Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Czech without aspect:
Marrying cognitive schemas with functional representations
Dominik Lukeš
dominik@dominiklukes.net
Me...
The nature of constructional meaning and
constructional inventory
Je český vid jako Ježíšek?
A joke...
A: Tak jsme došli.
[So we’ve arrived]
B: …..
A: Tak jsme došli.
[So we’ve arrived]
B: Ahoj Babi!
[Hello Granny!]
To be revisited but now let’s look at
The traditional approach to Czech aspect
through maximally general meaning.
Croft, p44. 2012
A new approach to Czech without aspect
Czech has three event profiles (aspects) :
perfective (profiles event as a completed whole
with no time span), imperfectiv...
Only verbs of motion have special forms for all
three aspects. Most other verbs use the same
form for imperfective and rep...
Aspect mostly occurs with a tense (with the
exception of nouns formed from verbs –
boření vs. zboření, infinitives, etc.).
If the three aspects are combined with the
three tenses, Czech can be said to have 8
tenses (3×3-1 - perfective cannot com...
Each of these new tenses has specific
functions which do not necessarily compute
from when definitions of the aspect and t...
For most purposes, Czech can be treated as if
it didn’t have an aspect at all. And can still be
compared favourably with E...
For most purposes, Czech can be treated as if
it didn’t have an aspect at all. And can still be
compared favourably with E...
Perfective Imperfective Repetitive
Past Form: -l form of perfective
verbs .
Meaning: Actions
completed in the past
(often ...
Event types
Past Perfective
Past Imperfective
Past Repetitive
Present Ipf.
Present Rpt.
Future Perf.
Future Ipf.
Future Rp...
This is not enough, aspect not only never
occurs without tense, it also never appears
outside some modal context.
Event structure
space
Tense/
Time
Aspect Modality
Present FuturePast
Statement
Condition
Emphasis
Disapproval
Command
Warn...
willingness vs. likes/dislikes
(rád to udělám – rád to dělám)
habit vs. attitude/emphasis
(vždycky sem chodí – vždycky [si...
Add it all together and you get Halliday’s
functionalism:
PAST Perfective
constructions Accomplished activity in the (recent)
past (with už [already])
Ten dopis jsem už napsal.
(I’...
PAST
Imperfective
Constructions
Parallel continuous actions in the past
(Narrative) (often with zatímco
[while])
Ongoing a...
PAST Repetitive
Constructions
Repeated action in the past Chodil jsem do školy každý den po tři roky.
(For three years, I ...
PRESENT Imperfective
Construcitons
Narrative of present
action (Commentary)
Olda právě vchází do domu.
(Olda is entering t...
PRESENT
Repetitive
constructions
Personal habit Ruce si myji vždy před jídlem.
(I always wash my hands before meals.)
Pres...
FUTURE
Perfective
Constructions
Statement of plan Zítra ráno vstanu a uvařím si kávu. (Tomorrow
morning, I’ll get up and m...
FUTURE Imperfective
Construcitons Future parallel or interrupted
action
Vy budete vařit polévku a my budeme
připravovat sa...
FUTURE Repetitive
Construcitons
Future repeated action
(Condition)
Příští rok budu každý týden chodit
do kina.
(Next year,...
Analytic / pedagogic advantages:
1. Verbs of motions stop posing difficulties
2. -va- infix drops out of the aspect system...
English with
aspect AspectTense Past Present Future
Simple V2nd
He swam.
V1st
He swims./I swim.
will + V1st
He will swim.
...
Czech  English
correspondence
Czech English
tense – tense present imperfective present continuous
present simple
past per...
English  Czech
correspondence
English Czech
tense – tense present continuous present imperfective
past simple past perfec...
Verbs of Motion
Verbs
Full: go, fly, crawl, run, carry, lead, chase, pull
Partial: swim, skip, grow
Grammatical specifics
...
Verbs of Motion
Imperfective Repetitive
jít chodit to go (on foot)
jet jezdit to go (by vehicle)
běžet běhat to run
letět ...
The Prefix Hub
JÍT
ujít
najít
odejítnadejít
podejít
rozejít
přijít
projít
vyjít
vejít
zajít
dojít
pojít
sejít
přejít
obejít
Iterativity and habituality traditionally considered on
aspect axis but in fact a mostly modal distinction.
dělat – děláva...
Verbs of motion in aspect
jít chodit
přicházetpřijít
Perfective Imperfective Repetitive
přicházet přicházet
jítpřijít
Pedagogic implications
Match adverbials with verbs
1. právě teď a. najdu
2. zítra b. odcházím
3. občas c. přijdu
4. už d. ...
Back to the joke and constructions...
form:meaning
organized in an inventory
no pragmatics vs. semantics
no rules vs words
meanings organized through
frames
(sc...
[MEANING]
Time location: Immediate
past>Present
Event status: Completed
Speaker attitude: Negative
(semantic prosody)
Comm...
[MEANING]
Time location: Immediate
past>Present
Event status: Completed
*Speaker attitude: Positive
*Communicative intent:...
[MEANING]
Time location: Repeated present
Event status: Indeterminate
Speaker attitude: Emphatic
(negative semantic prosod...
On sem přijde, sedne si, a... < (annoying) repetition
*On sem přichází, sedá si…
*Slunce vyjde, probudí mě a zajde (každé ...
Different levels of schematicity and
knowledge of the world are required.
*?They build a statue next to my house. [dig a
ditch, build a bridge]
They run the marathon next to my house.
I was about to break up with him and then he goes
and buys me beautiful flowers. [Complaint!]
We're having dinner and she ...
I had a great view. And guess what they do!
They build a statue next to my house.
* Come quick. Look out the window. They ...
What is the abstract (schematic) aspectual
meaning?
Where is this?
It is more than just the event schemas.
Fundamental event profile orientation of the
generic space serving as the source f...
Generic space
Integrated space
Tak jsme došli
< Failure
jít[F:M]
dojít[F:M]
tak[F:M]
This mental space orientation needs to work within
the constraints of the constructional inventory.
Otherwise we would not...
Czech trying to learn Russian aspect vs.
American trying to learn Russian aspect.
Czech trying to learn English indefinite...
The existence of the joke also seems to point
to some general aspectual meaning. BUT, this
is in itself another constructi...
A. 'My father died.'
B. 'I'm sorry'
C. 'It's not your fault.'
A. 'Why don't you love me anymore.'
B. 'But just yesterday, ...
'We are so shallow. We ask people 'How are
you' and just move on.'
A: The window broke.
B: It didn't break itself.
(vs. th...
Conclusions
Consistent treatment of constructions as
form-meaning pairs organized in a
patterned inventory is important.
Aspect interacts with time, modality,
collocations, etc. and cannot be studied
entirely in isolation.
In fact, for many purposes aspect is not even
a necessary explanatory concept.
Thank you
dominik@dominiklukes.net
http://metaphorhacker.net
@techczech
Czech without aspect: Marrying functional schemas with functional representations
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Czech without aspect: Marrying functional schemas with functional representations

1.024 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Paper presented at SCLC 2015, Oxford. (Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference)

Veröffentlicht in: Bildung

Czech without aspect: Marrying functional schemas with functional representations

  1. 1. Czech without aspect: Marrying cognitive schemas with functional representations Dominik Lukeš dominik@dominiklukes.net MetaphorHacker.net @TechCzech
  2. 2. The nature of constructional meaning and constructional inventory
  3. 3. Je český vid jako Ježíšek?
  4. 4. A joke...
  5. 5. A: Tak jsme došli. [So we’ve arrived] B: …..
  6. 6. A: Tak jsme došli. [So we’ve arrived] B: Ahoj Babi! [Hello Granny!]
  7. 7. To be revisited but now let’s look at
  8. 8. The traditional approach to Czech aspect through maximally general meaning.
  9. 9. Croft, p44. 2012
  10. 10. A new approach to Czech without aspect
  11. 11. Czech has three event profiles (aspects) : perfective (profiles event as a completed whole with no time span), imperfective (profiles events in progress without reference to beginning or end but definite time span) and repetitive (profiles whole events repeated).
  12. 12. Only verbs of motion have special forms for all three aspects. Most other verbs use the same form for imperfective and repetitive aspect.
  13. 13. Aspect mostly occurs with a tense (with the exception of nouns formed from verbs – boření vs. zboření, infinitives, etc.).
  14. 14. If the three aspects are combined with the three tenses, Czech can be said to have 8 tenses (3×3-1 - perfective cannot combine with the present tense).
  15. 15. Each of these new tenses has specific functions which do not necessarily compute from when definitions of the aspect and the tense are combined together.
  16. 16. For most purposes, Czech can be treated as if it didn’t have an aspect at all. And can still be compared favourably with English 14 tenses.
  17. 17. For most purposes, Czech can be treated as if it didn’t have an aspect at all. And can still be compared favourably with English 14 tenses.
  18. 18. Perfective Imperfective Repetitive Past Form: -l form of perfective verbs . Meaning: Actions completed in the past (often only happening once). Form: -l form of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Actions happening for a certain time/in parallel in the past. Form: -l form of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Habitual or repeated actions in the past. Present Form: Conjugated form of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Actions happening now. Form: Conjugated form of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Repeated, habitual actions in the present. Future Form: Conjugated form of perfective verbs. Meaning: Future completed, unrepeated actions. Form: budu + infinitive of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Future continuous actions. Form: budu + infinitive of imperfective verbs. Meaning: Future repeated, habitual actions.
  19. 19. Event types Past Perfective Past Imperfective Past Repetitive Present Ipf. Present Rpt. Future Perf. Future Ipf. Future Rpt. Tense Event Profile Schemas N N N N N N N N N
  20. 20. This is not enough, aspect not only never occurs without tense, it also never appears outside some modal context.
  21. 21. Event structure space Tense/ Time Aspect Modality Present FuturePast Statement Condition Emphasis Disapproval Command Warning Question Narration Habit Completion Repetition Continuation Possibility Enumeration Experience Historicization Linearity Temporality Iterativity Determinedness
  22. 22. willingness vs. likes/dislikes (rád to udělám – rád to dělám) habit vs. attitude/emphasis (vždycky sem chodí – vždycky [si] sem přijde) experience vs. current state (už jsem řídil auto – auto už řídím rok) prohibition vs. warning (nesedej si na to – nesedni si na to) life experience vs. remembered experience (já jsem do školy chodil –včera jsem šel do školy dvakrát)
  23. 23. Add it all together and you get Halliday’s functionalism:
  24. 24. PAST Perfective constructions Accomplished activity in the (recent) past (with už [already]) Ten dopis jsem už napsal. (I’ve already written the letter.) Domácí úkol už jsem udělal. (I’ve already done my homework.) Completed condition for future or action or state (with jestli or pokud) Jestli to udělal, bude mít hodně peněz. (If he has done it, he will have lots of money.) Interruption to an ongoing activity (expressed by past imperfective) Díval jsem se na televizi [ipf.], když zazvonil telefon. (I was watching TV, when the phone rang.) Departure for further activity (often beginning with když) Když jsem se nasnídal, šel jsem do školy. (When I[’d] had my breakfast, I went to school.) Enumerated accomplishment in the past Přečetl tu knihu třikrát. (He read the book twice.) Několikrát vylezl na Sněžku. (He climbed Sněžka several times.)
  25. 25. PAST Imperfective Constructions Parallel continuous actions in the past (Narrative) (often with zatímco [while]) Ongoing actions in the past interrupted by a perfective action (often with když [when]) Včera večer Petr vařil večeři a zpíval si. (Last night Peter was cooking dinner, and singing.) Díval jsem se na televizi, když zazvonil telefon [pf]. (I was watching TV, when the phone rang.) Action continuing for a period of time in the past Včera jsem se díval na televizi od osmi do desíti. (Yesterday, I was watching TV from 8 to 10.) Recent and/or remembered experience (can be enumerated, often in questions) Četl jsi tu knihu? (Did you read the book?) Díval jsem se na to dvakrát. (I watched it twice.) Sudden perception or realization [ADV] Přišel a viděl. (He came and he saw.) Najednou cítil, že ho někdo sleduje. (Suddenly, he felt that someone is watching him.) Emphatic questions about the source/producer (optional) [ADV] Kdo ti šil ten svetr? (Who sowed the sweater for you?) Kdo ti to říkal? (Who told you that?)
  26. 26. PAST Repetitive Constructions Repeated action in the past Chodil jsem do školy každý den po tři roky. (For three years, I went to school every day.) Domácí úkoly jsem si dělal každý den. (I did my homework every day.) Už tenkrát si děti pravidelně čistily zuby. (Even then, children brushed their teeth regularly.) Life experience (with už) Petr to už dělal. (Petr has done it before.) Do školy jsem chodil. (I’ve attended school.) Už jsem řídil auto. (I’ve driven a car before.)
  27. 27. PRESENT Imperfective Construcitons Narrative of present action (Commentary) Olda právě vchází do domu. (Olda is entering the building.) Novák střílí a dává gól. (Novák shoots, and he scores!) Future timetable Autobus odjíždí zítra v jednu hodinu odpoledne. (The bus leaves tomorrow at one pm.) Historical narrative [ADV] Karel IV. zakládá univerzitu v roce 1348. (Karel IV. founds the university in 1348.)
  28. 28. PRESENT Repetitive constructions Personal habit Ruce si myji vždy před jídlem. (I always wash my hands before meals.) Present result of continuing past action Bydlíme v Praze už pět let. (We’ve been living in Prague for 5 years now.) Ability to do something Hrajete na piáno? (Do/Can you play the piano?) Likes and dislikes (with rád, ráda, rádi) Rád chodím do divadla, ale nerad hraju fotbal. (I like going to the theater, but I don’t like playing football.) Statement of (scientific) fact [ADV] Ptáci odlétají na podzim. (Birds fly away in the fall.) Voda se vaří při 100 stupních. (Water boils at 100 degrees.) Prohibitions and negative imperatives [ADV] Ať si sem nesedá. (Let him not sit here.) Nezpívej tady. (Don’t sing here.) Tady se chodí pomalu. (One walks slowly here.)
  29. 29. FUTURE Perfective Constructions Statement of plan Zítra ráno vstanu a uvařím si kávu. (Tomorrow morning, I’ll get up and make some coffee.) Condition for future action/prediction of result of completion with až (when) Až to udělá, bude mít volno. (When he does this, he’ll have time off.) Instructions Nejdřív uvaříme rýži a potom nakrájíme zeleninu. (First, we cook the rice and then we dice the vegetables.) Emphatic prohibitions/warnings with ať [ADV] Ať si na to nikdo nesedne. (Let nobody sit on this.) Emphatic historical narrative (combined with imperfective) [ADV] A pak mu Pepa jednu vrazí a spadnou na zem, a … (And then Pepa smacks him, they fall on the ground and …) Polite acceptance / expression of willingness (with rád) [ADV] Rád přijdu zítra na večeři. (I will be happy to come to dinner tomorrow.) Repeated action with (often negative) emphasis [ADV] On si sem klidně každé ráno přijde a sedne si na židli. He will come here every morning without so much as by your leave and sit on the chair.) Emphatic plan for enumerated future action [ADV] Příští rok půjdu do kina alespoň jednou týdně. (Next year, I will go see a movie at least once a week.)
  30. 30. FUTURE Imperfective Construcitons Future parallel or interrupted action Vy budete vařit polévku a my budeme připravovat salát. (You’ll be cooking the soup and we’ll be preparing the salad.) Plan for a block of time Zítra se budu učit od jedné do dvou. (Tomorrow, I’ll study from one to two.) Příští rok budeme celé léto cestovat. (Next year, we’ll spend the whole summer traveling.) Background of future action with když and až, zatímco Když bude psát úkol, bude mu hrát hudba. (While he[’ll be] is doing the homework, the music will be playing.) Až bude psát úkol, nebude s nikým mluvit. (When he’s writing his homework, he won’t speak to anybody.)
  31. 31. FUTURE Repetitive Construcitons Future repeated action (Condition) Příští rok budu každý týden chodit do kina. (Next year, I will go to the movies every week.) Time non-specific future wish [ADV] Snad příští rok nebude tolik pršet. (Hopefully, next year, it won’t rain so much.) Příští týden budu více cvičit. (I’ll exercise more next week.)
  32. 32. Analytic / pedagogic advantages: 1. Verbs of motions stop posing difficulties 2. -va- infix drops out of the aspect system as a separate construction 3. Czech can be more easily compared with English
  33. 33. English with aspect AspectTense Past Present Future Simple V2nd He swam. V1st He swims./I swim. will + V1st He will swim. Continuous to be2nd + Ving He was swimming. to be + Ving He is swimming. will + be + Ving He will be swimming. Perfect Simple had + V3rd He had swum. to have + V3rd He has swum. will + have + V3rd He will have swum. Continuous had + been + Ving He had been swimming. to have + been + Ving He has been swimming. will + have + been + Ving He will have been swimming. Including “going to” future, there are 14 tenses in English. These can all be active or passive doubling the number of separate forms to 28.
  34. 34. Czech  English correspondence Czech English tense – tense present imperfective present continuous present simple past perfective past simple (cont.) present perfect simple past perfect function – function see below for 1-1 present narrative (pr. i.) present narrative (pr.pro.) commentary (pr. smp.) future timetable future timetable (pr. smp.) future time-specific plan (pr.pr.)
  35. 35. English  Czech correspondence English Czech tense – tense present continuous present imperfective past simple past perfective past imperfective past repetitive function – function experience (pres. pf.) experience (past ipf.) parallel actions (progr.) parallel actions (ipf.) interrupting act. (simp.) interrupting action (pf.) scientific fact (pr.simp) fact (pr. ipf.) emphatic fact (pr.pf.)
  36. 36. Verbs of Motion Verbs Full: go, fly, crawl, run, carry, lead, chase, pull Partial: swim, skip, grow Grammatical specifics Future formation Prefixation Two roots on foot vs. by vehicle Presence in many lexical entries 15 * 20 = 300
  37. 37. Verbs of Motion Imperfective Repetitive jít chodit to go (on foot) jet jezdit to go (by vehicle) běžet běhat to run letět létat to fly vést vodit to lead nést nosit to carry (in arms/on foot) vézt vozit to carry (in a vehicle) hnát honit to chase táhnout tahat to pull, drag lézt lézt to crawl
  38. 38. The Prefix Hub JÍT ujít najít odejítnadejít podejít rozejít přijít projít vyjít vejít zajít dojít pojít sejít přejít obejít
  39. 39. Iterativity and habituality traditionally considered on aspect axis but in fact a mostly modal distinction. dělat – dělávat (modality) vs. dělat – dělat (aspect) chodit – chodívat (modality) vs. jít – chodit (aspect) číst – čítat (modality) vs. číst – číst (aspect) Affective reduplication: číst – čítávat – čítávávat – čítávávávávávávat
  40. 40. Verbs of motion in aspect jít chodit přicházetpřijít Perfective Imperfective Repetitive přicházet přicházet jítpřijít
  41. 41. Pedagogic implications Match adverbials with verbs 1. právě teď a. najdu 2. zítra b. odcházím 3. občas c. přijdu 4. už d. nacházím 5. až e. přijel jsem Guess tense/aspect and function of these sentences (draw a timeline when in doubt): 1. Ráno snídám v 7 hodin. 2. Už jsi viděl film Muži v černém II? 3. Když mi včera volal Milan, zrovna jsem večeřel. 4. Zítra půjdeme nakupovat a koupíme si počítač. 5. Až napíšu dopis, budu asi hodinu cvičit.
  42. 42. Back to the joke and constructions...
  43. 43. form:meaning organized in an inventory no pragmatics vs. semantics no rules vs words meanings organized through frames (schemas, metaphors, rich images, scenarios, etc.) combined through the process of conceptual integration
  44. 44. [MEANING] Time location: Immediate past>Present Event status: Completed Speaker attitude: Negative (semantic prosody) Communicative intent: Announcement of failure [FORM] Verb form: -l marking (past prototype) Verb version: completion prefix (perfective prototype) Intonation/stress pattern: pattern (complaint/frustration prototype) Textual context: particle inventory {tak, no tak, tak to, tak teda, no a} Usage context: conversation Medium: speech or simulated speech Tak jsme došli. < Failure
  45. 45. [MEANING] Time location: Immediate past>Present Event status: Completed *Speaker attitude: Positive *Communicative intent: Announcement of failure [announcement] [FORM] Verb form: -l marking (past prototype) Verb version: completion prefix (perfective prototype) *Textual context: particle inventory {tak, no tak, tak to, tak teda, no a} *Intonation/stress pattern: pattern (statement) *Usage context: conversation, [propositional neutral narrative] *Medium: [written], speech or simulated speech Tak jsme došli. <*Completion
  46. 46. [MEANING] Time location: Repeated present Event status: Indeterminate Speaker attitude: Emphatic (negative semantic prosody) Communicative intent: Narrative [FORM] Verb form: inflection (present prototype) Verb version: perfective (perfective prototype) Intonation/stress pattern: pattern (emphatic narrative) Textual context: profiled agent {on, ona, etc.} Usage context: conversation Medium: speech or simulated speech On sem přijde, sedne si, a... < (annoying) repetition
  47. 47. On sem přijde, sedne si, a... < (annoying) repetition *On sem přichází, sedá si… *Slunce vyjde, probudí mě a zajde (každé ráno)
  48. 48. Different levels of schematicity and knowledge of the world are required.
  49. 49. *?They build a statue next to my house. [dig a ditch, build a bridge] They run the marathon next to my house.
  50. 50. I was about to break up with him and then he goes and buys me beautiful flowers. [Complaint!] We're having dinner and she gives me flowers. [Narrative] *Look at this. She gives me flowers right now. [Description of current events] (Change orientation and intonation: 'Would you look at that. She gives me flowers. Right now?!)
  51. 51. I had a great view. And guess what they do! They build a statue next to my house. * Come quick. Look out the window. They run a marathon next to my house.
  52. 52. What is the abstract (schematic) aspectual meaning?
  53. 53. Where is this?
  54. 54. It is more than just the event schemas. Fundamental event profile orientation of the generic space serving as the source for constructional blends involving verbs.
  55. 55. Generic space Integrated space Tak jsme došli < Failure jít[F:M] dojít[F:M] tak[F:M]
  56. 56. This mental space orientation needs to work within the constraints of the constructional inventory. Otherwise we would not get gaps in competence from native speakers such as. I hit him. ?Who did you hit? He came. *Whom came?
  57. 57. Czech trying to learn Russian aspect vs. American trying to learn Russian aspect. Czech trying to learn English indefinite article vs. Kennedy trying to learn German indefinite usage for 'a Londoner' vs. '*ein Berliner‘.
  58. 58. The existence of the joke also seems to point to some general aspectual meaning. BUT, this is in itself another construction which uses hypostasis to profile other potential meanings.
  59. 59. A. 'My father died.' B. 'I'm sorry' C. 'It's not your fault.' A. 'Why don't you love me anymore.' B. 'But just yesterday, I told you I loved you.' A. 'You see, loved. Not love anymore.'
  60. 60. 'We are so shallow. We ask people 'How are you' and just move on.' A: The window broke. B: It didn't break itself. (vs. the computer broke)
  61. 61. Conclusions
  62. 62. Consistent treatment of constructions as form-meaning pairs organized in a patterned inventory is important.
  63. 63. Aspect interacts with time, modality, collocations, etc. and cannot be studied entirely in isolation.
  64. 64. In fact, for many purposes aspect is not even a necessary explanatory concept.
  65. 65. Thank you dominik@dominiklukes.net http://metaphorhacker.net @techczech

×