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Powepoint - West African Ebola Epidemic

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Powepoint - West African Ebola Epidemic

  1. 1. WEST AFRICAN EBOLA EPIDEMIC Natasha Almasan
  2. 2. EBOLA VIRUS (2014-2016) 2 ▸ Ebola virus disease (EVD), one of the deadliest viral diseases, was discovered in 1976 when two consecutive outbreaks of fatal hemorrhagic fever occurred in different parts of Central Africa. ▸ The second outbreak occurred in what is now South Sudan, approximately 500 miles (850 km) away. ▸ The first outbreak occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) in a village near the Ebola River, which gave the virus its name.
  3. 3. History 3 ▸ Public health officials assumed these outbreaks were a single event associated with an infected person who traveled between the two locations. ▸ The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in a rural setting of southeastern Guinea, spread to urban areas and across borders within weeks, and became a global epidemic within months. ▸ Factors like population growth, encroachment into forested areas, and direct interaction with wildlife (such as bushmeat consumption) may have contributed to the spread of the Ebola virus.
  4. 4. Signs and Symptoms Primary signs and symptoms of Ebola often include some or several of the following: ▸ Fever ▸ Aches and pains, such as severe headache and muscle and joint pain ▸ Weakness and fatigue ▸ Sore throat ▸ Loss of appetite ▸ Gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting ▸ Unexplained hemorrhaging, bleeding or bruising ▸ Other symptoms may include red eyes, skin rash, and hiccups (late-stage). 4
  5. 5. Prevention and Vaccine ▸ Avoid contact with blood and body fluids (such as urine, feces, saliva, sweat, vomit, breast milk, amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal fluids) of people who are sick. ▸ Avoid contact with semen from a man who has recovered from EVD, until testing shows that the virus is gone from his semen. ▸ Avoid contact with items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment). ▸ Avoid funeral or burial practices that involve touching the body of someone who died from EVD or suspect EVD. 5
  6. 6. Zika Virus Epidemic 2015-Present Day
  7. 7. ZIKA VIRUS (2015-Present Day) 7 ▸ Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These mosquitoes bite during the day and night. ▸ There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika. ▸ Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection during pregnancy can cause certain birth defects.
  8. 8. Signs and Symptoms Primary signs and symptoms of Zika Virus often include some or several of the following: ▸ Fever ▸ Severe headache ▸ Red eyes ▸ Joint pain ▸ Muscle pain 8
  9. 9. H1N1 Swine Flu Pandemic 2009-2010
  10. 10. SWINE FLU (20O9-2010) 10 ▸ In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged. It was detected first in the United States and spread quickly across the United States and the world. ▸ Since the (H1N1)pdm09 virus was very different from circulating H1N1 viruses, vaccination with seasonal flu vaccines offered little cross- ▸ This virus was designated as influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus. Ten years later work continues to better understand influenza, prevent disease, and prepare for the next pandemic.
  11. 11. Prevention and Vaccine ▸ While a monovalent (H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was produced, it was not available in large quantities until late November—after the peak of illness during the second wave had come and gone in the United States. 11
  12. 12. 60.8 million cases 12,469 deaths 274,304 hospitalizations 12
  13. 13. REFERENCES 13 ▸ https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html ▸ https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic- resources/2009-h1n1-pandemic.html ▸ https://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html
  14. 14. 14 END OF PRESENTATION Thank you!

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