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DEFINITION• Management information system: An arrayof components designed to transform acollective set of data into knowledge that isdirectly useful and applicable in the process ofdirecting and controlling resources and theirapplication to the achievement of specificmanagement objectives.[Hanson 1982]
Evaluation system:A periodic evaluation of system to assess itsstatus in term of original and currentexpectation and to chart its future direction
• Health information system: Healthinformation is any quantifiable and non-quantifiable information that can be used byhealth decision-makers and clinicians tobetter understand disease processes andhealth care issues, and to prevent, diagnoseor treat health problems.[WHO]
OBJECTIVES OF MIS• To enhance communication among employs.• To provide a system for recording andaggregating information.• Reduce expenses related to labor-intensivemanual activities.• To support the organization’s strategic goalsand direction
IMPORTANCE OF MIS• Planning systematically andcoordinating activities.• Establishing databases onbudgets, personnel ,facilities andequipment.• Providing guidance in choosing entrypoints for program interventions andestablishing active partnerships withother organizations
•Providing information on the status ofthe population served, such as its healthstatus (i.e. defines surveillance levels).•Guiding prioritizing by identifying majorproblems.•Providing indicators for monitoring andevaluation of performance.
• Assessing the impact or effectiveness ofservices.• Guiding the forecasting of Commodity orservice needs.• Methods for improvement
IMPLIMENTATION METHOD OF MIS.ParallelApproachModularApproach
Direct Approach: Direct installation of thenew system with immediatediscontinuance of the old existing system isreferred as “cold turnkey” approach. Thisapproach becomes useful when thesefactors are considered.
The new system does no replace theexisting system. Old system is regarded absolutely of novalue New system is compact and simple. The design of the new system isinexpensive with more advantages andless risk involved.
Parallel Approach: The selected newsystem is installed and operated withcurrent system. This method is expensivebecause of duplicating facilities andpersonal to maintain both the systems. Inthis approach a target date must be fixedwhen the operations of old system ceaseand new one will operate on its own.
Modular Approach: This is generallyrecognized as “Pilot approach”, means theimplementation of a system in theOrganization on a piece-meal basis.
ADVANTAGES OF MIS• The risk of systems failure is localized• The major problem can be easily identifiedand corrected before furtherimplementation.• It supports and enhances the overalldecision making process.• MIS enhances job performance throughoutan institution
• It provides the means through which theinstitutions activities are monitored andinformation is distributed tomanagement, employees and customers.• It measures performance, manageresources• It can also be used by management toprovide feedback on the effectiveness ofrisk controls.
LIMITATIONSTechnology also increases the potentialfor inaccurate reporting and flaweddecision making. Because data can beextracted from many financial andtransaction systems, appropriate controlprocedures must be set up to ensurethat information is correct and relevant.
ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORD• An electronic medical record (EMR) is acomputerized medical record created in anorganization that delivers care, such as ahospital or physicians office. Electronicmedical records tend to be a part of a localstand-alone health information system thatallows storage, retrieval and modificationof records.
MODULES OF HOSPITALMANAGEMENT SYSTEM:RegistrationSpecial facilities inRegistrationBillingDiagnostics/Labs/ServicesBusiness Analytics and MIS
Doctor and otherpaymentsMedical RecordsSchedulerInventoryManagement
NURSING MANAGEMENTINFORMATION SYSTEM(NIMS)Nursing information systems (NIS) arecomputer systems that manage clinicaldata from a variety of healthcareenvironments, and made available in atimely and orderly fashion to aid nurses inimproving patient care.
APPLICATIONS OF NMISWorkloadMeasurement AndStaffingRequirementsPersonnelManagementStaffSchedulingFiscalResourceManagement
FISCAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT :The information generated can be used tomonitor past performance or to predictfuture performance.Accumulated data canbe analysed for the development of trendsthat can be used to project futureexpenditures. Necessary reallocations andbudgetary adjustments can then be made onthe basis of these projections.
WORKLOAD MEASUREMENT ANDSTAFFING RIEQUIREMENTS:It helps to store, manipulate andretrieve large volumes of data. Theinformation generated assists nursingmanagers in planning, monitoring andevaluating use of nursing resources ona daily basis and in the longer timeframe.It is used to generate staffschedules with conjunction withpersonnel management.
STAFF SCHEDULING:Nursing managers are able to planschedules in advance with considerabletime savings. Staffs are informed wellahead of time.Staffing records, ifmaintained properly, provide usefulinformation for monitoring absenteeism,scheduled time off, and turn over.
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT:An employee with a special mix of skillscan be located.Records are readilyaccessible needed for accreditationpurposes or to monitor contractcompliance.The information may beretrieved on a daily basis for use inconjunction with workload measurementand contract requirements to plan staffingassignments.
ADVANTAGES OF NIS1) IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION: Evaluatequality assurance programs Defend resourceallocation to nursing Demonstrate thecontribution nursing, makes to the care of thepatient. Identify outcomes of nursing care2) IN NURSING PRACTICE: Enhancedocumentation by nurses Provide data toenable research directed at examining the interrelationships between data elements andnursing outcomes.Facilitate development of thenursing process
3) NURSING RESEARCH: To assess variableson multi levels includinginstitutional, local, regional, andnational.Identify trends Integrate to buildinformation and to further synthesize todevelop nursing knowledge4) NURSING EDUCATION:To develop bodyof knowledge with focus on nursingprocess To enable staff educational needsbased on follow up care and outcomes. Toenhance student nurses accuratedocumentation
EVALUATION SYSTEM• Every organization needs to evaluate itsperformance and the impact of itsefforts. In many instances, organizationshave multiple programs and will need toevaluate each one from twoperspectives:howwhether it has achieved its specificobjectives.
Organizations should develop andimplement a comprehensive evaluationplan that outlines the time-frames andresources needed for mid-term andfinal evaluations of each majorprogram.
MAJOR KIND OF EVALUATIONProcess EvaluationOutput EvaluationEffects EvaluationShort-term ImpactEvaluation
Process EvaluationContinuous monitoring and supervision arepart of process evaluation, which examineshow well program activities are beingimplemented. Specifically, processevaluations focus on the development andstrengthening of existing systems, protocols,and guidelines necessary to support,standardize, and institutionalize serviceactivities. These activities support planning,implementation, and supervision to assessprogress against project goals and objectives.
• Process evaluation should also reviewwhat is working and what is not inorder to enable staff and managers todevelop corrective actions; determinewhether resources, equipment,supplies and staff skills are adequateand used efficiently and effectively;identify barriers to program
Output evaluationThe output evaluation assessesachievements on-site by viewingdefined, quantifiable indicators ofprogram performance such asaccess, quality and acceptability, numberof persons trained and use of services bythe target populations. Output indicatorsare usually quantitative.
Effects evaluationEffects measurement focuses on changesobserved within the target populationin the catchment area, for example:observed changes in reproductivehealth attitudes, changes in staff andskills, and changes in provider attitudestoward providing and managingservices.
Short-term impact evaluationThe findings from the original baselinesurvey should be used to derive theindicators for the short-term impactevaluation. This evaluation is conductedat a specified, predetermined timefollowing the introduction of a newprogram. Relevant data fromreports, service statistics, and traininginformation systems contribute to theanalysis of short-term impact.
SUMMARYAn MIES helps a manager to collect and useinformation to make managementdecisions in a timely manner. Managersalso use MIS data to analyse, plan, makedecisions, take actions and evaluate. Aneffective MIES provides accurate,complete, and timely information. MIESformats should include feedbackmechanisms so that decisions made at alllevels within the organization.
REFRENCES• Management information system: cited on 9 Feb 2013:available from :http://www.instahealthsolutions.com/modules.html• Electronic_medical_record : cited on on 9 Feb 2013:available from :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_medical_record• Management information system: cited on 10 Feb2013: available from :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_information_system
• Nmis: cited on 11 Feb 2013: available from :http://nmis.sourceforge.net/nmis-features.html• mis: cited on 13 Feb 2013: available fromhttp://www2.pathfinder.org/site/DocServer/MIS.complete.pdf• Management: cited on 10 Feb 2013:available from http://www.slideshare.net/Jyothi19587/management-pptgifty