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WTO & Trade Issues - International Marketing Environment.pptx

  1. International Marketing Environment
  2. International Marketing Environment - Introduction International Marketing environment refers to the controllable and uncontrollable forces that influence upon the marketing decision making of a firm globally. International Marketing environment is comprised of those components which shape policies, programmes and strategies of an international marketer. An international firm must resort to systematic study of international marketing environment to collect the inputs of marketing decision making. To serve the international markets effectively, a firm is in need of understanding international marketing environment properly. The needs, preferences and expectations of buyers in different overseas markets are not necessarily similar. The environmental differences influence the international marketing decisions of a firm. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  3. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment The international marketing environment surrounds and impacts upon the organisation. Marketers aim to deliver value to satisfied customers, so they need to assess and evaluate the internal environment and the external environment. • Internal Environment:  Internal environment refers to the firm related factors. The firm related factors are referred to as controllable variables because the firm has control over them and can (relatively easily) change them as may be thought appropriate as its personnel, physical facilities, etc  The internal environment of the company includes all departments, such as management, finance, research and development, purchasing, operations and accounting. Each of these departments has an impact on international marketing decisions. For example, research and development have input as to the features a product can perform and accounting approves the financial side of marketing plans Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  4. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment • Internal Environment:  The ability of a firm to do international business depends on a number of internal factors like  The mission and objectives of the firm  The organisational and management structure and nature  Internal relationship between employees, shareholders and Board of Directors, etc  Company image and brand equity and physical assets and facilities  R&D and technological capabilities and personnel factors like skill, quality, morale, commitment, attitude, etc  Marketing factors like the organisation for marketing, quality of the marketing men and distribution network; and financial factors like financial policies, financial position and capital structure  A useful tool for quickly auditing the internal environment is known as the Five Ms which are Men, Money, Machinery, Materials and Markets. Some might include a sixth M, which is minutes, since time is a valuable internal resource. All these factors are company related factors which are fully controllable. All these have to be considered while entering in the international market Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  5. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment • External Environment:  External environment refers to the factors outside the firm. These factors are uncontrollable or we can say that these are beyond the control of a company. The external environmental factors such as the economic factors, socio-cultural factors, government and legal factors, demographic factors, geographical factors etc. are generally regarded as uncontrollable factors  The external environment may further be divided in two parts:  Micro Environment: The micro environment is made from individuals and organisations that are close to the company and directly impact the customer experience. They can be defined as the actors in the firm’s immediate environment which directly influence the firm’s decisions and operations. These include, suppliers, various market intermediaries and service organisations, competitors, customers, and publics. The micro environment is relatively controllable since the actions of the business may influence such stakeholders. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  6. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Micro Environment: Wal-Mart’s micro environment would be very much focused on immediate local issues. It would consider how to recruit, retain and extend products and services to customers. It would pay close attention to the actions and reactions of direct competitors. Wal-Mart would build and nurture close relationships with key suppliers. The business would need to communicate and liaise with its publics such as neighbours which are close to its stores, or other road users. There will be other intermediaries as well including advertising agencies and trade unions amongst others. i. Suppliers: Marketing managers must watch supply availability and other trends dealing with suppliers to ensure that product will be delivered to customers in the time frame required in order to maintain a strong customer relationship ii. Marketing Intermediaries: They refers to resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries. These are the people that help the company promote, sell, and distribute its products to final buyers. Resellers are those that hold and sell the company’s product Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  7. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Micro Environment: iii. Customers: Another aspect of microenvironment is the customers. There are different types of customer markets including consumer markets, business markets, government markets, international markets, and reseller markets. The consumer market is made up of individuals who buy goods and services for their own personal use or use in their household. Business markets include those that buy goods and services for use in producing their own products to sell. This is different from the reseller market which includes businesses that purchase goods to resell as is for a profit. These are the same companies mentioned as market intermediaries. The government market consists of government agencies that buy goods to produce public services or transfer goods to others who need them. International markets include buyers in other countries and includes customers from the previous categories iv. Competitors: Competitors are also a factor in the micro environment and include companies with similar offerings for goods and services. To remain competitive a company must consider who their biggest competitors are while considering its own size and position in the industry. The company should develop a strategic advantage over their competitors Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  8. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Micro Environment: v. Publics: The final aspect of the microenvironment is publics, which is any group that has an interest in or impact on the organisation’s ability to meet its goals. For example, financial publics can hinder a company’s ability to obtain funds affecting the level of credit a company has. Media publics include newspapers and magazines that can publish articles of interest regarding the company and editorials that may influence customers’ opinions Government publics can affect the company by passing legislation and laws that put restrictions on the company’s actions. Citizen- action publics include environmental groups and minority groups and can question the actions of a company and put them in the public spotlight. Local publics are neighborhood and community organisations and will also question a company’s impact on the local area and the level of responsibility of their actions. The general public can greatly affect the company as any change in their attitude, whether positive or negative, can cause sales to go up or down because the general public is often the company’s customer base and finally those who are employed within the company and deal with the organisation and construction of the company’s product. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  9. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: The macro environment is less controllable. The macro environment consists of much larger all-encompassing influences (which impact the micro environment) from the broader global society. The macro environment includes culture, political issues, technology, the natural environment, economic issues and demographic factors amongst others Factors that should be taken into consideration include the following: i. Social/Cultural Environment: The social/cultural environment consists of the influence of religious, family, educational, and social systems in the marketing system. While the differences between home country and those of foreign nations may seem small, marketers who ignore these differences risk failure in implementing marketing programmes. Failure to consider cultural differences is one of the primary reasons for marketing failures overseas. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  10. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: i. Social/Cultural Environment: This task is not as easy as it sounds as various features of a culture can create an illusion of similarity. Even a common language does not guarantee similarity of interpretation. For example, in the US customers purchase “cans” of various grocery products, but the Britishers purchase “tins”. A number of cultural differences can cause marketers problems in attempting to market their products overseas. These include:  Language: The importance of language differences cannot be overemphasised, as there are almost 3,000 languages in the world. Language differences cause many problems for marketers in designing advertising campaigns and product labels. Language problems become even more serious once the people of a country speak several languages. For example: In India, there are over 200 different dialects, and a similar situation exists in China. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  11. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: i. Social/Cultural Environment:  Colours: Colours also have different meanings in different cultures. For example, in Egypt, the country’s national colour of green is considered unacceptable for packaging, because religious leaders once wore it. In Japan, black and white are colours of mourning and should not be used on a product’s package.  Values: An individual’s values arise from his/her moral or religious beliefs and are learned through experiences. For Example: Americans spend large amounts of money on soap, deodorant, and mouthwash because of the value placed on personal cleanliness  Aesthetics: The term aesthetics is used to refer to the concepts of beauty and good taste. The phrase, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” is a very appropriate description for the differences in aesthetics that exist between cultures. For example, Americans believe that suntans are attractive, youthful, and healthy. However, the Japanese do not Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  12. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: i. Social/Cultural Environment:  Time: Americans seem to be fanatical about time when compared to other cultures. Punctuality and deadlines are routine business practices in the US. However, salespeople who set definite appointments for sales calls in the Middle East and Latin America will have a lot of time on their hands, as business people from both of these cultures are far less bound by time constraints. To many of these cultures, setting a deadline such as “I have to know next week” is considered pushy and rude.  Business Norms: The norms of conducting business also vary from one country to the next. Here are several examples of foreign business behaviour that differ from Indian business behaviour:  In France, wholesalers do not like to promote products. They are mainly interested in supplying retailers with the products they need.  In Russia, plans of any kind must be approved by a seemingly endless string of committees. As a result, business negotiations may take years. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  13. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: i. Social/Cultural Environment:  Religious Beliefs: A person’s religious beliefs can affect shopping patterns and products purchased in addition to his/her values. In the United States and other Christian nations, Christmas time is a major sales period. But for other religions, religious holidays do not serve as popular times for purchasing products Every culture has a social structure, but some seem less widely defined than others. That is, it is more difficult to move upward in a social structure that is rigid. For example, in the US, the two-wage earner family has led to the development of a more affluent set of consumers. But in other cultures, it is considered unacceptable for women to work outside the home. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  14. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: ii. Political Environment The political environment abroad is quite different from that of India. Most nations desire to become self-reliant and to raise their status in the eyes of the rest of the world. This is the essence of nationalism. The nationalistic spirit that exists in many nations has led them to engage in practices that have been very damaging to other countries’ marketing organisations. For example, foreign governments can intervene in marketing programmes in the following ways: Contracts for the supply and delivery of goods and services, Pricing, Marketing Communications, Product safety, acceptability, and environmental issues Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  15. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: ii. Political Environment  Political Stability: Business activity tends to grow and thrive when a nation is politically stable. When a nation is politically unstable, multinational firms can still conduct business profitably. Their strategies will be affected however. Most firms probably prefer to engage in the export business rather than invest considerable sums of money in investments in foreign subsidiaries. The result is that consumers in the foreign nation pay high prices, get less satisfactory products, and have fewer jobs  Monetary Circumstances: The exchange rate of a particular nation’s currency represents the value of that currency in relation to that of another country. Governments set some exchange rates independently of the forces of supply and demand. The forces of supply and demand set others. If a country’s exchange rate is low compared to other countries, that country’s consumers must pay higher prices on imported goods. While the concept of exchange rates appears relatively simple, these rates fluctuate widely and often, thus creating high risks for exporters and importers Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  16. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: ii. Political Environment  Trading Blocs and Agreements: Regional trading blocs represent a group of nations that join together and formally agree to reduce trade barriers among themselves. For example: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. Trade agreements regulate international trade between two or more nations. An agreement may cover all imports and exports, certain categories of goods, or a single category. The most important general trade agreement is called, simply enough, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). India views Regional Trading Arrangements (RTA’s) as ‘building blocks’ towards the overall objective of trade liberalisation. Hence, it is participating in a number of RTAs which include Free Trade Agreements (FTAs); Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs); Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreements (CECAs); etc. These agreements are entered into either bilaterally or in a regional grouping. The United States is currently engaged in some 320 trade agreements with various nations. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  17. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: ii. Political Environment  Tariff and Non Tariff Barriers: Most nations encourage free trade by inviting firms to invest and to conduct business there, while encouraging domestic firms to engage in overseas business. These nations do not usually try to strictly regulate imports or discriminate against foreign-based firms. There are, however, some governments that openly oppose free trade. For example, many Communist nations desire self- sufficiency. Therefore, they restrict trade with non-Communist nations. The most common form of restriction of trade is the tariff, a tax placed on imported goods. Protective tariffs are established in order to protect domestic manufacturers against competitors by raising the prices of imported goods. The other form of restriction is non-tariff. Countries impose non-tariff barriers to restrict the import of goods indirectly from certain countries. Non-tariff barriers include quota system, policies that regulate access to foreign exchange for imports, etc Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  18. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: ii. Political Environment  Expropriation: All multinational firms face the risk of expropriation. That is, the foreign government takes ownership of plants, sometimes without compensating the owners. However, in many expropriations there has been payment, and it is often equitable. Many of these facilities end up as private rather than government organisations. Because of the risk of expropriation, multinational firms are at the mercy of foreign governments, which are sometimes unstable, and which can change the laws they enforce at any point in time to meet their needs. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  19. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: iii. Legal Environment Businesses are affected by legal environments of countries in many ways. Legal environments are not just based on different laws and regulations concerning businesses, these are also defined by the factors like rule of law, access to legal systems by foreigners, litigations systems etc. Variations in legal environments, rule of law, laws, and legal systems affect foreign business firms in a number or areas. Some areas of business that are affected by legal environments are listed below:  Laws concerning employment and labour affect managing of workforce in international markets  Different laws in foreign countries regulate financing of operations by foreigners. In some countries foreign firms are restricted access to local deposits/funds  Many countries also have different laws and regulations that affect ownership of businesses by foreigners There are many more such areas which are affected by legal environments Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  20. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: iv. Technological Environment Technological know-how impacts all spheres of an international marketer’s operations including production, information system, marketing etc. The international marketers must understand technological development and its impact on its total operations. The marketing intelligence system may help the international firm to know technological orientations of other enterprises and to update its own technologies to remain competitive. Research and Development (R&D) has a vital role to play in increasing technological ability of a firm. New technologies create new markets and opportunities. However, every new technology replaces an old technology. Any international marketer, when ignored or forgot new technologies, their business has declined. Thus, the marketer should watch the technological environment closely. Companies that do not keep up with technological changes, soon find their products outdated. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  21. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: iv. Technological Environment Consider some of the following technologically related problems that firms may encounter in doing business overseas:  Foreign workers must be trained to operate unfamiliar equipment  Poor transportation systems increase production and physical distribution costs  Lack of data processing facilities makes the tasks of planning, implementing, and controlling marketing strategy more difficult Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  22. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: v. Economic Environment The international marketer tries to understand economic environmental variables of the global markets for identifying the right marketing opportunities for the enterprise The economic environment is comprised of the following economic variables:  National Income  Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  Demand Patterns  Rate of Economic Growth  State of Inflation The economic situation varies from country to country. There are variations in the levels of income and living standards, interpersonal distribution of income, economic organisation, and occupational structure and so on. These factors affect market conditions. The level of development in a country and the nature of its economy will indicate the type of products that may be marketed in it and the marketing strategy that may be employed in it. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  23. International Marketing Environment – Internal & External Environment  Macro Environment: vi. Competitive Environment To plan effectively international marketing strategies, the international marketer should be well-informed about the competitive situation in the international markets Competitive environment include the following variables:  Nature of Competition  Players in the competition  Competition regulations  Strategical weapons used by the participants Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  24. Challenges in International Marketing International marketing is not as easy as domestic marketing. International marketing environment poses a number of uncertainties and problems. As against, national markets, international markets are more dynamics, uncertain, and challenging. • Tariff Barriers: Tariff barriers indicate taxes and duties imposed on imports. Marketers of guest countries find it difficult to earn adequate profits while selling products in the host countries. Sometimes, to prevent foreign products and/or promote domestic products, strategically tariff policies are formulated that restricts international marketing activities. Frequent change in tariff rates and variable tariff rates for various categories of products create uncertainty for traders to trade internationally • Administrative Policies: Bureaucratic rules or administrative procedures – both in guest countries and host countries – make international (export and/or import) marketing harder. Some countries have too lengthy formalities that exporters and importers have to clear. Unjust dealings to get the formalities/ matters cleared create many problems to some international players. International marketers have to accustom with legal formalities of several countries where they wants to operate. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  25. Challenges in International Marketing • Considerable Diversities: Different countries have their own unique civilization and culture. They pose special problems for international marketers. Global customers exhibit considerable cultural and social diversities in term of needs, preferences, habits, languages, expectations, buying capacities, buying and consumption patterns, and so forth. Social and personal characteristics of customers of different nationalities are real challenges to understand and incorporate. Compared to local and domestic markets, it is more difficult to understand behaviour of customers of other countries. Market segmentation, product design, pricing, and distribution need more information and efforts. Promoting products in international markets is a formidable task. Message preparation and execution in suitable media in international markets is not easy game to play. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  26. Challenges in International Marketing • Political Instability or Environment: Different political systems (democracy or dictatorship), different economics systems (market economy, command economy, and mixed economy), and political instability are some of real challenges that international markers have to face. Political atmosphere in different courtiers offer opportunities or pose challenges to international marketers. Governments in different nations have their priorities, philosophies, and approaches to the international trades. They may adopt restrictive (protectionist) or liberal approach to international business operations. Long-term trend of global political environment is unpredictable and uncertain. Economic policies of different nations (industrial policies, agricultural policies, export-import policies, etc.,) do have direct impact on international trade. Drastic change in these policies creates endless difficulties to international traders. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  27. Challenges in International Marketing • Place Constraints (Diverse Geography): Trade in foreign countries of far distance itself practically difficult. In case of perishable products, it is a real challenge. Exporting and importing products via sea route and making arrangements for effective selling involves more time as well risks. Segmenting and selecting international markets require the marketers to be more careful. • Variations in Exchange Rates: Every nation has its currency that is to be exchanged with currencies of other nations. Currencies are traded every day and rates are subject to change. Indian Rupee, European Dollar, US Dollar, Japanese Yen, etc., are appreciated or discounted at national and international markets against other currencies. In case of extraordinary and unexpected moves (ups and downs) in currency/exchange rates between two courtiers create serious settlement problems. Source: Secondary Sources on Google
  28. Challenges in International Marketing • Norms and Ethics Challenges: Ethics refers to moral principles, standards, and norms of conduct governing individual and firm’s behaviour. They are deeply reflected in formal laws and regulations. In different parts of the world, different codes of conduct are specified that every international business player has to observe. However, globalization process has emphasized some common ethics worldwide. Corruption is another issue relating to business ethics. • Terrorism and Racism: Terrorism is a global issue, a worldwide problem. People of the world are living under constant fear of terrorists attracts anywhere in the world. To trade internationally is not economically risky, but there is the threat to life. Racism also restricts international trade activities. • Other Difficulties Some of the other difficulties include changing ecological environment and global warming, differences in weather and natural climates, economic crisis across the globe, etc Source: Secondary Sources on Google