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International Copyright

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International Copyright

  1. 1. International copyright Week 3 – Copyright & Royalties - semester 2 2009
  2. 2. copyright & royalties <ul><li>Why do we do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Before the 1700’s it was common practice to ‘borrow’ styles, techniques and even melodies of one another composer, and was seen as a sign of respect. This was considered an acceptable practice as the ownership of material was not subject to copyright law. </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>With the industrial revolution and the invention of mass production printing technology, musical scores were printed and sold and thus profit could be made from them. From this the success and notoriety of composers could grow on a commercial level. </li></ul>
  3. 3. copyright & royalties <ul><li>When did copyright become bound by law? </li></ul><ul><li>The first copyright act was passed in 1709 in the UK. In regards to music this initial copyright act dealt with, firstly; </li></ul><ul><li>Print music, then </li></ul><ul><li>Music boxes, then, </li></ul><ul><li>Player pianos, </li></ul><ul><li>Shellac records, </li></ul><ul><li>Vinyl records, </li></ul><ul><li>Cassette, </li></ul><ul><li>Video, </li></ul><ul><li>CD, </li></ul><ul><li>DVD, and now </li></ul><ul><li>Digital downloads </li></ul>
  4. 4. International copyright <ul><li>Due to the increase of copyright law and needs for copyright protection, as well as an increasing global community, the need for international copyright law is becoming increasingly needed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Berne convention <ul><li>The Berne convention was first adopted in Berne Switzerland in 1886. Prior to this works were only protected by copyright in the country they were created. During this period British works were openly used in France and visa versa with compensation given to the copyright owners. </li></ul><ul><li>How it works is countries which are signatories of the Berne convention protect other countries copyrighted work in the same way they protect their own. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire became part of the Berne convention in 1886, and because Australia is part of the British monarchy then we are also part of the Berne convention. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Berne convention <ul><li>The USA entered as a signatory quite late in 1989, which largely explains some of the differences in US copyright law to British and European copyright law. </li></ul><ul><li>The Berne convention has about 134 countries which have signed to the convention, which makes it the most extensive international convention. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The US influence on copyright laws <ul><li>Due to the US’ dominance in the global creative arts industry their copyright laws have filtered through to many other countries. Due to the 2005 Free Trade agreement signed between Australia and the US, both copyright systems are now more similar. The two major changes are, </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright is now extended to 70 years after the death of the copyright owner. It used to be just 50 years after the death of the copyright owner. The laws changed in the states when the Disney movies and films we coming due to enter the public domain and thus be copyright free. </li></ul><ul><li>Performers rights are recognised in phonographic copyright. Previously whom ever paid for a recording was the sole copyright owner of the phonographic rights, though now it is recognised that the copyright ownership is shared between who payed for recording and performers who played on it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other international treaties <ul><li>General agreements on tariffs and trade (GATT), about 132 countries signed. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal copyright convention (UCC), about 95 countries </li></ul><ul><li>International convention for the protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organisations (Rome convention), 57 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions for the protection of producers of phonographs against unauthorised duplication of their phonographs (phonograms convention), 57 countries </li></ul>