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Perinatal and Postnatal
Causes of Intellectual
Disabilities
Education of Students with an Intellectual Disability: Researc...
Perinatal Causes
• Perinatal causes of prematurity are the causes that happen right
before and after a baby’s birth. This ...
Survival Rates
• Survival rates for premature babies have increased; however, that has
led to an increase in the numbers o...
Other Perinatal Factors
• Some may cause brain damage
• Others may not cause physical or intellectual disabilities, but my...
Postnatal Causes of Intellectual
Disabilities
• Head injury –
• Primarily accidents – traumatic brain injury (TBI)
• Shake...
Postnatal Causes (cont.)
• Infections
• Meningitis – vaccinations have reduced the numbers of disabilities related to
meni...
Postnatal Causes (cont.)
• Toxic-Metabolic Disorders
• Lead poisoning – most likely to happen to children living in povert...
Preventing Intellectual Disabilities
• Preventive and screening tests
• Vaccinations
• Reduction in numbers of children in...
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Perinatal and postnatal causes of intellectual disabilities chapter 2 pp. 43 63

EDU 248, chapter 2, 2014sp, causes of ID, CCC

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Perinatal and postnatal causes of intellectual disabilities chapter 2 pp. 43 63

  1. 1. Perinatal and Postnatal Causes of Intellectual Disabilities Education of Students with an Intellectual Disability: Research and Practice; Foreman, Phil; 2009
  2. 2. Perinatal Causes • Perinatal causes of prematurity are the causes that happen right before and after a baby’s birth. This may be up to 4 weeks after birth • Prematurity – the main cause of intellectual disability associated with this time period • Usually 36 weeks or less gestational period • May be classified by birth weight • Extremely Low Birth Weight: < 2.2 pounds (<1000 g) • Very Low Birth Weight: 2.2 – 3.3 pounds (1000 – 1500g) • Moderately Low Birth Weight: 3.3 – 5.5 pounds (1500 – 2500g) • Is the baby’s weight appropriate for gestational age? • Small for gestational age (below 10th %) – SGA • Large for gestational age (above 90th %) - LGA
  3. 3. Survival Rates • Survival rates for premature babies have increased; however, that has led to an increase in the numbers of children with developmental disabilities • Ethical debates continue as medical science has evolved • It is not known whether the premature births are the cause or the effect of intellectual disabilities in some instances. • Some developmental delays may not show up in LBW children until later years • LBW, low APGAR scores, multiple births and complications in labor are all risk factors during the perinatal period
  4. 4. Other Perinatal Factors • Some may cause brain damage • Others may not cause physical or intellectual disabilities, but my cause later learning disabilities, autism, or attention difficulties • “At risk” categories are helpful if it leads to provisions for support with early identification
  5. 5. Postnatal Causes of Intellectual Disabilities • Head injury – • Primarily accidents – traumatic brain injury (TBI) • Shaken baby syndrome – most common form of non-accidental head injury that affects developing brains • TBI is one of the most preventable causes of intellectual disabilities • • • • Use of helmets Car seats Safe playgrounds Awareness of shaken baby syndrome • Problems may be temporary, lifelong, or result in death of a child • Severity of an injury has a direct correlation to the severity of the intellectual disability or resulting death
  6. 6. Postnatal Causes (cont.) • Infections • Meningitis – vaccinations have reduced the numbers of disabilities related to meningitis and related illnesses in developed countries • Encephalitis – vaccinations have reduced these numbers as well • Degenerative Disorders • Rett syndrome – appears primarily in girls who have developed normally for 6 – 18 months; is prenatal, but doesn’t show up until a child is older; high incidence of autism associated with Rett syndrome • Seizure Disorders • More frequent and more severe seizures are associated with intellectual disabilities than mild epilepsy
  7. 7. Postnatal Causes (cont.) • Toxic-Metabolic Disorders • Lead poisoning – most likely to happen to children living in poverty or where lead is still being used in gas and other chemicals; highly preventable cause of intellectual disabilities • Malnutrition • Primarily in countries with chronic malnutrition • Relatively rare cause of intellectual disabilities • Environmental Deprivation • Non-stimulating environments impact intellectual development (think longterm institutional care, Romanian orphanage babies) • Questions arise about the impact of other risk factors – poverty, poor medical care, diet, maternal use of drugs and alcohol, environmental toxins, etc.
  8. 8. Preventing Intellectual Disabilities • Preventive and screening tests • Vaccinations • Reduction in numbers of children institutionalized has reduced numbers of secondary disabilities • Genetic testing and screening tests will continue to raise ethical questions

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  • RoseMeso

    Sep. 29, 2018
  • SairaKhan135

    May. 19, 2021
  • syedarifiqbal1

    Jun. 9, 2021

EDU 248, chapter 2, 2014sp, causes of ID, CCC

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