1. Vishwakarma GovernmentVishwakarma Government
Engineering College,Engineering College,
Sohrab s/o Barkat(150170106063)
Faiz ur Rehman (150170106064)
TopicTopic:-Total station, Digital self-leveling levels,
Scanners for topographical survey.
2. TOTAL STATION:-TOTAL STATION:-
A total station integrates the functions of a theodolite
for measuring angles, an EDM for measuring
distances, digital data and a data recorded.
This combination makes possible to determine the
coordinates of a reflector aligning the instruments
cross hairs on the reflector and simultaneously
measuring the vertical and horizontal angles and
slope distances. A micro processor in the instrument
takes care of recording, readings and the necessary
Principle of Total station is based on the formula:-
Distance = Velocity x Time
• Total solution for surveying
• Most accurate and user
• Gives position of a point (x, y
and z) w. r. t. known point
• EDM is fitted inside the
• Digital display
• On board memory to store data
• Compatibility with computers
• Measures distance and angles and displays coordinates
• Auto level compensator is available
• Can work in lesser visibility
• Can measure distances even without prismatic target for
• Is water proof
• On board software are available
• Can be used for curve layout after feeding data
• General purpose angle measurement
• General purpose distance measurement
• Provision of control surveys
• Contour and detail mapping
• Setting out and construction work
7. Factors influencing the use of TotalFactors influencing the use of Total
• A clear line of sight between the instrument and
the measured points is essential.
• The precision of the instrument is dependent on
the raw repeatabilities of the direction and distance
• A well defined measurement point or target/prism
is required to obtain optimal precision and
• The accuracy of direction and distance
measurement is subject to a number of
instrumental errors and the correct field
8. Auxiliary Equipment Required:-Auxiliary Equipment Required:-
• Targets or Prisms to accurately define the target point
of a direction measurement.
• A data recorder if one is not integrated into the total
• A download cable and software on a PC to capture and
process the captured digital data to produce contour
and detail maps.
9. Types of Total Station:-Types of Total Station:-
1.1. Mechanical/manual total station:-Mechanical/manual total station:-
• They are used for routine works with powerful built-in
application programs and are cheaper than other types of
• Nowadays lightweight, compact and rugged total stations
are available which can support surveyors for their
everyday survey work, including topographic surveys,
staking, control and more.
10. Mortorized total station:-Mortorized total station:-
• These type of total station are fitted with servo-motors
which control their horizontal and vertical movements.
• The operator does not have to look through the telescope to
align the prism or a target because of servo-motors.
• This increase the productivity by about 30%.
Autolock total station:-Autolock total station:-
• These type of instrument searches for an active remote
sensing target(RMT),locks to it and follows the targets as it
moves to different points.
• Useful in poor and low visibility environment.
• It eliminates the need for time-consuming error prone
focussing and improves the time efficiency by upto 50%.
12. ADVANTAGES OF TOTALADVANTAGES OF TOTAL
Quick setting of the instrument on the tripod using laser
On- board area computation programme to compute the
area of the field.
Local language support.
Full GIS creation(using mapinfo software).
Automation of old maps.
Greater accuracy in area computation.
Graphical view of plots and land for quick
Integration of data base.
The area computation at any user required scale.
The field jobs are finished, the map of the area with
dimensions is ready after data transfer
It’s reduce the time & also it’s measure up to 3 to 5 Km
14. DISADVANTAGES OF TOTALDISADVANTAGES OF TOTAL
It may be difficult for the surveyor to look over and
check the work while surveying.
the instrument is costly. And conducting surveys using
total station, skilled personnel are required.
for an over all check of the survey, it will be necessary to
return to the office and prepare the drawings using
15. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:-SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:-
Focusing directly at the sun, can result - loss of eyesight
on the spot. Use a filter when observing the sun.
Make sure not to short the battery terminals. If these are
shorted, the resulting high current would not only
damage to the battery, but also start a fire.
If the instrument or battery comes in contact with water,
wipe it off as quickly as possible and set it in a dry place
for a while. When it is completely dry, put it back in the
Never disassemble the instrument, if you find a problem.
Contact the dealer.
17. AUTO LEVEL:-AUTO LEVEL:-
• Now most commonly
used levelling instruments
are - Auto level.
– Auto level, as name
sounds it has a auto
level compensator and
if instrument goes out
of level within it’s
18. Digital level:-Digital level:-
• They are not popular instead auto
levels are more extensively used.
• The Trimble DiNi Digital Level :
Determine accurate height
information 60% faster than with
• Eliminate errors and reduce
rework with digital readings.
• Transfer data to the office easily
• Measure to a field of just 30 cm.
19. • Recently electronic digital levels have evolved as a
result of development in electronics and digital image
• Digital levels use electronic image processing to
evaluate the special bar-coded staff reading.
• This bar-coded pattern is converted into elevation and
distance values using a digital image matching
procedure within the instrument.
20. SALIENT FEATURES OFSALIENT FEATURES OF
DIGITAL LEVEL:-DIGITAL LEVEL:-
• Fatigue-free observation as visual staff reading by the
observer is not required.
• User friendly menus with easy to read, digital display of
• Measurement of consistent precision and reliability due to
• Automatic data storage eliminates booking and its
• Fast, economic surveys resulting in saving in time.
• Data on the storage medium of the level can be downloaded
to a computer enabling quick data reduction for various
21. COMPONENTS OF DIGITALCOMPONENTS OF DIGITAL
• The following discussion on digital levels has been
primarily taken from Schoffield (2002).
• Main components of digital level consist of two parts:
Hardware (Digital level and levelling staff) and Software.
• Typically digital level has the same optical and mechanical
components as a normal automatic level.
• However, for the purpose of electronic staff reading a beam
splitter is incorporated which transfers the bar code image to
a detector diode array.
• The light, reflected from the white elements only of the bar
code, is divided into infrared and visible light components
by the beam splitter.
• The visible light passes on to the observer, the
infrared to diode array.
• The acquired bar code image is converted into an
analogous video signal, which is then compared with
a stored reference code within the instrument.
23. Various capabilities of digital levelsVarious capabilities of digital levels
are as follows:-are as follows:-
1. measuring elevation.
2. measuring height difference.
3. measuring height difference with multiple
6. setting out with horizontal distance
7. levelling of ceilings
• Laser scanning is a relatively new technology, having
been used as a precise survey instrument only since
• It is quickly becoming the new industry standard as a
way to make very accurate measurements in
• This instrument collects survey data points at a rate of
50,000 points per second.
• With several “scan” setups inside a room or of a
building, a complete 3D model can be made of the
• These models are then used to create 2D civil or
architectural drawings, 3D computer models, and final
• It can be used as an alternative to total station.
• Using it, the surveyor can rapidly collect a large
amount of accurate co-ordinated three dimensional 3D
laser points from the surface of remote feature as
a ‘point cloud’ image, providing rapid surveying
solutions for inaccessible elements and complex
• Suitable for measuring heritage sites, historic buildings
and architectural monuments
• Used for surveying projects such as highways,
tunnelling projects or hazardous sites where traditional
survey instruments may not be appropriate.
• Site modelling and lay outing.
• Robotic control:- e.g. a laser scanner may function as
the "eye" of a robot.
• AS-built drawings of Bridges, Industrial plants, and
• Documentation of historical sites
• Site modelling and lay outing
• Quality control
• Quantity surveys
• Freeway redesign
• Establishing a bench mark of pre-existing shape/state
in order to detect structural changes resulting from
exposure to extreme loadings. such as earthquake,
vessel/truck impact or fire.
• Create GIS (geographic information system) maps
• Subsurface laser scanning in mines.
• Forensic documentation.