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Leadership

This presentation talks about the definition of a leader, difference between a manager and a leader, types of leadership, types of power of a leader, leadership theories-trait, behavioral-Ohio State University studies, University of Michigan Studies,Yukl Studies, Managerial Grid of Blake and Muoton, contingency-continuum of leadership behavior, contingency leadership model, path goal model, situational leadership, leadership member approach, normative decision model and Muczyk-Reimann Model

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Leadership

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP Prepared by Junaz S. Emboy
  2. 2. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? • the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the organization. • spells the difference between success and failure. • An element that convinces members to facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the organization.
  3. 3. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT MANAGERS Rational problem solvers Perform other administrative functions Concerned with efficiency of results Obtained power from above LEADERS Intuitive, more visionary Primarily concerned with results Obtained power from below
  4. 4. Leadership Formal  the process of influencing others to pursue official objectives  vested with formal authority  have a measure of legitimate power  rely on expedient combination of reward, coercive, referent and expert power. Informal  the process of influencing others to pursue unofficial objectives.  lack formal authority  rely on expedient combination of reward, coercive, referent and expert power.
  5. 5. POWER AND THE LEADER • Leaders can only influence people when he possess power.
  6. 6. TypesofPower Position Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Personal Power Expert Power Referent Power
  7. 7. POSITION POWER • Power derived as a consequence of the leader’s position.
  8. 8. LEGITIMATE POWER • Also referred to as authority • Emanates from a person’s position in the organization. LEGITIMATE POWER VESTED IN A PERSON IS CHARACTERIZED BY: 1. It is invested in a person’s position. 2. It is accepted by subordinates. 3. Authority is used vertically.
  9. 9. REWARD POWER • Emanates from one’s ability to grant rewards to those who comply with a command or request. • Leader’s capacity to provide promotions, money, praise, and other rewards influences the behavior of subordinates.
  10. 10. COERCIVE POWER • Arises from the expectation of subordinates that they will be punished if they do not conform to the wishes of the leader. • Dismissal, suspension, and transfer to a less desirable task are just few forms of punishments.
  11. 11. PERSONAL POWER • Leader’s personal power results from his personal characteristics.
  12. 12. EXPERT POWER • An expert who possess and can dispense valued information generally exercise expert power over those in need of such information. • Examples: • Doctors • Lawyers • Computer specialists • Depends on his education, training, and experience
  13. 13. REFERENT POWER • The ability of leaders to develop followers from the strength of their own personalities. • Have a personal magnetism, an air of confidence, and a passionate belief in objectives that attract and hold followers. • Examples: • Nelson Mandela of Africa • Mother Teresa • Philippine President Rodrigo R. Duterte
  14. 14. THEORIES ABOUT LEADERSHIP • Theories about leadership attempts to explain the various factors that may be identified with successful leadership.
  15. 15. LEADERSHIP THEORIES TRAIT BEHAVIORAL Ohio State University studies University of Michigan studies Yukl studies Managerial Grid of Blake & Mouton CONTINGENCY Continuum of Leadership Behavior (Tannenbaum & Schmidt) Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler) Path-Goal Model (House & Mitchell) Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Leadership Member Exchange Approach (Graen) Normative Decision Model (Vroom & Jago) Muczyk-Reimann Model
  16. 16. TRAIT THEORIES • Consider leaders to possess common traits. • Physical appearance, intelligence, and self-confidence FACTORS OF TRAIT LEADERSHIP 1. Sociability 6. Alertness to & insight into 2. Persistence situations 3. Initiative 7. Cooperativeness 4. Knowing how to get 8. Popularity things done 9. Adaptability 5. Self-confidence 10. Verbal Facility
  17. 17. TRAIT THEORIES CONTINUED… GENERAL VIEW OF WHAT GOOD LEADERS HAVE IN COMMON 1. Extraversion 2. Conscientiousness 3. Openness 4. Emotional Intelligence “LEADERS ARE BORN THAN MADE”
  18. 18. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES • These theories propose that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
  19. 19. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY STUDIES • Sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR 1. Initiating Structure – refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define his or her role and those of employees in search for goal attainment. – high initiating structure leader focuses on goals & results – likened to production-oriented supervisor – structure is initiated by assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations.
  20. 20. CONTINUED TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR 2. Consideration – describes the degree to which leaders creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust. – leader’s behavior is friendly & approachable, looking out for the personal welfare of the group, keeping the group informed about new developments, and doing small favors for group members.
  21. 21. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES • Attempts to locate behavioral characteristics of leaders. EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA USED 1. Productivity for work hour 2. Job satisfaction 3. Turnover, absenteeism, and grievance rates 4. Costs 5. Scrap loss 6. Employee & managerial motivation
  22. 22. TWO DISTINCT STYLES OF LEADERSHIP 1. Job-centered – managers set tight work standards, organized tasks carefully, prescribed the work methods to be followed, and supervised closely. 2. Employee-centered – managers encouraged group members to participate in goal setting and other work decisions, and helped to ensure high performance by trust and mutual respect.
  23. 23. YUKL STUDIES • Tried to seek answers to specific behavior of leaders for varying situations. NINETEEN BEHAVIORS OF LEADERSHIP 1. Performance emphasis 11. Role clarification 2. Consideration 12. Goal setting 3. Praise-recognition 13. Information dissemination 4. Decision-participation 14. Planning 5. Training-coaching 15. Coordinating 6. Problem solving 16. Representation 7. Work facilitation 17. Interaction facilitation 8. Inspiration 18. Conflict management 9. Structuring reward contingencies 19. Criticism-discipline 10. Autonomy-delegation
  24. 24. THE MANAGERIAL GRID • A graphic portrayal of two dimensional view of leadership. • An approach to understanding a manger’s concern for production and concern for people. • It proposes that there is a best way to manage people.
  25. 25. THE MANAGE- RIAL GRID
  26. 26. CONTINUUM OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR • This model consists of seven alternative ways for managers to approach decision making, depending on how much participation they want to allow subordinates in the decision making process.
  27. 27. ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE LEADERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Manager makes decision and announces it Manager “sells” decision Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents problems, gets suggestion, makes decision Manager defines limits, asks group to make decision Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior Authoritarian Participation (Boss-centered leadership) (subordinates-centered leadership)
  28. 28. LEADER’S CHOICE DEPENDS ON THREE FACTORS 1. Forces in the manager – effective leaders are flexible, able to select leadership behaviors needed in a given time and place. - consists of manager’s background, knowledge, values, and experience. Example: If the manager worked for ten years as a subordinate of a well-performing leader who adapted the participative style, he will tend to be a participative leader himself.
  29. 29. CONTINUED 2. Forces in subordinates – the leadership style of greater participation and freedom can be exercised by the manager if the subordinates:  are craving for independence and freedom  want to have decision making responsibility  identify with the organization’s goal  are knowledgeable and experienced enough  have experience with the previous managers that lead them to expect participative management
  30. 30. CONTINUED 3. Forces in the situation – the organization’s preferred style, the specific work group, the nature of the group’s tasks, the pressures of time, and environmental factors. Example: the nature of the problem and time pressures
  31. 31. CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL • This model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation favors the leader. • This model uses an instrument called Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale to assess the degree of positive or negative feelings held by a person toward someone with whom he or she least prefers to work. • Low scores on LPC = task-oriented leaders, controlling and with a structuring leadership style • High Scores on LPC = relationship-oriented leaders, or passive and considerate
  32. 32. FACTORS TO DETERMINE HOW FAVORABLE THE LEADERSHIP ENVIRONMENT IS 1. Leader-member relations – the degree of confidence, trust, and respect the followers have in their leader. 2. Task structure – the extent to which the tasks the followers are engaged in are structured. - HIGH when the task is clearly specified and known - LOW when the task is unclear, ambiguous, or unspecifiable 3. Position power – the power inherent in the leadership position. - greater authority means greater position power
  33. 33. PATH-GOAL MODEL • This model states that the leader’s job is to create a work environment through structure, support, and rewards that helps employees reach the organization’s goals. TWO MAJOR ROLES INVOLVED 1. The creation of a good orientation 2. The improvement of the path toward the goals so that they will be attained
  34. 34. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP PROCESS Leader identifies employee needs Appropriate goals are established Leader connects rewards with goals Leader provides assistance on employee path toward goals Employees become satisfied and motivated, and they accept the leader Effective performance occurs Both employees and organization are better able to reach their goals
  35. 35. FOUR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS 1. The directive leader – type of leader who lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. 2. The supportive leader – type of leader who is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. 3. The participative leader – type of leader who consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision. 4. The achievement-oriented leader – leader who sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
  36. 36. HERSHEY-BLANCHARD SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY • This theory suggests that a leader’s style should be determined by matching it with the maturity level or readiness of each subordinate. READINESS CONSISTS OF TWO CONCERNS 1. Job readiness (or task competence) – knowledge and abilities to perform the job without a manager structuring or directing the work. 2. Psychological readiness (or commitment) – self-motivation and desire to do high quality work.
  37. 37. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBORDINATES 1. Those with low competence and low commitment (D-1) 2. Those with low competence but with high commitment (D-2) 3. Those with high competence but with low commitment (D-3) 4. Those with high competence and high commitment (D-4)
  38. 38. FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Directing – best for low follower readiness. - unable and unwilling 2. Coaching – best for low to moderate follower readiness. - unable but willing 3. Supporting – best for moderate to high follower readiness. - able but unwilling 4. Delegating – best for high readiness. - able and willing
  39. 39. LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE APPROACH • This theory recognize that leaders develop unique working relationships with each group member. • Leaders and their followers exchange information, resources, and role expectations that determine the quality of their interpersonal relationships. EFFECT OF LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS 1. Creates in-groups – subordinates in this group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
  40. 40. EFFECT OF LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS 1. Creates in-groups – subordinates in this group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction. - have attitudes and values similar to those of the leader and interact frequently with the leader. 2. Creates out-groups – subordinates in this group are treated in accordance with a more formal understanding of supervisor- subordinate relations. - less in common with the leader and operate in different ways - less likely to experience good teamwork
  41. 41. NORMATIVE DECISION MODEL • aka “the leader-participation model”, “decision-making model of leadership” • The model views leadership as a decision making process in which the leader examines certain favors within the situation to determine which decision making style will be most effective.
  42. 42. FIVE DECISION MAKING STYLES 1. Autocratic I – the leader individually solves the problem using the information already available 2. Autocratic II – the leader obtains data from subordinates and then decides 3. Consultative I – the leader explains the problem to individual subordinates and obtains ideas from each before deciding. 4. Consultative II – the leader meets with group of subordinates to share the problem and obtain inputs, and then decides. 5. Group II – the leader shares problem with group and facilitates a discussion of alternatives aiming to reach a group agreement on solution.
  43. 43. ASSUMPTIONS UNDER THIS MODEL 1. The leader can accurately classify problems according to the criteria offered. 2. The leader is able and willing to adapt his or her leadership style to fit the contingency condition he or she faces. 3. The leader is willing to use a rather complex model. 4. The employees will accept the legitimacy of different styles, as well as the validity of the leader’s classification of the situation at hand.
  44. 44. MUCZYK-REIMANN MODEL • This model suggests that “participation” behavior is concerned with the degree to which subordinates are allowed to be involved in decision making. • They propose that leaders should be allowed to adapt to different situations.
  45. 45. FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. The directive autocrat – leader makes the decisions unilaterally and closely supervises the activities of subordinates. 2. The permissive autocrat – leader makes decision unilaterally but allows subordinates a great deal of latitude execution. 3. The directive democrat – leader wants full participation but closely supervises subordinate activity. 4. The permissive democrat – leader allows high participation in decision making and in execution.
  46. 46. PROPOSED TITLE FOR RESEARCH • Approach to School Leadership of the Secondary School Heads in Districts I & II of Maasin City Division

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