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GLOBAL 
Dr. Syed Ferhat Anwar 
Course Instructor 
International Business 
Environment (L301) 
Group 11 
Fariha Islam RH-1 
Moumita Shabur RH-17 
Fableeha Bushra Choudhury RH-19 
Sayeda Shifat Nazmee RH-63
GLOBAL ENTRY STRATEGY 
(GES) DEFINED
FACTORS AFFECTING THE GES 
Company size and resources 
Experience in using market entry modes (MEMs) 
Management risk attitudes 
Profit targets 
Industry feasibility and viability of MEMs 
Market growth rate
RELEVANCE OF MARKET ENTRY BARRIERS IN GES 
‘Low entry and exit barriers reduce the risk in 
entering a new market, and may make the 
opportunity more attractive financially.’
SOURCES OF MARKET ENTRY 
BARRIERS
ECONOMIES OF SCALE 
PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION 
CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS 
SWITCHING COSTS 
ACCESS TO DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 
GOVERNMENT POLICY
PIONEER VS. LATE ARRIVALS
BENEFITS TO PIONEER: 
 Brand Image 
 Customer Loyalty 
 Technological Barriers 
LIMITATIONS TO PIONEER: 
 Advantage limited in 
case of high tech 
products 
Example: Pictured phones in late 1970’s
ADVANTAGE OF LATE ENTRANTS 
 Lower cost of production than 
cost of innovation 
 Minimal cost of product usage 
and awareness 
 Defined market 
Example: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan 
Bangladesh Telecom Industry: Citycell vs. Grameen Phone
RELEVANCE OF EXIT 
BARRIERS
 Moves to Germany in 1998 
 American approach failed in German lands 
 Wal-Mart's American managers pressured German 
executives to enforce American-style management 
practices in the workplace. 
 German court rules against Wal-Mart 
 High labor cost 
 Clashes with labor unions 
 Labor resisting management's demands 
 In 2006 sales of stores to metro retail chain 
 Cost of retreat: $1 billion
MODES OF ENTRY
 Exporting can be defined as the marketing of goods 
produced in one country into another 
 Traditional form of entry 
 Common approach for mature international companies 
with strong marketing and relational capabilities
Direct Exporting: 
The organization may use an 
agent, distributor, or 
overseas subsidiary, or act 
via a Government agency 
Indirect Exporting: 
The company sells to a buyer 
(importer or distributor) in 
the home country, which in 
turn exports the product. 
Example: Walmart and Sears
 Less risky 
 Low investment required relative to other modes of 
entry 
 The cost of establishing the manufacturing facilities 
overseas is minimized 
 Learning opportunity 
 Reduces the potential risks of operating overseas 
 Assists in diversification
 Lack of control and contact 
 High transport costs 
 Presence of tariff and other barriers 
 Very limited learning to the firms about the characteristics 
of the imported nation 
 Susceptible to exchange rate fluctuations
BANGLADESH’S SUCCESS: 2nd Largest Producer in Garments 
Export(USmillion $) Growth (%) 
EU countries 14745.39 17.35 
USA 5141.38 2.90 
Non-traditional 
3603.15 21.15 
markets 
Total 24491.88 13.83
SUCCESS FACTORS: 
 Cheap labor 
 Government support 
 Back to back letter credit 
 Compliance to international rules of trading
FAILURE STORY 
Ban on Shrimp Exports by EU and Japan 
Reason: Contamination in shrimps
 Setting up operations in foreign locations 
 Also known as wholly owned subsidiaries
 Greater control and higher profits 
 Strong commitment to the local market on the part of 
companies 
 Allows the investor to manage and control 
marketing, production, and sourcing decisions 
 Assists in learning about the country’s market
 No risk of cultural conflicts 
 Cost of financing the import barriers reduced 
 Greater knowledge of local market allows the firm 
to strategize appropriately to gain more sales
 Most expensive method of entry 
 Risks associated with learning to do business in a 
new culture 
 High political risks of being nationalized 
 Continuous investments required for a long time 
until returns can be yield 
 Risk of management of the local resources 
 Political and environmental factors, example 
Fujifilm in US
Example 
Mercedes production in Pune , India 
 Started production in mid 1990s from Pimpri 
 In 2007 it acquired 100acres of land in Maharashtra 
 In 2009 production started in Pune 
 Rs.250 crores of investment 
 Dealership in 31 cities of India
Example 
Carrefour S.A.: 
 French multinational retailer 
 Fourth largest retail group 
 Failed operations in South Korea 
 Failed to understand Korean customers 
 Shut down in April 2006 
 Sales of stores worth $1.3 billion
A licensed asset may be: 
 A brand name 
 A company name 
 Patent 
 Trade secret 
 Product formulation
Top Licensed Brands
 Enables companies to evade tariffs, quotas or 
similar export barriers 
 Licensees are granted considerable autonomy 
 Licensor retains ownership of intellectual 
property 
 Costs are usually low, no capital or investment 
needed
 Less profitable than other entry modes 
 Quality control issues might arrive 
 Risk of licensees turning into strong 
competitors, even market leaders
Examples of Success 
 Calvin Klein 
 Disney
Examples of Success 
 “Happy Birthday 
to you” 
 Country example: 
China
Examples of Distress 
 Apple vs. 
Microsoft 
 Metallica vs. 
Napster 
Vs.
When is a Business “Franchisable”? 
 It needs to be credible 
 It needs to be unique 
 It needs to be teachable 
 It needs to provide an adequate return
Top Franchises in the World
 Established brand and customer base 
 Business support, training and 
assistance from franchiser 
 Reduced risk
 Large initial cost 
 Royalty payments 
 Limited flexibility and scope of creativity
Examples of Success 
 McDonald’s
Examples of Success 
 7-Eleven 
 The Body Shop 
 Country 
Example: USA
Examples of Distress 
 Quiznos 
 Golf
Other Types of Franchises 
 Social Franchises 
 Event Franchises 
 Third Party Logistics
LICENSING VS. 
FRANCHISING
COMPARISON CHART 
Franchising Licensing 
Governed by Securities law Contract law 
Registration Required Not required 
Territorial Rights Offered to franchisee Not offered; licensee can 
sell similar licenses and 
products in same area 
Support & Training Provided by franchiser Not provided 
Royalty Payments Yes Yes 
Use of 
Trademark/Logo 
Logo and trademark 
retained by franchiser and 
used by franchisee 
Can be licensed 
Control Franchiser exercises control 
over franchisee 
Licensor does not have 
control over licensee
 An enterprise in which two or more investors share 
ownership and control over property rights and operation 
 A cooperative joint venture is an agreement for the 
partners to collaborate but does not involve any equity 
investments. Example: Cisco
 Allows for sharing of risk (both financial and political) 
 Sharing of resources 
 Provides opportunity to learn new environment 
 Provides opportunity to achieve synergy by combining 
strengths of partners 
 May be the only way to enter market given barriers to 
entry 
 Access to distribution network 
 Contact with local suppliers and government officials
 Lack of control 
 Requires strong coordination 
 Partner may become a competitor 
 Collision of cultures 
 Conflicts arising over matters such as strategies, 
resource allocation, transfer pricing, ownership of 
critical assets like technologies and brand names
Example 
Case of Sony Ericsson
Factors that led to Failure: 
1. Lack in communication and coordination 
2. Lack in dominant control of one party over the other 
3. Sony needed to achieve what Apple had 
4. The consumer-focused cellphone business ran contrary 
to Ericsson's engineering-heavy, business-to-business 
focus
 Coalition of two or more organizations to achieve 
strategically significant goals that are mutually beneficial 
 Examples include 
• Shared manufacturing 
• Research and Development (R&D) arrangements 
• Distribution alliances 
• Marketing agreements 
 Strategic Alliances are non-equity based agreements i.e. 
companies remain independent and separate
 Shared risk 
 Shared knowledge 
 Opportunities for growth 
 Speed to market 
 Complexity 
 Costs 
 Access to resources 
 Access to target markets 
 Economies of scale
 Creating a competitor 
 Uneven alliances with minority share 
 Foreign confiscation 
 Risk of losing control over proprietary information 
 Coordination difficulties
Example 
Hewlett Packard & Walt Disney
Reasons for Success: 
1. Alliance was well negotiated and structured 
2. Solid planning and manageable expectations 
regarding implementation 
3. Coordinating brand exposure, joint marketing and 
customer experience
 A corporate action in which a company buys most, if 
not all, of the target company's ownership stakes in 
order to assume control of the target firm
 A corporate action in which a company buys most, if 
not all, of the target company's ownership stakes in 
order to assume control of the target firm
 Can quickly position a firm in a new business 
 Less time to establish presence 
 Takes a potential competitor out of the market 
 Lower risk than Greenfield Investments
 Expensive way to enter a market 
 Likelihood of overbidding 
 Not all bundles of assets and capabilities are of 
interest to the acquirer 
 Costly 
 Integrating an acquired company into a corporation is 
challenging
Example 
Daimler-Benz AG and Chrysler
Reasons behind Failure: 
 Cultural clash 
 Attitude to hierarchy was different 
 Coordination problems 
 Heavy competition from non-US brands in 
the US auto market 
 Issue of trust
FOREIGN DIRECT 
INVESTMENT (FDI) AND GES
FDI figures reflect investment flows out of the home country as 
companies invest in or acquire plants, equipment, or other assets 
Foreign investments may take the form of minority or majority shares 
in joint ventures, minority or majority equity stakes in another 
company or outright acquisition 
A company may choose to use a combination of these entry strategies 
by acquiring one company, buying an equity stake in another, and 
operating a joint venture with a third
 A type of project that is constructed so that it could be sold 
to any buyer as a completed product 
 Contractor agrees to deliver every detail of the project to 
a foreign client, including the training of operating 
personnel 
 Upon completion of the contract, the foreign client 
receives the "key" to a plant ready for its overall 
performance
 Allows for a means of exporting process technology 
 Less risky than conventional strategies 
 Economic benefit 
 Applicable for technology based firms
 The firm has no long term interest in the country 
 Firm can take minority equity interest in company 
 Inadvertently creates competition
Example 
PACIFIC RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL
 Involves taking advantage of a channel to an 
international market rather than selecting the country-market 
in a more conventional manner 
 The most common form of piggybacking is to 
internationalize by serving a customer who is more 
international than the vendor firm
 Low risk method of beginning export operations for 
the rider 
 Focused selling to the appropriate market segments 
 Advantage for the rider is that he has the chance to 
gain market knowledge and expertise through the 
carrier
 Company leaves control of products to intermediary 
 Loss of control of product in the long run 
 Competitive advantage left open for the carrier to 
examine 
 Finding a suitable partner is difficult
Example 
F&P GRUPPO
RISK CONTINUUM
UNCONVENTIONAL 
ENTRY STRATEGIES
Bangladesh’s Military Activities Overseas 
 1991 - Operation Desert Storm; and the world's largest 
contributor (10,736) to UN peacekeeping forces 
 2007 - Major deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo, 
Liberia, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Côte d'Ivoire 
 2013 - second highest number of total personnel to United 
Nations Peacekeeping Operations; with (1,830 police, 73 UNMEM 
and 6,605 troops) attached to various UN peacekeeping forces 
worldwide
India-Bangladesh 
 India and Bangladesh have signed a Cultural Exchange 
Program (CEP) for the years 2010-2012 
 Both sides are to exchange the visits of scholars/academicians 
in the field of art, culture and literature and also dance, music, 
theatre, Jatra groups, art exhibitions, mime shows, performing 
art groups, exhibitions and other cultural events to meet the 
local demands for exposure to each other’s rich cultural 
tradition
BRAC 
 Works for economic development, education, public health, social 
development and disaster relief 
 Apart from Bangladesh, BRAC is present Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri 
Lanka, Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Liberia, 
Haiti and The Philippines 
 It has successfully crossed national boundaries with its 
unconventionally beneficial development works
THANK YOU

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Global Entry Strategy

  • 1. GLOBAL Dr. Syed Ferhat Anwar Course Instructor International Business Environment (L301) Group 11 Fariha Islam RH-1 Moumita Shabur RH-17 Fableeha Bushra Choudhury RH-19 Sayeda Shifat Nazmee RH-63
  • 2. GLOBAL ENTRY STRATEGY (GES) DEFINED
  • 3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE GES Company size and resources Experience in using market entry modes (MEMs) Management risk attitudes Profit targets Industry feasibility and viability of MEMs Market growth rate
  • 4. RELEVANCE OF MARKET ENTRY BARRIERS IN GES ‘Low entry and exit barriers reduce the risk in entering a new market, and may make the opportunity more attractive financially.’
  • 5. SOURCES OF MARKET ENTRY BARRIERS
  • 6. ECONOMIES OF SCALE PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS SWITCHING COSTS ACCESS TO DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS GOVERNMENT POLICY
  • 7. PIONEER VS. LATE ARRIVALS
  • 8. BENEFITS TO PIONEER:  Brand Image  Customer Loyalty  Technological Barriers LIMITATIONS TO PIONEER:  Advantage limited in case of high tech products Example: Pictured phones in late 1970’s
  • 9. ADVANTAGE OF LATE ENTRANTS  Lower cost of production than cost of innovation  Minimal cost of product usage and awareness  Defined market Example: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Bangladesh Telecom Industry: Citycell vs. Grameen Phone
  • 10. RELEVANCE OF EXIT BARRIERS
  • 11.  Moves to Germany in 1998  American approach failed in German lands  Wal-Mart's American managers pressured German executives to enforce American-style management practices in the workplace.  German court rules against Wal-Mart  High labor cost  Clashes with labor unions  Labor resisting management's demands  In 2006 sales of stores to metro retail chain  Cost of retreat: $1 billion
  • 13.  Exporting can be defined as the marketing of goods produced in one country into another  Traditional form of entry  Common approach for mature international companies with strong marketing and relational capabilities
  • 14. Direct Exporting: The organization may use an agent, distributor, or overseas subsidiary, or act via a Government agency Indirect Exporting: The company sells to a buyer (importer or distributor) in the home country, which in turn exports the product. Example: Walmart and Sears
  • 15.  Less risky  Low investment required relative to other modes of entry  The cost of establishing the manufacturing facilities overseas is minimized  Learning opportunity  Reduces the potential risks of operating overseas  Assists in diversification
  • 16.  Lack of control and contact  High transport costs  Presence of tariff and other barriers  Very limited learning to the firms about the characteristics of the imported nation  Susceptible to exchange rate fluctuations
  • 17. BANGLADESH’S SUCCESS: 2nd Largest Producer in Garments Export(USmillion $) Growth (%) EU countries 14745.39 17.35 USA 5141.38 2.90 Non-traditional 3603.15 21.15 markets Total 24491.88 13.83
  • 18. SUCCESS FACTORS:  Cheap labor  Government support  Back to back letter credit  Compliance to international rules of trading
  • 19. FAILURE STORY Ban on Shrimp Exports by EU and Japan Reason: Contamination in shrimps
  • 20.  Setting up operations in foreign locations  Also known as wholly owned subsidiaries
  • 21.  Greater control and higher profits  Strong commitment to the local market on the part of companies  Allows the investor to manage and control marketing, production, and sourcing decisions  Assists in learning about the country’s market
  • 22.  No risk of cultural conflicts  Cost of financing the import barriers reduced  Greater knowledge of local market allows the firm to strategize appropriately to gain more sales
  • 23.  Most expensive method of entry  Risks associated with learning to do business in a new culture  High political risks of being nationalized  Continuous investments required for a long time until returns can be yield  Risk of management of the local resources  Political and environmental factors, example Fujifilm in US
  • 24. Example Mercedes production in Pune , India  Started production in mid 1990s from Pimpri  In 2007 it acquired 100acres of land in Maharashtra  In 2009 production started in Pune  Rs.250 crores of investment  Dealership in 31 cities of India
  • 25. Example Carrefour S.A.:  French multinational retailer  Fourth largest retail group  Failed operations in South Korea  Failed to understand Korean customers  Shut down in April 2006  Sales of stores worth $1.3 billion
  • 26. A licensed asset may be:  A brand name  A company name  Patent  Trade secret  Product formulation
  • 28.  Enables companies to evade tariffs, quotas or similar export barriers  Licensees are granted considerable autonomy  Licensor retains ownership of intellectual property  Costs are usually low, no capital or investment needed
  • 29.  Less profitable than other entry modes  Quality control issues might arrive  Risk of licensees turning into strong competitors, even market leaders
  • 30. Examples of Success  Calvin Klein  Disney
  • 31. Examples of Success  “Happy Birthday to you”  Country example: China
  • 32. Examples of Distress  Apple vs. Microsoft  Metallica vs. Napster Vs.
  • 33. When is a Business “Franchisable”?  It needs to be credible  It needs to be unique  It needs to be teachable  It needs to provide an adequate return
  • 34. Top Franchises in the World
  • 35.  Established brand and customer base  Business support, training and assistance from franchiser  Reduced risk
  • 36.  Large initial cost  Royalty payments  Limited flexibility and scope of creativity
  • 37. Examples of Success  McDonald’s
  • 38. Examples of Success  7-Eleven  The Body Shop  Country Example: USA
  • 39. Examples of Distress  Quiznos  Golf
  • 40. Other Types of Franchises  Social Franchises  Event Franchises  Third Party Logistics
  • 42. COMPARISON CHART Franchising Licensing Governed by Securities law Contract law Registration Required Not required Territorial Rights Offered to franchisee Not offered; licensee can sell similar licenses and products in same area Support & Training Provided by franchiser Not provided Royalty Payments Yes Yes Use of Trademark/Logo Logo and trademark retained by franchiser and used by franchisee Can be licensed Control Franchiser exercises control over franchisee Licensor does not have control over licensee
  • 43.  An enterprise in which two or more investors share ownership and control over property rights and operation  A cooperative joint venture is an agreement for the partners to collaborate but does not involve any equity investments. Example: Cisco
  • 44.  Allows for sharing of risk (both financial and political)  Sharing of resources  Provides opportunity to learn new environment  Provides opportunity to achieve synergy by combining strengths of partners  May be the only way to enter market given barriers to entry  Access to distribution network  Contact with local suppliers and government officials
  • 45.  Lack of control  Requires strong coordination  Partner may become a competitor  Collision of cultures  Conflicts arising over matters such as strategies, resource allocation, transfer pricing, ownership of critical assets like technologies and brand names
  • 46. Example Case of Sony Ericsson
  • 47. Factors that led to Failure: 1. Lack in communication and coordination 2. Lack in dominant control of one party over the other 3. Sony needed to achieve what Apple had 4. The consumer-focused cellphone business ran contrary to Ericsson's engineering-heavy, business-to-business focus
  • 48.  Coalition of two or more organizations to achieve strategically significant goals that are mutually beneficial  Examples include • Shared manufacturing • Research and Development (R&D) arrangements • Distribution alliances • Marketing agreements  Strategic Alliances are non-equity based agreements i.e. companies remain independent and separate
  • 49.  Shared risk  Shared knowledge  Opportunities for growth  Speed to market  Complexity  Costs  Access to resources  Access to target markets  Economies of scale
  • 50.  Creating a competitor  Uneven alliances with minority share  Foreign confiscation  Risk of losing control over proprietary information  Coordination difficulties
  • 51. Example Hewlett Packard & Walt Disney
  • 52. Reasons for Success: 1. Alliance was well negotiated and structured 2. Solid planning and manageable expectations regarding implementation 3. Coordinating brand exposure, joint marketing and customer experience
  • 53.  A corporate action in which a company buys most, if not all, of the target company's ownership stakes in order to assume control of the target firm
  • 54.  A corporate action in which a company buys most, if not all, of the target company's ownership stakes in order to assume control of the target firm
  • 55.  Can quickly position a firm in a new business  Less time to establish presence  Takes a potential competitor out of the market  Lower risk than Greenfield Investments
  • 56.  Expensive way to enter a market  Likelihood of overbidding  Not all bundles of assets and capabilities are of interest to the acquirer  Costly  Integrating an acquired company into a corporation is challenging
  • 57. Example Daimler-Benz AG and Chrysler
  • 58. Reasons behind Failure:  Cultural clash  Attitude to hierarchy was different  Coordination problems  Heavy competition from non-US brands in the US auto market  Issue of trust
  • 59. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) AND GES
  • 60. FDI figures reflect investment flows out of the home country as companies invest in or acquire plants, equipment, or other assets Foreign investments may take the form of minority or majority shares in joint ventures, minority or majority equity stakes in another company or outright acquisition A company may choose to use a combination of these entry strategies by acquiring one company, buying an equity stake in another, and operating a joint venture with a third
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.  A type of project that is constructed so that it could be sold to any buyer as a completed product  Contractor agrees to deliver every detail of the project to a foreign client, including the training of operating personnel  Upon completion of the contract, the foreign client receives the "key" to a plant ready for its overall performance
  • 64.  Allows for a means of exporting process technology  Less risky than conventional strategies  Economic benefit  Applicable for technology based firms
  • 65.  The firm has no long term interest in the country  Firm can take minority equity interest in company  Inadvertently creates competition
  • 66. Example PACIFIC RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL
  • 67.  Involves taking advantage of a channel to an international market rather than selecting the country-market in a more conventional manner  The most common form of piggybacking is to internationalize by serving a customer who is more international than the vendor firm
  • 68.  Low risk method of beginning export operations for the rider  Focused selling to the appropriate market segments  Advantage for the rider is that he has the chance to gain market knowledge and expertise through the carrier
  • 69.  Company leaves control of products to intermediary  Loss of control of product in the long run  Competitive advantage left open for the carrier to examine  Finding a suitable partner is difficult
  • 72.
  • 74. Bangladesh’s Military Activities Overseas  1991 - Operation Desert Storm; and the world's largest contributor (10,736) to UN peacekeeping forces  2007 - Major deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Côte d'Ivoire  2013 - second highest number of total personnel to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations; with (1,830 police, 73 UNMEM and 6,605 troops) attached to various UN peacekeeping forces worldwide
  • 75. India-Bangladesh  India and Bangladesh have signed a Cultural Exchange Program (CEP) for the years 2010-2012  Both sides are to exchange the visits of scholars/academicians in the field of art, culture and literature and also dance, music, theatre, Jatra groups, art exhibitions, mime shows, performing art groups, exhibitions and other cultural events to meet the local demands for exposure to each other’s rich cultural tradition
  • 76. BRAC  Works for economic development, education, public health, social development and disaster relief  Apart from Bangladesh, BRAC is present Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Haiti and The Philippines  It has successfully crossed national boundaries with its unconventionally beneficial development works