leads Participates in seminar 8. Laboratory Work / Workshop Practice Guides Performs the experiments
  20. • Does the lesson plan permit adjustment for students with different abilities? • Does the lesson plan encourage the students to become continually involved in learning activities? • Does the lesson provide for adequate coverage of the content to be learned for all students?
  21. • Does the lesson permit for monitoring of student progress? • Does the lesson provide for adequate assistance for students who do not learn from the initial procedure? • Does the lesson provide adequate practice to permit consolidation and integration of skills?
  22. • A classroom lecture, unlike a formal speech should be in the form of a lesson. It should place greater emphasis on the teacher – student interactions
  23. Contd. Plan an introduction to attract the students interest. This can be done by the following techniques:  Highlight the relevance and usefulness of the topic to be learnt.  State a historical or current problem related to the lecture content.  Relate lecture content to the material presented in the previous class.
  24. • Provide a brief overview of the lecture content by stating the expected learning outcomes. Write the title of the lesson on the chalk board. • Ask questions to find out whether your students possess the entry behaviour necessary for understanding the lecture content. Contd.
  25. • Organize the material to be presented in some logical order. Suggested organization schemes include:  Cause-effect  Time sequential  Problem – Solution  Pro-con  Ascending – Descending Contd.
  26. • Strike a balance between depth and breadth of coverage. When every nuance or detail of topic is discussed, students often lose sight of the main ideas. When too many ideas are presented and not developed, students fail to gain understanding. • Ask simple questions during the development phase in order to ensure the logical development of the topic. Contd.
  27. • Present the material in a simple language that is suitable to your students. • Use analogies, comparisons, correlations and illustrations. • Follow Inductive / Deductive / Indo-deductive method for illustration with examples. • Summarize the key ideas periodically – at intermittent stages. • Use a variety of instructional media.
  28. • Avoid reading from books or notes. • While speaking, face the students and not the chalkboard. • Maintain eye contact with all the students. • Modulate the tone of your voice in order to give emphasis and also attract the attention of students
  29. • Become aware of your mannerism and try to avoid them. • Provide for humour as and when possible. • During the concluding phase, ask questions to evaluate the achievement of objectives. • Briefly summarize lecture material and preview what lies ahead.
  30. Evaluate – Did every student meet the goal? – How will I document? – How and when will I remediate those that still need help? – When will I review this skill/concept?
  32. Classroom Climate: In order to have successful exchanges between teacher and students: 1. Students should feel free to ask questions of the teacher and their classmates. 2. Students should feel free to answer questions. 3. Students should not feel threatened by giving a wrong answer.
  33. Steps in the Questioning Process: 1. Ask a question. 2. Give a pause, so that all students will think of an answer. 3. Call upon one student to answer the question. 4. Listen to student’s answer and provide reinforcement to him. 5. Emphasize the correct answer.
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  35. Any doubts?? Further comments ?? Unanswered questions ?? Unresolved issues