Más contenido relacionado


Operation and management of primary and secondary tillage

  1. Operation and Management of Primary ,Secondary and special Tillage Implements and Tools(L) • Prepared by Er. Uttam Raj Timilsina(MSc.Engineering,IIT Roorkee) Professor of Agricultural Engineering,AFU, 9841684994 For Batch 2069/2070,BSc.Ag,4th semester(071/7/16-071/10/15) Course Code:AEN-301,Farm Power and Machinery(1+1)
  2. Primary Tillage Implement  Mould Board Plough(MB Plough): it is a plough of 14th century in Asia after indigenous and wooden plough. It is used in area of sufficient rainfall where heavy weed growth ,heavy green manure as well as compost,farm yard manure need to be overturned under the surface for covering as well as proper decay.
  3. MB Plow… It is used for preparing field/ seed bed,controlling weeds,insects,pest,and maintaining a suitable or pulverized soil condition Animal drawn single bottom walking type of size 15-20 cm(furrow width) as well as tractor drawn multi bottom MB plow of 30,35 ,40 cm and even greater size are famous in Asian region The MB plows are design to cut,lift,and invert a section of soil known as furrow slice with heavy weeds or green manure or compost/farm yard manures etc more or less in pulverized form.
  4. Furrow detail  Furrow:When a plow is used for ploughing it cuts a trench called furrow  Furrow slice:it is a ribbon of soil cut,lifted and thrown to the side is called furrow slice  Back furrow: When ploughing is started from the middle of the plot there seems a ridge portion made by the overlapping of furrow slices with each other and called back furrow  Dead furrow: When plowing is started from a corner of a plot then plow ends at the middle of the plot making a trench of about twice the width of normal furrow and called the dead furrow  Furrow wall: The unbroken side of the furrow is called the furrow wall
  5. MB plow…  Classification of MB plows  Animal drawn or walking type  Tractor drawn or tractor mounted type  One way or two way type: which is animal drawn walking type and designed to throw the furrow slice to only one side .The two way type are useful for furrow opener,channel maker which throw furrow slice in both way making channel/furrow at the centre  Turn wrest type:It is designed with a special provision/fitting of hand lever that the direction of furrow slice throwing face or plow face can be change or alter by the help of hand lever at the plot end where bullock has to take complete turn  Right hand or left hand plough: Most of plows are of right hand type throwing the furrow slice at right direction as operator use his right hand to hold the handle of plow and to walk on unplowed land  Reversible gang type MB plow: It is mostly tractor drawn and reversible gang of multi bottom MB plow are fitted in reverse direction facing to have the same side of furrow slice thrown when taking the complete turn by tractor at the end point of farm to come at the reverse direction of motion.
  6. Primary Tillage Implement…..  Parts of MB plow and their function Plow bottem Plow accessories Plow bottom:it is the basic unit of MB plow which consists of share,,mouldboard,landside,,shin, frog/frame The mould board, shin, share and landside are fastened by nut bolt at the frog/frame It performs the main function of plowing i.e cutting soil as a furrow slice, lifting and inverting the furrow slice
  7. MB plow…  Share: which is the main part of MB plow which first penetrates into the soil with facing maximum wear and tear • Share consist of share point which enter into soil, share throat(cutting edge) which cut the furrow slice from soil, share wing which support the plow bottom and share gunnel which support the plow bottom against the furrow wall • Plow shares are made of high carbon steel as it can be sharpened welded or reconditioned by welding special wear resisting material on the wearing points as well as special treatment done
  8. MB plow…  The common type of MB plow shares are: • Slip share: The entire share is replaceable after it has worn out or in case of non functional due to wear and tear • Slip nose share: only share point is replaceable unit • Shin share : Similar to slip share but an extension called shin is provided to prevent the mould board from wearing along its cutting edge • Bar share: provided with an extension on its gunnel side which act as the landside of the plow bottom • Bar point share: a steel bar point fastened to the frog pushed forward when wears out or wear and tear is visible
  9. MB plow…  Types of mould board:Depending upon different soil conditions,soil textures ,moisture content,vegetative cover of land requires mould boards of varying shapes ,sizes and type to do a good job of plowing with better soil pulverization • General type: suitable for general farm use • ,Stubble type: suitable for old ground plowing • Sod or breaker type: suitable for grass land • slat type: suitable for sticky soil • high speed type: suitable for tractor drawn and for general farm use
  10. MB plow… Landside: • It is the flat plate which runs against the furrow wall or it is the part of plow bottom which slides along the face of furrow wall and keep the bottom moving straight ahead providing stability against tilting the plow and fastened to the frog. • It consists of a replaceable landside heel at the rear bottom end which rubs against the furrow sole • It is replaced before vertical suction of the plough is disturbed by the wear and tear of heel.
  11. Frog or Frame: • It is that part of plow bottom to which the share, mould board,landside ,shin are attached by nut bolt system at plow bottom site and standard beam with plow frame are attached at its upper part Shin:It is the cutting edge of the mould board just above the landside.
  12. MB Plough……  Plough Accessories: • For the walking type of plow the beam, hitch and handle are considered as accessories • Generally straight wooden beam are used on walking plow • Depth of plowing is adjusted by the vertical hitch • Rolling coulters of 30-45 cm dia are used for 25-40 cm size bottom of plows to cut trash,crop stubbles and help to keep the plow from clogging • Coulters are set about 5 cm up then the depth of plowing as well as 2cm outside the landside
  13. MB plow… • Plough Adjustment:  Vertical or down suction:For proper penetration and efficient operation of MB plow a vertical clearance of 3mm-5mm is provided near the share and the landside joint which is called vertical or down suction  Horizontal or land Suction:There should be a side clearance of 5mm in the plow at the joint of share and moldboard/ shin to maintain the plow body against wear out  Throat clearance:It is the vertical clearance between share point and plow beam which allow to adjust the depth of plow and the plow may not get choked while ploughing under the green manure crop or grassy field 
  14. Primary tillage implement  Disc Plows  Developed during 1890-1900 A D  Developed to reduce friction by making a rolling bottom instead of rubbing bottom of MB plow along furrow  It is designed to work in dry climate regions where soil is rough and stony,as well as heavy clay soil, sticky soils,and land requiring deep plowing for reclamation purpose  Used properly where MB plow does not work or can not turn furrow slice and required more drawbar power due to more rubbing action rather than rolling action in disc plow  Its working ability or plow penetration as well as plow width depends mainly upon its weight of the disc plow as a whole and inclination of disc at horizontal and vertical plane known as disc angle and tilt angle(angle of inclination) respectively
  15. Primary tillage implement……  Weight of tractor drawn disc plow range is 180-540 kg/disc and animal drawn disc plow is about 30 kg /disc  Disc angle is about of 45 degree with the direction of motion,tilt angle (tilted back) is in the range of 15-25 degree in reference to vertical plane  The diameter of disc blade is 45 cm in case of animal drawn and 60- 80 cm in case of tractor drawn  The concavity varies between 8-10 cm in case of tractor drawn  Generally round concave steel disc sharpened on the edges are bolted on supports suspended from the main frame  Animal drawn disc plow has single disc whereas tractor drawn has 1-7 disc blades and bigger one has up to 32 disc blades spaced about 30 cm apart on a gang
  16. Primary tillage implement..  The gang of tractor drawn disc plow consists of hitch bolt,disc,disc scraper, disc hub ,rear furrow wheel, beam or frame, lift crank  When the plow is pulled forward the individual disc rotates on its own axis ,the furrow slice being thrown  Adjustment for the depth and width of furrow can be done by changing the tilt and disc angle  as the tilt angle is increased depth of cutting decrease .  As the disc angle is increased the width of furrow is increased  As the weight is increased depth of penetration increased  Increased disc angle and decreased tilt angle will improve better penetration under hard soil condition
  17. Secondary Tillage Implements  Harrows:These are the secondary tillage implements used to crush the clods and crops stalks/ crop stubbles/crop residues/weeds, to pulverize the soil,to destroy weeds,to mix the manure and fertilizers with soil,in seed bed preparation and in some cases to cover the seeds with soil and to level the farm etc
  18. Secondary tillage implement..  Disc Harrows • Single action harrows • Double action/tandem harrows • Offset harrows  Drag harrows • Spike tooth harrows • Spring tooth harrows  Cultivators/Tillers  Rigid tine tillers/cultivators  Springed tine tillers/cultivators  Rotary tillers/cultivators  Rotavators  Pulverizers and rollers
  19. Secondary Tillage Implement…  Disc Harrows • Tractor Drawn • Animal Drawn  Types of tractor drawn harrows • Single action harrow: I t consist of two gangs of disc placed end to end which throw soil in opposite direction.The cutting width ranges from 1.2-6 meter.The diameter of disc is 45 cm and spacing between disc is 15-25 cm • Offset harrow: It has two gangs placed one behind the other with the gang angle not greater than 20 degree.The discs of both gang face in opposite direction thus throwing the soil in both directions.No soil remains uncut by offset disc harrow. • Double action or tandem harrow: It has four gangs,two front gangs throw the soil outward and two rear gangs shift the soil inward as the soil being manupulated, get pulverized
  20. Disc harrow ….  The gang angle varies from 15-25 degree ,adjustable.  The number of disc in a gang varies from 4-10 depending upon small unit and larger unit  Discs are spaced about 15 cm-25 cm apart and their diameter ranges between 40-60 cm  Each disc is provided with a scraper to loosen the sticking soil on disc curvature  Notched disc are provided to cur or to crash the grass during plowing • Animal drawn disc harrows are also available and useful for plowing. • The single acting one gang type or double acting two gang type animal drawn harrow has 3-4 disc per gang with covering 1 meter width • Disc space is 15 cm and have the dia. Of 30,35 or 40 cm • Gang angle can be change to vary the plow depth
  21. Drag harrows: These are the older type harrows and are used for dry and wet land preparation as well as interculture operation to break the clods, to stir the soil ,to uproot the weeds ,to level the ground,to break the soil crust ,to mix the fertilizers and manures with soil and to cover the seed Types of drag harrows are • Spike tooth drag harrow and • Spring tine drag harrow
  22. Drag harrow…. • Spike tooth harrow: -They are either rigid or flexible type -Animal drawn or tractor drawn -They have pointed steel pegs(teeth) about 23 cm long with their pointed ends towards ground - Width of harrow varies 1.2-1.8 meter with 25,30 or 35 teeth and depth of penetration is 5 cm -Each peg is rigidly clamped with the help of U-bolt to the cross bar of frame -It can use for seed bed preparation as well interculture operation -The teeth as well as penetration point are replaceable in case of damage/wear and tear
  23. • Spring tine harrow: -Spring provision allow to adjust the depth of penetration when ever needed -They are more suitable and used in rough and stony ground with obstruction like stones, roots and weeds are hidden below soil surface -Size of harrow varies as 2.5-10 meter depending upon animal drawn or tractor drawn -Spring and teeth point are replaceable whenever needed -Teeth points are detachable and can be detach for repair and sharpening whenever needed
  24. • Tillers/Cultivaters:These are designed for tillage operation up to 4-5 cm depth or manipulating the soil before and after the seeding or as intercultural operation with proper moisture content condition to control weeds,to maintain loose soil/good tilth during crop growth,to maintain rapid infiltration of water as well to maintain soil aeration
  25. • According to available sources of power cultivators are available as -Hand operated(width-20-25 cm) can cover 0.4-0.5 ha/day -Animal drawn -Tractor drawn • According to type of manufacture or type of works as intercultural operation,fertilizers miximg for row crops they are: -Shovel cultivators -Rotary cultivators
  26. Special Tillage Implements and Tools  Chisel plow  Sub-soiler  Ridger and bund maker  Puddler and leveler
  27. Special tiaalge…
  28. Special tillage…

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Landside and frog/frame are visible
  2. Landside and frog/frame are visible
  3. Single action animal drawn harrow
  4. Tractor drawn Offset harrow
  5. Tractor drawn Offset harrow
  6. Double action harrow or tandem harrow
  7. Tandem harrow
  8. Notched blade offset harrow
  9. Spike tooth harrow
  10. Spring tooth harrow
  11. spring
  12. Spring tine harrow
  13. Tractor drawn cultivator
  14. Shovel points –straight shovel,reversible shovel all are replaceable
  15. Tractor drawn cultivator
  16. Rotary tiller
  17. Rotary tiller
  18. Rotary tiller
  19. Hand tiller
  20. Handy garden tiller
  21. Power tiller cultivator
  22. Rice field Puddler
  23. Rice field Puddler
  24. Rice field puddler
  25. Bond maker or Ridger
  26. Furrow opener or Ridger
  27. Sub soiler
  28. Chisel plow
  29. Chisel plow
  30. Chisel plow
  31. Land leveler
  32. Laser land leveler
  33. Land leveler
  34. Sub soiler
  35. Sub soiler
  36. Rotavator/Puddler
  37. MB bond former