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This presentation talks about the definition of a leader, difference between a manager and a leader, types of leadership, types of power of a leader, leadership theories-trait, behavioral-Ohio State University studies, University of Michigan Studies,Yukl Studies, Managerial Grid of Blake and Muoton, contingency-continuum of leadership behavior, contingency leadership model, path goal model, situational leadership, leadership member approach, normative decision model and Muczyk-Reimann Model
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
• the process of guiding and directing the behavior of
people in the organization.
• spells the difference between success and failure.
• An element that convinces members to facilitate the
accomplishment of the goals of the organization.
efficiency of results
the process of influencing others to
pursue official objectives
vested with formal authority
have a measure of legitimate
rely on expedient combination of
reward, coercive, referent and expert
the process of influencing
others to pursue unofficial
lack formal authority
rely on expedient combination
of reward, coercive, referent and
POWER AND THE LEADER
• Leaders can only influence people when he possess
• Power derived as a consequence of the leader’s
• Also referred to as authority
• Emanates from a person’s position in the organization.
LEGITIMATE POWER VESTED IN A PERSON IS
1. It is invested in a person’s position.
2. It is accepted by subordinates.
3. Authority is used vertically.
• Emanates from one’s ability to grant rewards to those
who comply with a command or request.
• Leader’s capacity to provide promotions, money,
praise, and other rewards influences the behavior of
• Arises from the expectation of subordinates that they
will be punished if they do not conform to the wishes
of the leader.
• Dismissal, suspension, and transfer to a less desirable
task are just few forms of punishments.
• Leader’s personal power results from his personal
• An expert who possess and can dispense valued
information generally exercise expert power over those
in need of such information.
• Computer specialists
• Depends on his education, training, and experience
• The ability of leaders to develop followers from the
strength of their own personalities.
• Have a personal magnetism, an air of confidence, and
a passionate belief in objectives that attract and hold
• Nelson Mandela of Africa
• Mother Teresa
• Philippine President Rodrigo R. Duterte
• Theories about leadership attempts to explain the
various factors that may be identified with successful
Ohio State University
University of Michigan
Managerial Grid of
Blake & Mouton
(House & Mitchell)
Model (Vroom & Jago)
• Consider leaders to possess common traits.
• Physical appearance, intelligence, and self-confidence
FACTORS OF TRAIT LEADERSHIP
1. Sociability 6. Alertness to & insight into
2. Persistence situations
3. Initiative 7. Cooperativeness
4. Knowing how to get 8. Popularity
things done 9. Adaptability
5. Self-confidence 10. Verbal Facility
GENERAL VIEW OF WHAT GOOD LEADERS HAVE IN
4. Emotional Intelligence
“LEADERS ARE BORN THAN MADE”
• These theories propose that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
• Sought to identify independent dimensions of leader
TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR
1. Initiating Structure – refers to the extent to which a leader
is likely to define his or her role and those of employees in
search for goal attainment.
– high initiating structure leader focuses on goals & results
– likened to production-oriented supervisor
– structure is initiated by assigning specific tasks, specifying
procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying
TWO DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR
2. Consideration – describes the degree to which
leaders creates an environment of emotional support,
warmth, friendliness, and trust.
– leader’s behavior is friendly & approachable, looking
out for the personal welfare of the group, keeping the group
informed about new developments, and doing small favors for
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
• Attempts to locate behavioral characteristics of leaders.
EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA USED
1. Productivity for work hour
2. Job satisfaction
3. Turnover, absenteeism, and grievance rates
5. Scrap loss
6. Employee & managerial motivation
TWO DISTINCT STYLES OF
1. Job-centered – managers set tight work standards,
organized tasks carefully, prescribed the work
methods to be followed, and supervised closely.
2. Employee-centered – managers encouraged group
members to participate in goal setting and other
work decisions, and helped to ensure high
performance by trust and mutual respect.
• Tried to seek answers to specific behavior of leaders for varying situations.
NINETEEN BEHAVIORS OF LEADERSHIP
1. Performance emphasis 11. Role clarification
2. Consideration 12. Goal setting
3. Praise-recognition 13. Information dissemination
4. Decision-participation 14. Planning
5. Training-coaching 15. Coordinating
6. Problem solving 16. Representation
7. Work facilitation 17. Interaction facilitation
8. Inspiration 18. Conflict management
9. Structuring reward contingencies 19. Criticism-discipline
THE MANAGERIAL GRID
• A graphic portrayal of two dimensional view of leadership.
• An approach to understanding a manger’s concern for
production and concern for people.
• It proposes that there is a best way to manage people.
• This model consists of seven alternative ways for managers to
approach decision making, depending on how much
participation they want to allow subordinates in the decision
ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOR OF
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(Boss-centered leadership) (subordinates-centered leadership)
LEADER’S CHOICE DEPENDS
ON THREE FACTORS
1. Forces in the manager – effective leaders are flexible, able to
select leadership behaviors needed in a given time and
- consists of manager’s background, knowledge, values,
If the manager worked for ten years as a subordinate of a
well-performing leader who adapted the participative style, he
will tend to be a participative leader himself.
2. Forces in subordinates – the leadership style of greater
participation and freedom can be exercised by the manager if
are craving for independence and freedom
want to have decision making responsibility
identify with the organization’s goal
are knowledgeable and experienced enough
have experience with the previous managers that lead
them to expect participative management
3. Forces in the situation – the organization’s preferred style,
the specific work group, the nature of the group’s tasks, the
pressures of time, and environmental factors.
the nature of the problem and time pressures
• This model proposes that effective group performance depends
on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to
which the situation favors the leader.
• This model uses an instrument called Least Preferred Coworker
(LPC) Scale to assess the degree of positive or negative feelings
held by a person toward someone with whom he or she least
prefers to work.
• Low scores on LPC = task-oriented leaders, controlling and with a
structuring leadership style
• High Scores on LPC = relationship-oriented leaders, or passive
FACTORS TO DETERMINE HOW
FAVORABLE THE LEADERSHIP
1. Leader-member relations – the degree of confidence, trust,
and respect the followers have in their leader.
2. Task structure – the extent to which the tasks the followers
are engaged in are structured.
- HIGH when the task is clearly specified and known
- LOW when the task is unclear, ambiguous, or unspecifiable
3. Position power – the power inherent in the leadership position.
- greater authority means greater position power
• This model states that the leader’s job is to create a work
environment through structure, support, and rewards that
helps employees reach the organization’s goals.
TWO MAJOR ROLES INVOLVED
1. The creation of a good orientation
2. The improvement of the path toward the goals so that they
will be attained
Leader provides assistance
on employee path toward
satisfied and motivated,
and they accept the
Both employees and
organization are better
able to reach their goals
FOUR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS
1. The directive leader – type of leader who lets followers know
what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives
specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks.
2. The supportive leader – type of leader who is friendly and shows
concern for the needs of followers.
3. The participative leader – type of leader who consults with
followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
4. The achievement-oriented leader – leader who sets challenging
goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
• This theory suggests that a leader’s style should be
determined by matching it with the maturity level or
readiness of each subordinate.
READINESS CONSISTS OF TWO CONCERNS
1. Job readiness (or task competence) – knowledge and
abilities to perform the job without a manager structuring or
directing the work.
2. Psychological readiness (or commitment) – self-motivation
and desire to do high quality work.
1. Those with low competence and low commitment (D-1)
2. Those with low competence but with high commitment (D-2)
3. Those with high competence but with low commitment (D-3)
4. Those with high competence and high commitment (D-4)
FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES
1. Directing – best for low follower readiness.
- unable and unwilling
2. Coaching – best for low to moderate follower readiness.
- unable but willing
3. Supporting – best for moderate to high follower readiness.
- able but unwilling
4. Delegating – best for high readiness.
- able and willing
• This theory recognize that leaders develop unique working
relationships with each group member.
• Leaders and their followers exchange information, resources,
and role expectations that determine the quality of their
EFFECT OF LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS
1. Creates in-groups – subordinates in this group will have
higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job
EFFECT OF LEADER-MEMBER
1. Creates in-groups – subordinates in this group will have higher
performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job
- have attitudes and values similar to those of the leader and
interact frequently with the leader.
2. Creates out-groups – subordinates in this group are treated in
accordance with a more formal understanding of supervisor-
- less in common with the leader and operate in different ways
- less likely to experience good teamwork
NORMATIVE DECISION MODEL
• aka “the leader-participation model”, “decision-making model
• The model views leadership as a decision making process in
which the leader examines certain favors within the situation
to determine which decision making style will be most
FIVE DECISION MAKING STYLES
1. Autocratic I – the leader individually solves the problem using
the information already available
2. Autocratic II – the leader obtains data from subordinates and
3. Consultative I – the leader explains the problem to individual
subordinates and obtains ideas from each before deciding.
4. Consultative II – the leader meets with group of subordinates to
share the problem and obtain inputs, and then decides.
5. Group II – the leader shares problem with group and facilitates a
discussion of alternatives aiming to reach a group agreement on
ASSUMPTIONS UNDER THIS
1. The leader can accurately classify problems according to the
2. The leader is able and willing to adapt his or her leadership
style to fit the contingency condition he or she faces.
3. The leader is willing to use a rather complex model.
4. The employees will accept the legitimacy of different styles,
as well as the validity of the leader’s classification of the
situation at hand.
• This model suggests that “participation” behavior is concerned
with the degree to which subordinates are allowed to be
involved in decision making.
• They propose that leaders should be allowed to adapt to
FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES
1. The directive autocrat – leader makes the decisions
unilaterally and closely supervises the activities of
2. The permissive autocrat – leader makes decision unilaterally
but allows subordinates a great deal of latitude execution.
3. The directive democrat – leader wants full participation but
closely supervises subordinate activity.
4. The permissive democrat – leader allows high participation in
decision making and in execution.
PROPOSED TITLE FOR RESEARCH
• Approach to School Leadership of the Secondary School Heads in Districts I & II of
Maasin City Division