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Efficient use of Energy in WSN using H-LEACH

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Efficient use of Energy in WSN using H-LEACH

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Wireless sensor networks are fast developing technologies in communication area, because WSN works in rough condition where human is out of reach. This paper discuss about H-LEACH, using H-LEACH energy consideration problems can be solved by selecting a cluster head (CH). H-LEACH uses remaining energy and maximum energy of the nodes to select a cluster head using some threshold constrain.

Wireless sensor networks are fast developing technologies in communication area, because WSN works in rough condition where human is out of reach. This paper discuss about H-LEACH, using H-LEACH energy consideration problems can be solved by selecting a cluster head (CH). H-LEACH uses remaining energy and maximum energy of the nodes to select a cluster head using some threshold constrain.

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Efficient use of Energy in WSN using H-LEACH

  1. 1. IDL - International Digital Library Of Technology & Research Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017 IDL - International Digital Library 1 | P a g e Copyright@IDL-2017 Efficient use of Energy in WSN using H- LEACH Abstract--Wireless sensor networks are fast developing technologies in communication area, because WSN works in rough condition where human is out of reach. This paper discuss about H- LEACH, using H-LEACH energy consideration problems can be solved by selecting a cluster head (CH). H-LEACH uses remaining energy and maximum energy of the nodes to select a cluster head using some threshold constrain. Key words: LEACH, HEED, H-LEACH. 1. INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor network are placed in everyday activities for environmental monitoring, industrial monitoring applications. Wireless sensor network are commonly placed in sensor’s require inputs where security is the main constrain. Placement of routers is at uneven heights where human interaction is not possible in most of the cases. Power consideration is a major role in looking the routers for better efficiency. Sink drain, power are the major things that make the Wireless sensor network tabove issue we are protocol. Transmission of information without dropping an energy disturbance for nodes to form cluster for longer distance is the main issue. WSN are divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, to making the nodes to use less energy from batteries. LEACH and HEED are the homogeneous network [2]. For large range of networks LEACH cannot be considered and using LEACH there is a problem in selecting the cluster head based on energy constrain. Pavithra R V Department of Computer Science & Engineer Don Bosco Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, pavithra26vijay@gmail.com Dr. Tippeswamy G R Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Don Bosco Institute of Technology, Banglore, Karnataka, India tippeswamygowda9@gmail.com
  2. 2. IDL - International Digital Library Of Technology & Research Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017 IDL - International Digital Library 2 | P a g e Copyright@IDL-2017 WSN usually consists of number of sensor nodes and these sensor nodes are placed randomly in the network. Signals are sensed by the sensor in a network and data accepted node process the information and finally transmits the signal to sink node. Cluster heads are used to combine the data received from the nodes thereby conserving energy of the network [4]. Cluster can be formed by grouping the nodes in the network and any one node among each cluster is selected as a cluster head. HEED can be used as a measure to obtain channel head based on energy parameters apart from threshold condition. All the nodes in the network get a chance in their life time to become a cluster head and thereby increasing the lifetime of the network [8]. 2. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION LEACH is one of the clustering routing protocols to select cluster head of a node using energy and threshold conditions. Selection of a node is not based on amount of energy, which could cause problem in selection to give priority to low power node. If low power node is not used efficiently, more number of nodes has to be taken to form a cluster. LEACH cannot be used for larger networks because it uses the single hop clustering routing. Nodes with low energy, elected as CH could cause energy holes and coverage problems. 3. RELATED WORK HEED allows calculating Channel head based on remaining energy. Here all the nodes are supposed to maintain same energy at the beginning [2]. HEED has a disadvantage that it cannot be operated for different levels of energy considerations from the first round. Energy efficient LEACH (EE LEACH) [4] routing protocol is used in wireless sensor network functioning based on optimal clustering and effective data ensemble. The node with the highest remaining is selected as a cluster head. The data or information aggregation is performed by cluster head before sending data to base station. LEACH protocol has lesser packet delivery ratio, lesser consumption of energy, but it fails to provide integrity of data and confidentiality. LEACH [5] protocol is used for the energy efficient operation. LEACH improves the life time of the network by saving the energy of the nodes and the data from the nodes in a cluster are aggregated by the cluster head and sends to the base station. Few attacks like Sybil attack, selective forwarding, and hello flooding attack degrades the LEACH’s performance by dropping, spoofing, replying or altering the data packets. Clusters are distributed unevenly and divided randomly. If the cluster head dies data would never reach the base station. D-HEED is used in order to avoid threshold problems and to give a deterministic approach for calculating the channel head based on 1/p last rounds [10]. Cluster head formation is usually smooth in D- HEED compared to HEED.
  3. 3. IDL - International Digital Library Of Technology & Research Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017 IDL - International Digital Library 3 | P a g e Copyright@IDL-2017 4. H-LEACH H-LEACH uses remaining and maximum energy of the nodes to select a channel head for each round. The proposed algorithm is used to find the life time of the nodes in terms of rounds when the proposed threshold and energy conditions are considered. The nodes with energy less than minimum energy required for sending and receiving signal will die as it lacks energy to do it. The following algorithm briefly explains the logical part of the code used to find the life time of a network with proposed H-LEACH protocol. A. Design and Function The following flow chart describes the working of H-LEACH protocol. When the network enters the setup phase, Ep, the probability of using energy considerations is calculated by using Emax, Cp and Ep, then the average energy of all the nodes are calculated. Then the threshold value is calculated. A number is randomly selected in the range 0 to 1. If the number selected is less than the threshold value and the corresponding node is assigned as cluster head if its energy is more than that of the average energy. The energy required for data transmission is deduced from the energy of the node in every round. When the energy falls below the minimum value, it is declared to be dead. Lines 1 to 3 describe different parameters used in initializing the code, inputs and outputs of a system. Line 4 describes about average energy used, which is used later to compare the energy with other nodes and derive a second channel head that is used to send information to Base station using TDMA mechanism. Line 5 describes about energy constraints used to determine probabilistic value that is used to obtain threshold in later stage. Line 6 initiates end terms of a loop process for max number of rounds. In line 7, the initial energy of each node is set. Line 8 considers threshold value that is used to estimate channel head of a node. Line 9 considers a random number between 0 to1 and compares it with threshold value to determine channel head. In line 10, it is checked if the random number picked is less than threshold and node has enough energy to transmit data. Line 11 indicates the assignment of first channel head. Line 12 describes about reducing the Etr from energy of the node. Line13 and 14 increments the process to next round, line 15 starts the whole process again from line 8. Line 16 indicates the plotting of a graph between alive nodes and number of nodes. 1. Initialization: N=(n1, n2, n3…,nn), E=(e1,e2,e3….,en), r= number of rounds, Ech= Energy of channel head,e0 = initial energy of each node, Eavg= Average energy of all nodes in particular cluster., Ep= Probability using energy considerations, Er= reaming energy, Etr= energy required for transmitting and receiving data Emax= Maximum energy of a node, TDMA= Time division multiple access
  4. 4. IDL - International Digital Library Of Technology & Research Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017 IDL - International Digital Library 4 | P a g e Copyright@IDL-2017 2. Inputs: Er, Emax, n, r, e0, 3. Outputs: CH, graph plotting alive nodes. 4. 5. i = 1 to r 6. if (ni∈ N ) then 7. e0( i)=P*((Emax-Eused)/Emax) 8. t(n)= (e0(i)/(1-e0(i)*mod(r,round(1/e0(i)) 9. t= random number (0-1) 10. if((t<t(n)) && (ei > Eavg)) then 11. CH ← ni 12. s( i).e = s(i).e- Etr :used to send information through TDMA 13. end if 14. i= i+1 15. goto step 6 16. Plot total alive nodes for each round 17. end if B. Cluster head Data transfer Cluster head is used for communication to base station and a radio model analysis is carried out in order to send the data. Transmitter sends the information to amplifier and then it is sent to receiver. Distance between transmitter and receiver is used to evaluate the performance of hopping distance among the nodes. 5. SIMULATION RESULT The count of alive nodes is plotted for all rounds. The various specifications considered for the program are: a. Number of nodes (n)=100 b. Area R=100*100 c. Initial Energy=20J d. Base Station Position= 50*30 e. X-axis=100 f. Y-axis-100 g. Number of CH=5 6. CONCLUSION In this paper, results indicate that proposed H- LEACH is more efficient than existing LEACH protocol. In the H-LEACH, the average energy and residual energy of the nodes play a main role in the selection of cluster heads. H-LEACH, being the combination of HEED and LEACH over comes the node energy issues, which is the major disadvantage of the LEACH protocol. A new formula is proposed in this paper to find the threshold value by using the average energy of the node. The energy consumed by the node for transmitting and receiving data is reduced in every round to keep track of the alive nodes in every round. Node is declared dead when its energy falls below the minimum energy required to transmit energy. REFERENCE [1] Dr.Tippeswamy G R, Prof Dept of CSE, Don Bosco Institute of Technology and Pavithra R V, M.Tech student, Dept of CSE, Don Bosco Institute of Technology, Mysore Road, Bangalore-560074
  5. 5. IDL - International Digital Library Of Technology & Research Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2017 Available at: www.dbpublications.org International e-Journal For Technology And Research-2017 IDL - International Digital Library 5 | P a g e Copyright@IDL-2017 [2] Razaque, Abdul, and Khaled M. Elleithy. "Energy- efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks." Sensors 14.3 (2014): 5074-5117. [3] Nayak, Padmalaya, and D. Anurag. "A Fuzzy Logic based Clustering Algorithm for WSN to extend the Network Lifetime." (2015). [4] Arumugam, Gopi Saminathan, and Thirumurugan Ponnuchamy. "EELEACH: development of energy- efficient LEACH Protocol for data gathering in WSN."EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 2015, no. 1 (2015): 1-9. [5] Razaque, Abdul, and Khaled Elleithy. "Modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms for a disaster- recovery process over wireless sensor networks." Sensors 15.7 (2015): 16162-16195. [6] Liu, Xuxun. "A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks." Sensors 12, no. 8 (2012): 11113-11153. [7] Zhang, Degan, Guang Li, Ke Zheng, Xuechao Ming, and Zhao-Hua Pan. "An energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor for wireless sensor networks." Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on 10, no. 1 (2014): 766-773. [8] Goto, Shinichi, Soma Saito, Hyunho Kang, and Keiichi Iwamura. "New Secure LEACH Protocol Using Hierarchy-Based Preshared Key Scheme." In Computer Science and its Applications, pp. 99-106. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. [9] Brachman, Agnieszka. "Simulation Comparison of LEACH-Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks." In Computer Networks, pp. 105-113. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. [10] Bala, Manju, and Lalit Awasthi. "Proficient D- HEED Protocol for Maximizing the Lifetime of WSN and Comparative Performance Investigations with Various Deployment Strategies." International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 45 (2012): 107- 124. [11] Fu, Chunyao, Zhifang Jiang, W. E. I. Wei, and Ang WEI. "An Energy Balanced Algorithm of LEACH Protocol in WSN." IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues 10, no. 1 (2013): 354-359.

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