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Collaborative engineering solutions and challenges in the development of space systems

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Presentation delivered at the 3rd IEEE Track on
Collaborative Modeling & Simulation - CoMetS'12.

Please see http://www.sel.uniroma2.it/comets12/ for further details.

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Collaborative engineering solutions and challenges in the development of space systems

  1. 1. www.DLR.de • Slide 1 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Collaborative Engineering: Solutions andChallenges in Development of Space SystemsAndreas GerndtGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)Simulation and Software TechnologySoftware for Space Systems and Interactive VisualizationLilienthalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
  2. 2. www.DLR.de • Slide 2 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Todays Mission Plan…- Challenges in space- Concurrent engineering and data handling in early phases- Collaborative development of spacecraft- Model-Based Systems Engineering for spacecraft design- Knowledge Conservation and Reuse- Conclusion Fig.: German Space Operations Center at DLR
  3. 3. www.DLR.de • Slide 3 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Space…What is so special about Space and Spacecraft?
  4. 4. www.DLR.de • Slide 4 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 *Picture: NASA
  5. 5. www.DLR.de • Slide 5 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27A Current Project – Galileo- Galileo: European Satellite Navigation System- Small series - 30 satellites (27 operational, 3 spare)- Test satellite GIOVE-A1 - Manufacturer: Surrey Satellite Technologies - Launch on Soyuz in 2005 from Baikonur- Test satellite GIOVE-B *Picture: ESA - Manufacturer: Galileo Industrial Consortium - Launch on Soyuz in 2008- Test satellite GIOVE-A2 - Planned, but cancelled!
  6. 6. www.DLR.de • Slide 6 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Galileo – An Example for Complexity- In-orbit validation - 2 satellites built by Astrium - Launch on new Soyuz-ST from Kourou in Oct 2011- Full Operational Capability satellites - Contract of the first 14 went to OHB Systems - Launch on Soyuz and Ariane 5 from Kourou- Remaining satellites 11 + 3 spare - Contract still pending- First service available 2014 with 18 satellites - Fully operational after 2020! *Picture: ESA
  7. 7. www.DLR.de • Slide 7 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Challenges in Space Systems Design- Prototype development or small series - Mission duration, easily 10-20 years - High Costs- Many suppliers, manufacturers, international team - Changing interfaces to sub-systems- Constantly changing personnel Source: Märkische Allgemeine (2012-06-12) - Limited contracts - Long-lasting planning processes- Political aspects - Russian rocket in Kourou, French Guiana- High design quality required - Complex, interdisciplinary design task - After launch, maintenance often not possible - Space environment for tests not available or limited on the ground
  8. 8. www.DLR.de • Slide 8 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Errors Can Happen- Hubble Space Telescope - Launch: April 24, 1990 - Failure: mirror ground to wrong shape - Space Shuttle repair missionFig.: Improved Hubble Image (right) Fig.: Endeavour astronauts, installing corrective optics, Dec. 1993
  9. 9. www.DLR.de • Chart 9 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Phobos Grunt – Another Failed Mission- Mission: Samples from Mars Moon Phobos- Launch: Nov. 9, 2011- Failure: - Lost communication - Did not leave low earth orbit to Mars - Window to trajectory closed - Uncontrolled re-entry on Earth Jan. 15, 2012 *Picture: ROSKOSMOS
  10. 10. www.DLR.de • Slide 10 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Apollo in the 60s
  11. 11. www.DLR.de • Slide 11 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA14839.jpg Mars Science Lab – Curiousity – 2011
  12. 12. www.DLR.de • Slide 12 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Handling Complexity, Handling the Workflow…Our approach of supportive Software…
  13. 13. www.DLR.de • Slide 13 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Our Challenges- DLR Missions - BIRD and TET series - On-Orbit Verification - Shefex - Reentry Experiments Fig.: SHEFEX II mission, 22. June 2012 - Solar sail- Classification - Experiments - Science missions - Technology demonstration Fig.: Solar Sail - Gossamer
  14. 14. www.DLR.de • Slide 14 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Our Contribution to Handle Complexity- Carrying out software research to find adapted software solutions for systems engineering challenges- Supporting the engineers - Automate what can be automated - Free engineer from repetitive and error-prone tasks - Allow time for creative tasks - Support collaboration in development teams - Improving the common understanding of the design problem
  15. 15. www.DLR.de • Slide 15 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Space System Today… And in the Future…- Systems Engineering: Global goals - Ensuring high quality - Reduction of time - Reduction of costs- Space System Engineering - Almost always prototypes - Multi-disciplinary engineering- The Vision: One system model - All design information collected in Source: TSTI one central database - Consistent, single-point-of-truth - Easy access to the knowledge - Right presentation in the right tool
  16. 16. www.DLR.de • Slide 16 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Space System Development – Models from Today - Having a Structured Design Process but - V-Model… and many, many more - Segmentation and Barriers - Scattered tool and data landscape - Most exchange document-based - Many project partners, suppliers involved Fig.: V-Model (US Depart. of Transportation, 2006)Fig: Barriers explained from Cross- Fig: ECSS space mission life-cycleDomain Dependency Modeling– How toachieve consistent System Models withTool Support and VDI 2206
  17. 17. www.DLR.de • Chart 17 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27The Vision of Creating a Common Data Model- Covering all the different data sources - Bringing the tool fragments together- Covering all the different design stages - Bringing the lifecycle fragments together Source: US Air Force Status Quo: Fragmentation Dream of a “Unified” and Inconsistency of Data Digital Master Model
  18. 18. www.DLR.de • Chart 18 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27A unified data model – Our approach- Benefit of one common data source - Bringing experts AND their tools together Data Exchange Data Exchange Common Data Store Data Exchange
  19. 19. www.DLR.de • Slide 19 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Common Data Source in Early Phases- Concurrent Engineering Facility - Interdisciplinary design process - Bringing experts together - Open communication/discussion - Common design understanding - Tool support – Data Model- Study of one up to two weeks - Good spacecraft estimation Fig.: Concurrent Engineering Facility at DLR - High level of quality - Margins below 5 - 20%- Gain in time and cost - from 6-9 months to 3-6 weeks* *Ref: DiDominizio and Gaudenzi – A Model for Preliminary Design Procedures of Satellite Systems, in Concurrent Engineering, June 2008, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 149-159, DOI: 10.1177/1063293X08092488
  20. 20. www.DLR.de • Chart 20 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Transparent Collaborative Modeling for the CEF- Data Model is transparent to the engineers - One common source of data - Transparent commit and update actions CEF Point of View Update Commit IT Point of View Model
  21. 21. www.DLR.de • Slide 21 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Our Approach Virtual Satellite- Dedicated Software to support concurrent engineering - Tailored to the process - Supporting the engineers- Incorporating Analysis Tools - Mass budgeting - Mode dependent power consumption
  22. 22. www.DLR.de • Chart 22 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Example: Sensitivity Analysis- Design evaluation by automatic analysis - On-the-fly analysis of the data model - Sensitivity analysis – Understanding impact of changes - Special views to data, quickly interpretable and accessible Derive next actions in the design process, decision support Internal Data Model
  23. 23. www.DLR.de • Slide 23 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Exploring New Ways….Like Collaborative Configuration and Beyond…
  24. 24. www.DLR.de • Chart 24 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Visual Modeling – A New Approach- Visualization as supporting tool in modeling - Bringing paper sketches into the model - Abstract parameters towards concrete understandable images - Avoiding loss of information by communication - Model provides global view of changes and meta data
  25. 25. www.DLR.de • Slide 25 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27An Example of CE Design Evolution
  26. 26. www.DLR.de • Chart 26 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27The Shift of Responsibility from One to All- Today: One configuration engineer within the CEF - Each with their own proprietary tools- Future: All engineers takeover responsibly - Create different views out of data model Sharing Visualization Parameters Model
  27. 27. www.DLR.de • Slide 27 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Example: Integrated Tool in the Design Process- E.g. Catia can be generated from the common model - Standard engineering tool for configuration- Challenge to get data back to model - Later phases demand even more tools Model
  28. 28. www.DLR.de • Chart 28 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Modeling in Virtual Reality – The Next Step- Model representation in virtual environments - Immersive experience of perceiving the model - Bringing experts into CAVE or in front of Powerwall - Does this break the concurrent engineering process?- Design modification in virtual environments - Interacting with the virtual environment - Directly affecting the common data model - Directly analyzing the impact either in VR or model VR World CEF World Model
  29. 29. www.DLR.de • Chart 29 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Multi-Disciplinary Visualization- Visualization as a supporting tool in CEF studies - Integration with simulation data (e.g. thermal, power, structure) - Incorporation of scientific visualization - Comparison of design variants
  30. 30. www.DLR.de • Chart 30 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Distributed Collaboration - Simulations are time consuming in particular in later phases - Distribution to data processing centers (parallelizing) - Needs distributed applications - Experts are seldom - Difficult to hold on - Need distributed CEF in particular for later phases - Saves money and costs – “Just In Time” engineer*Picture: ESA OCDS Model
  31. 31. www.DLR.de • Chart 31 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Distributed Collaboration – Drawbacks- What about latencies?- Is there enough understanding for the other domains? - Intercultural aspects- Is this breaking the ideas behind concurrent engineering? - Quick, agile iterations needed Building Walls – Minimizing Communication Update Commit
  32. 32. www.DLR.de • Slide 32 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27From Modeling to Analysis and Verification …But what can we get out of it?
  33. 33. www.DLR.de • Slide 33 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Benefit of Model-Based Systems Engineering- Automatic code generation - Simulation code system - On-Board software (AOCS, …) simulation Na tur- Automatic test execution Re al n qu lan tio - Failure injection ire da gu me li ag Va n e ts Mo on- Early in the design process de ati De ls fic sig ri Ha - Requirement verification n Ve rd-& - Model checking De n So ti o ve ftw gra lop are m e Int en t time
  34. 34. www.DLR.de • Slide 34 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Example One: ESA - Universal Modeling Framework- Modeling framework - Currently used for operational simulators - Simulation Model Portability 2.0 (SMP) - ESA Simulation Standard - Supports graphical modeling- Benefit of the model - Generates framework code - Behavior implemented manually - Generates consistent documentation- What about the logic and algorithms? - Is it possible to model the behavior…
  35. 35. www.DLR.de • Slide 35 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Verifying the Model in Early Phases Model- Does our model fulfill the requirements? - Like having enough fuel - Like gathering enough science data- Are the requirements sufficient? - Can I gather enough data in 5 years? - Is there enough fuel to fly 10 years?- Solution by Verification - Check if model satisfies requirements? - If not, change model and/or requirements
  36. 36. www.DLR.de • Slide 36 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Model Verification- Model verification means: - Proof of correctness of the model against requirements - Changes can be verified as quick as possible - Two common approaches Model - By simulation - By formal methods- Verification by simulation: - ESA – SimVis- Verification by formal methods: - Our current research
  37. 37. www.DLR.de • Slide 37 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Verifiable Model - Creation- We have parameters like - Power consumption - Data collected- We have values for operational modes - Science mode - Orbit maintenance- Creating state model out of parameters and modes
  38. 38. www.DLR.de • Slide 38 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Verifiable Model - Requirements- Formalizing our requirements - Natural language processing - Creating temporal logic- Store requirements to model - Extending the model Model - Requirements mapping- Using a Standard Model Checker - Well established in other domains - Checking fulfillment of requirements - Exhaustive search in state space
  39. 39. www.DLR.de • Slide 39 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Drawback in Model Checking- State Explosion Problem - Not enough computational power - Not enough memory- Need to avoid calculation latencies Model 3405 - Checking multiple hours… - Feedback is not direct… seconds- Is this still concurrent engineering?- We need different practical approaches - What about heuristics?
  40. 40. www.DLR.de • Slide 40 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27What about Heuristic Approaches?- Multidimensional state space problem - What about way-finding algorithms - Leading us to the mission goal- For example we have the mission of - Flying two years - But never exceeding the battery charge Constraint area Goal area
  41. 41. www.DLR.de • Slide 41 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Our Models are Good and Helpful…But do we always want to start from scratch?
  42. 42. www.DLR.de • Slide 42 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Conserving the Models – SimMoLib- What is needed to reuse existing models - A repository of models - A way of finding them - A trust in quality and functionality- SimMoLib offers some of this - Easy to use web search - Standardized model description - Quality assessment- But what about model dependencies - SimMoLib is looking for answers
  43. 43. www.DLR.de • Chart 43 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27WieMod – An Approach of Exchanging Models- Transformation of simulation models - But do not change behavior - What about graphical layout of blocks e.g. used in Simulink- It was research and it is still not solved - First promising results, but… - Behavior often depending on simulation environment - No exchange and enhancement over lifecycle MATLAB/ Modelica SMP2 Virtuos/M Simulink semantic model graphical model WieMod MATLAB/ DSL Simulink
  44. 44. www.DLR.de • Chart 44 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 The WieMod Process – Reuse in Different Stages- Simulation model designed in stages - Models and documents for each stage - Sim. model is stored with all stages - Conservation in various detail- Successful reuse - After each stage - Not always complete new model needed - For different simulation environments - Replacing Implementation - Most stages can be reused directly Fig.: CoMetS 2011 – Schaus et al. Collaborative Development of a Space System Simulation Model
  45. 45. www.DLR.de • Slide 45 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27This is it…And how to get further…
  46. 46. www.DLR.de • Slide 46 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27Conclusions from our Research- We are carrying out software research for engineers … - to enhance a common understanding of systems across domains - to relieve the engineer from highly complex tasks - to archive and reuse the engineer’s experience - to increase system robustness and correctness from mission to mission- But software will not replace the engineer’s creativity to develop new and innovative missions
  47. 47. www.DLR.de • Chart 47 > Collaborative Engineering for Space System Development > Andreas Gerndt • WETICE 2012 > 2012-06-27 Acknowledgement Volker Schaus, Philipp M. Fischer, Daniel Lüdtke, Meenakshi Deshmukh, Hao Zhang, Michael Bock, Olaf Maibaum, Olaf Frauenberger, Robin Wolff, …*Picture: NASA

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