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Applications of Digital image processing in Medical Field
Presented By :-
An image may be defined as a two-dimensional
where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the
amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is
called the intensity or gray level of the image at that
When x, y, and the amplitude values of f are all finite,
discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image.
References at the end are listed. 2
Fig:- Digital Image from Google Images
References at the end are listed. 3
The field of digital image processing refers to
processing digital images by means of a digital
Digital image is composed of a finite number of
elements, each of which has a particular location and
These elements are referred to as picture elements,
image elements, and pixels. Pixel is the term most
widely used to denote the elements of a digital image.
References at the end are listed. 4
Low-level processes involve primitive operations such
Image Pre-processing to Reduce Noise
A low-level process is characterized by the fact that
both its inputs and outputs are images.
References at the end are listed. 5
Mid-level processing on images involves tasks such as
segmentation (partitioning an image into regions or
objects), description of those objects to reduce them to
a form suitable for computer processing, and
classification (recognition) of individual objects.
A mid-level process is characterized by the fact that
its inputs generally are images, but its outputs are
attributes extracted from those images (e.g., edges,
contours, and the identity of individual objects).
References at the end are listed. 6
Higher-level processing involves “making sense” of an
ensemble of recognized objects, as in image analysis, and
performing the cognitive functions normally associated
References at the end are listed. 7
Major uses of imaging based on gamma rays include
nuclear medicine and astronomical observations.
In nuclear medicine, the approach is to inject a
patient with a radioactive isotope that emits gamma
rays as it decays.
Images are produced from the emissions collected by
gamma ray detectors.
References at the end are listed. 9
The best known use of X-rays is medical diagnostics,
but they also are used extensively in industry and
other areas, like astronomy.
X-rays for medical and industrial imaging are
generated using an X-ray tube, which is a vacuum
tube with a cathode and anode.
References at the end are listed. 11
Applications of ultraviolet “light” are varied.
They include lithography, industrial inspection,
microscopy, lasers, biological imaging, and
Ultraviolet light is used in fluorescence microscopy,
one of the fastest growing areas of microscopy.
References at the end are listed. 13
The dominant application of imaging in the
microwave band is radar.
The unique feature of imaging radar is its ability to
collect data over virtually any region at any time,
regardless of weather or ambient lighting conditions.
Radar is the only way to explore inaccessible regions
of the Earth’s surface.
An imaging radar works like a flash camera in that it
provides its own illumination (microwave pulses) to
illuminate an area on the ground and take a snapshot
image. References at the end are listed. 17
The major applications of imaging in the radio band
are in medicine and astronomy.
In medicine radio waves are used in magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI). This technique places a
patient in a powerful magnet and passes radio waves
through his or her body in short pulses. Each pulse
causes a responding pulse of radio waves to be
emitted by the patient’s tissues.
The location from which these signals originate and
their strength are determined by a computer.
References at the end are listed. 19