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CONTENTS• What is BIOMASS ? – Sources of Biomass• Overview of Energy Conditions in Pakistan• Generation of biomass in Pakistan• Prospects of Energy From Biomass in Pakistan – Types Of Local Plants working in rural areas – Prospects for the Commercial Plants• Survey• Comparison with other countries• Conclusion• Recommendation
BIOMASS• All organic matter is known as biomass, and the energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burnt or converted into fuels is called biomass energy.• Biomass provides a clean, renewable energy source that could dramatically improve our environment, economy and energy security. Biomass energy generates far less air emissions than fossil fuels.• Unlike combustion of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis billions of years ago, carbon dioxide released by biomass is balanced by carbon dioxide captured in the recent growth of the biomass, so there is far less net impact on greenhouse gas levels.
WHERE DOES BIOMASS COME FROM ?Biomass is obtained from anyplant, human or animalderived organic matter.• Wood from trees, agricultural crops, wood factory waste, and the construction industry• Burnt wood from forest fires• Animals and animal droppings
CONVERSION OF BIOMASS WASTE INTO USEABLE FUELSGasification• Exposing a solid fuel to high temperatures and limited oxygen produces biogas.Pyrolysis• Heating the biomass can produce pyrolysis oil and phenol oil leaving charcoal.Digestion• Bacteria, in an oxygen-starved environment can produce methane.Fermentation• Bio-material that is used to manufacture Ethanol and Biodiesel by an anaerobic biological process in which sugars are converted to alcohol by the action of micro-organisms, usually yeast.Solid Fuel Combustion• Direct combustion of solid matter. (Gary C.Young).
Overview of Energy Conditions inPakistan• Pakistans energy requirement is increasing rapidly every year. The primary energy consumption in Pakistan grew by almost 80% in the past 15 years from 34 million tons oil equivalent (TOE) in 1994-95 to 61 million TOE in 2009-10.• Today, only 55% of Pakistan’s population has access to electricity. The nation is currently facing a 3 GW power supply shortage - the most severe energy crisis to ever hit the country (Harijan,Uqaili and Memon).
• The solution of this is nothing but adopting renewable energy as we have a number of options including solar energy, waves, tides, wind, biomass etc. (Hussain, 2010).
Generation of Biomass inPakistan• Pakistan is a thickly populated country. The overall population of Pakistan is about 173.593 million(Census 2011).• Out of which 66% people live in Rural areas and 34% live in Urban areas(Census 2011).• The waste generated by this huge population is also in a very large amount.• About 54,888 tons of waste is being generated daily.• The figure reaches up to 20,034,120 tons annually.• Approximately 225,000 tons of crop residues and over 1 million tons of animal manure are produced daily.
Prospects of Energy FromBiomass in Pakistan• The recently carried out livestock census 2006 shows that there are total of 57 million cattles /buffaloes in Pakistan.• Around six thousand digesters have reportedly been installed whearas potential in the country for around five million digesters based on its suitable climate and number of livestocks.• According to Pakistan Centre for Renewable Energy Technologies(PCRET): There is enough livestock for producing biogas up to 16 million cubic meter a day and it can be very effectively used as fuel(Pandey and Bajgain,2007).
Types of Local Biogas Plantsworking in Pakistan:• There are two types of local plants which have been introduced in Pakistan.• 1. Fixed-Dome plant 2. Floating-drum plant (Pandey and Bajgain,2007)
FIXED-DOME PLANTFixed-dome plant 1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe. 2. Digester. 3. Compensating and removaltank. 4. Gasholder. 5. Gas pipe. 6. Entry hatch, with gaslight seal and weighted.7.Difference in level = gas pressure in cm WC. 8. Supernatant scum; broken up by varyinglevel. 9. Accumulation of thick sludge. 10. Accumulation of grit and stones. 11. Zeroline:filling height without gas pressure.
FLOATING-DRUM PLANT• Floating-drum plant 1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe. 2. Digester. 3. Overflow on outlet pipe. 4.Gasholder with braces for breaking up surface scum. 5. Gas outlet with main. 6. Gas drum guide structure. 7. Difference in level = gas pressure in cm WC. 8. Floating scum in the case of fibrous feed material. 9. Accumulation of thick sludge. 10. Accumulation of grit and stones. 11. Water jacket with oil film
Prospects For the CommercialPlants• There is no any commercial Biogas plant in Pakistan.• Three are three sites where we can introduce commercial plants. – Landhi in Karachi – Okara – SargodhaLANDHI CATTLE COLONY• Landhi Cattle Colony is located in the administrative units of Landhi and Bin Qasim townships, close to the Korangi industrial zone some twenty kilometres east of Karachi centre. The population of the two townships together is more than 1.2 million in almost 175,000 households. Of these, some 2,000 are farmer households closely agglomerated in Bhains Colony (Anthony and Baverly,2006).
SURVEY OF COLONY• Landhi and Bin Qasim towns are home to over a million people, and 400,000 heads of cattle. The industrial zone and cattle colonies place the area under severe environmental stress; there is no waste disposal plan for the 8,000 tonnes of cattle waste generated daily. Most of this is flushed into open drains, and disgorged on the nearby coast.
• The long-term and on-going dumping of massive quantities of raw dung into the local environment renders much of the land over nutrified and good only for dumping yet more dung, while the waterways and coastal waters are unable to support meaningful marine life due to the excessive biological oxygen demand of the decaying material.• The terrestrial environment at Landhi is buckling under the waste load from the colonies. Canyons of cattle dung line the roads. The area is fly infested
• At present, most farmers use pumps, typically of 1 kW rating, for about four hours per day to pump water used to wash waste into drains.• The coast by the outfall from the colony is heavily polluted with organic waste from the colony. Tidal drift carries industrial waste from the Korangi stream that flanks the export- processing zone immediately to the west of the main cattle colony.• Mangroves in the area are dying.• Livelihoods of the fishers on the coast are adversely impacted. These problems can be solved by installing a commercial plant which not only provide 25MW of electricity but also save the environment from being polluted…
Comparison with otherCountriesINDIA:• Like Pakistan, India is also an agricultural country and generating a huge amount of biomass. India has installed about 12 million biogas plants with 60% success rate. It has planned to generate about 1GW energy from so many commercial plants which are installing mostly by private sectors.(Sundar Bbau,2002)CHINA:• China has installed about 17 million biogas plants with less than 50% success rate. (Hefa and HU,2010)NEPAL:• 189,122 plants have been installed in Nepal with 98% success rate.
CONCLUSION• Pakistan has one of the largest unexploited biogas resources in the region. Based on the availability of livestock and suitable climatic conditions, this study concludes that there is a potential of over 5 million household biogas digesters in Pakistan.• The main barriers to large-scale adoption of biogas have been: a) lack of an organized approach to scale up; b) poor performance of previous biogas initiatives in the country for a variety of reasons; c) high upfront investment cost for biogas plants and limited availability of affordable credit; d) lack of appreciation of full fertilizer value of bioslurry.• The Government Of Pakistan has failed to attarct the private sectors towards non-renewable site. It clearly shows the lack of interest towards energy sector. Two days holiday in a week is not a solution to overcome the energy requirement. It demands an immediate step. Energy from biomass can be the the first step to overcome our energy requirements and save our environment from pollution to a some extent
RECOMMENDATIONS• This study recommends that concrete steps be taken towards development of a national scale program to promote household biogas digesters through a market mechanism, keeping in view the excellent potential for this technology in Pakistan.• Train local people to get maximum benefit of it.• There should be continuous monitoring of plants by both external and local consultants.• Proper channeling of subsidies and loan support to make the program to be most successful.• Take immediate step towards Landhi cattle colony as situation is being worst and worst day by day.
RECOMMENDATIONS…. (CONT)• In order to commercialize biogas technology it should be market oriented, autonomous and adequately structured sector with maximum involvement of private organizations and also necessary to involve Community Based Organization(CBOs), Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs), International Non-Governmental Organization(INGOs).• Pay attention towards sewage system, as if it is maintained properly, energy can also be produced by treatment of sewage waste. But for this sewage system must be proper.
• Next time you flush the toilet, you could be doing your bit for green energy. After being stored for 18 days, human waste will from today be returning to homes in the form of renewable gas……