1. SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
DR. M.L.GULRAJANI ASHISH DUA
2. Classification of the methods for
dyeing of P/C blend
Exhaust dyeing method or batch dyeing method-
This is again classified in the following three groups-
a. Two bath dyeing
b. One bath one step dyeing
C. One bath two step dyeing method
Thermosol Dyeing method -
It is again classified in to two groups-
a. Continuous dyeing-
b. Pad batch process (semi-continuous)
Note-In continuous dyeing process may be single bath or
3. EXHAUST DYEING-
Two bath dyeing
This is the process in which we have to dyed first polyester
part in the HTHP beam dyeing machine or HTHP jet
dyeing machine and the cotton part is dyed in the jigger
Machine used for dyeing of polyester part-
i) HTHP Beam dyeing machine( First commercialized
ii) HTHP jet dyeing machine
Machine used for dyeing of cotton part-
Jigger dyeing machine
6. MACHINE FOR POLYESTER DYEING-
HTHP beam dyeing machine-
No need to explain the whole process of dyeing in beam dyeing
machine. Only some important points we will discuss about it-
Advantages & features:
Loading and unloading of the fabric is easy and time of dyeing is
Dyeing in open width form.
Most suitable for those fabrics that might crease, extend or
abrade when dyed in machines where the fabric is in motion.
Not appropriate for compact fabrics
De-aeration is essential to avoid paler dyed spots.
A wetting agent helps to eliminate air bubbles within the fabric
7. Recipe used HTHP dyeing –
Disperse dye- X%(depends upon the shade)
Sequestering agent-1-2g/l(If required)
Defoamers -.5 to 1g/l
Levelling agent-.5 to 1 g/l
Wetting agent- .5g/l
Acetic acid-enough to get ph=5-6
8. Flow of the liquor usually in the in-to-out direction,
but it can be reversed. Out-to-in flow can compress
the material causing flattening and glazing, particularly
on the inner layers.
Material stationary and liquor is moving.
Batching is very important, during batching tension
should be uniform and optimum.
M:Lratio is 1:10
Both cloth and yarn can be dyed on this machine
10. Disadvantages of beam dyeing
Fabric of different width can not be dyed together on a
The dyed fabric may be display moiré effect if it is
tightly due to shrinkage.
Uneven dyeing may occur if the beam is fully loaded
,as the dye liquor has penetrate several layers of fabric.
13. HTHP jet dyeing machine
The jet dyeing machine is an extension of the HPHT winch
dyeing machine. Jet dyeing machine developed by
BURLINGTON Industries and first machine developed in
1963 by Gaston country Machine co. of U.S.A
Both material and liquor is moving.
Dyeing in rope form.
Fabric speed usually 200-250mt/min
The jet dyeing can usually operated up to 1400c under high
pressure and having capacity capable of dyeing 100 to 150
kg of fabric at a time
15. DEVELOPMENT IN JET DYEING
Soft flow jet- slow motion of fabric. Suitable for knitted
Super jet dyeing machine- M:L is 1:1
Aerodynamic jet dyeing machine
Jet created by mixture of air + water
M:L is 1:1 , drain out at a 130c
Multi-nozzle sot flow jet dyeing machine
16. Advantages of jet dyeing machine:
Fabric of two different width can be dyed at a time so
that two lots can be combined together for dyeing.
No special batching device is required for winding the
fabric as in beam dyeing.
There is no flattening effect or uneven dyeing on the
fabric as in beam dyeing
There is possibility of entanglement of light-weight fabric
Loose fibres removed from the fabric may get redeposited
on the fabric surface as well as on the interior of the jet
dyeing vessel, this problem does not arise in beam dyeing.
Yarn can not be dyed in a jet dyeing machine whereas it can
be dyed in a beam dyeing machine.
18. Machine used for cotton
Jigger dyeing machine
Open jigger or closed jigger dyeing machine-
Closed jigger specially for vat dyeing.
Liquor is stationary and fabric is moving.
500 t0 1000 meter of fabric is processed in one
M:L ratio in jigger dyeing machine is about 1:5.
Usually take 10 min. for each passage
19. One bath two step dyeing-
One-bath dyeing processes ,using both the dyes such
as following in the same dye bath.
1. Disperse and vat dyes.
2. Disperse and reactive dyes.
3. Disperse and direct dyes.
21. Disperse/vat dyeing system-
Typical dyeing recipe
pH 4-5 with acetic acid (30%)
Procedure-Prepare the bath with dispersing agent,
wetting agent and acetic acid + treatment for 10-15min
at 50-60°c then + disperse and vat + dye for 10-15min +
raise temp up to 130°c in 60-90 min.
22. Procedure continued-
After PET part dyeing cool to 80c for proper levelling
then add NaOH & Na2S2O 4 + dyeing 15min + cooling
to 60°c + dyeing for 30 min. for better exhaustion
Rinse with cold water + oxidation with H2O2 for 15min
at 50°c + Rinsing with cold water + Soap at 95° C for 25
min using 2 g/l Lissapol D + Hot and cold rinse and
then final wash off.
Only vat dyes which are stable up to 130°c can be used
for this process.
23. One bath two step dyeing method-
All vat dyes may be used for the one –bath high
temperature process provided that the dyes are finely
divided enough. The IK vat dyes are not preferred because
the dye liquor requires to be cooled to about 300c in order
to obtain full colour yield. Therefore when IK dyes are to be
used it is preferable to dye by the two-bath process.
Typical dyeing recipe- Disperse dye-X%
Ph-4-5(attained with 1-2 ml/l of 30% acetic acid)
24. Oxidation and soaping-
Oxidation and soaping can be be achieved
simultaneously using the following recipe:
Hydrogen peroxide(35%) 1-2 ml
Anionic detergent -.5-1g/l
First treat the material for 10-15 min. at 500c with
hydrogen peroxide. Then the anionic detergent and
raise the temperature to 950c. Soap for 10-15 min.
25. Disperse/Vat dyeing system
Method is used when selected vat dyes severely. It stain
PET component during high temp dyeing.
Vat dye is added at 80°c after PET part dyeing rather than
adding at the start with disperse dye.
Except it the whole process is same as the dyeing in one
bath one step.
DISPERSE/REACTIVE SYSTEM- Same as one step dyeing
except the addition of reactive dye at 80°c.
This process is used for the reactive dyes which are not
stable up to 130°c, due to which they can not be used in one
26. Thermosol Dyeing method-
A) continious dyeing.
B) pad batch process.
Advantages of Thermosol dyeing-
Continuous process so it gives higher production.
Dye utilization is excellent.
Dye can be used afterward.
No carrier is required.
Fabric is processed in open width form so natural feel of
fabric do not get disturbed.
No crease formation.
Lower energy is required than batch.
No extra heat setting is required
28. ONE BATH ONE STEP THERMOSOL
DYEING WITH DISPERSE AND
29. CHEMICAL RECIPE & PROCEDURE.
Disperse dye-x g/l
Reactive dye-y g/l
Sodium bicarbonate or soda ash-5-20g/l
Migration inhibitor-10-20 g/l
Wetting agent- 1-2g/l
Padding Temp-20-300 c
Liquor pick up-60-80%
First partial drying in infrared pre dryer and then fully drying.
Partial drying is done to avoid migration of dyes.
Drying is done at 120°c.
It is done at 180-220°c, 30-45sec
It is the fixation step.
Padding bath contain NaOH + Na2S2O4
During this vat dye penetrated inside the cotton part. Then
oxidation, soaping and finally washing.
31. One bath one step dyeing process-
Padding in the second step is done using NaCl + NaOH
H- brand reactive dye is used.
Fixation is done during steaming with saturated steam
(102°c) for 30-60 sec.
Then washing ,soaping and again washing.
Recipe-Disperse dye-x g/l
Sodium bicarbonate or soda ash-5-20g/l
Migration inhibitor-10-20 g/l
Wetting agent- 1-2g/l.
33. - NEW APPROACHES OF DYEING
OF P/C BLEND FABRIC-
Dyeing with Reactive Disperse Dyes in Supercritical
Dyeing of 80/20 PET/COTTON blend by using
Polyester/cotton blend fabric with sulphatoethyl
sulphone disperse /reactive dye treatment.
One-bath dyeing PET/COTTON blend with
azohydroxypyridone disperse dye containing a
34. Dyeing with Reactive Disperse
Dyes in Supercritical carbon oxide.
What is supercritical CO2 ?
It is a naturally occurring that is chemically inert,
physiologically compatible, and relatively inexpensive.
It is nonflammable, it is supplied either from
combustion process or volcanic process without the
need of producing new gas & it is recycled in a closed
No disposal problem.
Easy to handle.
36. Hydrophobicity of CO2is useful in dyeing of polyester fibre or
fabrics with disperse dyes as disperse dyes are also
hydrophobic in nature and can dissolve in super critical CO2
and can easily penetrate in polyester fibre or fabrics.
•SC- CO2 act as a solvent in the range of 353-393°k temp, and
10-20 M Pa pressure
•For dyeing hydrophilic fibres like nylon, cotton- disperse dyes
are not suitable for SC- CO2 dyeing.
•cotton can be dyed with fluoro triaziynyl disperse reactive
dyes at 120°c in SC-. CO2
•For efficient dyeing in SC- CO2P/C blend fabric is immersed
in the aqueous solution including 10% NMP( N-methyl-2-
pyrrolidinone) which act as a solvent for pretreatment .
1% Na2CO3 + 10% NMP at room temperature for one hour + squeeze
and dry at 373°K.
When dyeing with this dye small amount of hydrogen fluoride may
be formed In the reaction but Na2CO3 present in the bath does not
allow hydrogen fluoride corrosion.
This HF from dyeing solution is passed to the calcium hydroxide and
recovered as calcium fluoride which is stable and harmless and present
in the nature in fluorite form.
If the same dye is uses in thermosol dyeing than-
Homogenious dyeing is achieved in the SC-CO2 method compare to
L/F was better in SC-CO2
In thermosol dye is sublime or dissolved by heating and penetrated in
the fibres so the fibre is selectively dyed while in SC-CO2 dye is
dissolved in the CO2 which is dissolve in the swollen fibre.
38. ADVANTAGE OF SC CO2 DYEING-
CONVENTIONAL DYEING DYEING IN
High volumes of waste water with No waste water at all. Dye
the residual dye chemicals, etc. remains as powder. No need for
dispersing, leveling agents
High-energy requirements Only 20% energy requirement
Dyeing/washing, drying times is 3-4 Only 2 hours.
hrs per batch.
39. DYEING OF 80/20 PET/ COTTON
BLEND BY USING AZEOTROPIC
The blended fabric is pre-treated with the azeotropic
solvent. This solvent is directly apply with pad-
42. SULPHONYL DISPERSE/REACTIVE DYES
TREATMENT BY CHITIN –BIOPOLYMERS-
Pre-treated the fabric NAOH solution.
The washing & rubbing fastness properties
The dyed sample show good rubbing within
the range of colour.
The colour strength of the dyed sample of
the dyed sample increased with increase
deposition of chitin on fabric.
45. Dyeing with Azohydroxypyridone Disperse
dyes containing a fluorosulfonyl group-
It is a one-bath dyeing of PET/ cotton blends .
alkali-clearable azohydroxypyridone disperse dyes.
alkali-clearable azohydroxypyridone disperse dyes
.containing the fluorosulfonyl group under high-
temperature dyeing conditions is feasible.
Better fastnesss properties.
These dyes saves a lot of chemical energy.
Excellent levelness properties.
1.One bath dyeing of Polyester/cotton blend fabrics with reactive disperse dyes
in successful with SC-CO2 .The optimum dyeing temperature and pressure are
about 393 K and 20 Mpa respectively . The dyeing behavior of Polyester/cotton
blends is strongly affected by the dyeing characteristics of the cotton side.The
colour fastness of dyed fabric is almost satisfactory ,but colour fastness become
weak with a decrease in the dyeing temperature. In addition ,the colour
fastness of fabric dyed in SC-CO2 is better than that with that the thermosol
2.Treatment with chitin pretreatment give the good dry rubbing and
washing fastness . The alkaline pretreatment affects the greater adhesion
of chitin to the surface of polyester fibres, which is manifested by the
greater colour strength .Pretreatment in an alkaline solution containing 10
g/l NAOH is permitted .The greater amount of chitin used ,the worse
affects are observed .
48. 3. The same effect is observed in case of azeeotropic
mixture on the dyeing behaviour of 80/20 cotton blends .As
the pretreatment time increased dye uptake was found
increase . The slight improvement in fastness properties
was also found.
4. Dyeing of PET/COTTON blend with disperse dye
containing the fluorosulfonyl group under high temp.
dyeing conditions are feasible .Its decrease our labour cost,
49. References :
1.Basic Principles of Textile Coloration by Arthur D Broadbent -Professor, Université de
Sherbrooke, Département de génie chimique, Faculté de génie, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K
2.Dyeing of polester/cotton blends by R.B.Chavan Department of textile technology IIT
3.Chemical processing of textiles-1,NCUTE
4.Textile research journal Nov, 2004.
5.African journal of biotechnology vol.8(6),pp.1127-1135,20March,2009
6.International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Materials Science Volume 2011,
Article ID 907493, 12 pages.
7.Journal of the Textile Association – March-April 2007.
8.Textile research division ,National research center Dokki,cairo,Egypt –Dec-2002
Fibres and polymers2008,vol 9,No2,128-133