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California Solar Jobs Census 2013

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California Solar Jobs Census 2013

  1. 1. s
 F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 4 Analysis of the California Solar Workforce California Solar Jobs Census 2013
  2. 2. Acknowledgements: The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is a national 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization whose mission is to increase understanding of solar energy through strategic research that educates the public and transforms markets. In 2010, The Solar Foundation® released its first National Solar Jobs Census report. Census 2010 established the first credible national solar jobs baseline and verified the positive impact the solar industry is having on the U.S. economy. Using the same rigorous, peer- reviewed methodology, TSF has conducted an annual Census in each of the last three years to track changes and analyze trends in the solar industry labor market. ! This year s National Solar Jobs Census report series was produced by TSF and BW Research Partnership, with the support of the following research partners: • The George Washington University’s Solar Institute (GW Solar Institute); • The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA); and • The Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. (IREC). ! TSF would like to acknowledge and thank its sponsors. Without their foresight and leadership, this report would not have been possible: • William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; • Energy Foundation; • Tilia Fund; • SolarCity; • Sierra Club; • Recurrent Energy; • GTM Research and SEIA for providing complimentary copies of the U.S. Solar Market Insight 2012 Year in Review report to survey respondents; and • Cornell University’s School of Industrial Labor Relations for helping to validate the methodological framework for Census 2010-2012. ! TSF and BW Research also want to thank all of the California solar employers that participated in the survey. Your responses were critical in providing us with the high level of accurate and timely data needed to produce this report. ! For questions or comments about this report, please contact either: ! Andrea Luecke, President and Executive Director The Solar Foundation® 505 9th Street, NW - Suite 800 Washington, DC 20004 202-469-3750; info@solarfound.org TheSolarFoundation.org ! Philip Jordan, Principal and Vice-President BW Research Partnership 50 Mill Pond Dr. Wrentham, MA 02093 (508) 384-2471; pjordan@bwresearch.com ! Please cite this publication when referencing this material as “California Solar Jobs Census 2013, The Solar Foundation, available at: www.TSFcensus.org.”
 2 Cover Photo Courtesy First Solar
  3. 3. About The Solar Foundation® The Solar Foundation® (TSF) is an independent national 501(c)(3) nonprofit whose mission is to increase understanding of solar energy through strategic research that educates the public and transforms markets. TSF is considered the premier research organization on the solar labor force, employer trends, and economic impacts of solar. It has provided leading-edge industry insight to the National Academies, the Inter-American Development Bank, the U.S. Department of Energy, and other organizations during a time of dynamic industry growth and policy and economic uncertainty. While TSF recognizes that solar energy is a key part of our energy future, it is committed to excellence in its aim to help people fairly and objectively gauge the value of the solar industry worldwide. About BW Research Partnership BW Research is widely regarded as the national leader in labor market analysis for emerging industries and clean energy technologies. In addition to the Census series, BW Research has conducted rigorous solar installation and wind industry labor market analysis for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, wind energy and energy retrofit studies for the Natural Resources Defense Council, a series of comprehensive clean energy workforce studies for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Illinois, and Vermont, and numerous skills and gap analyses for community colleges, workforce investment boards, state agencies, and nonprofit organizations. BW Research provides high quality data and keen insight into economic and workforce issues related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, transportation, recycling, water, waste, and wastewater management, and other environmental fields. The principals of the firm are committed to providing research and analysis for data-driven decision- making. About The George Washington University Solar Institute The George Washington University Solar Institute (GW Solar Institute) is a unique research and information center focused on identifying, developing, and sharing pragmatic and politically attuned solutions to the policy barriers preventing the adoption and scale of solar energy. Toward these ends, the GW Solar Institute pursues research projects in a wide range of disciplines, typically in partnership with other university faculty, industry experts, and GW students. In addition, the GW Solar Institute also leverages its intricate knowledge of the policymaking process and location in Washington, DC to convene stakeholders and provide decision-makers with unbiased new ideas on solar related policies, regulatory approaches, and government investments.
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  4. 4. 1. Introduction The U.S. solar industry had a banner year in 2013. Solar installations expanded at a record pace, companies became more efficient and workers more productive, and jobs grew by their fastest rate since The Solar Foundation® began tracking them in 2010. The national industry employs 142,698 solar workers  across the entire spectrum of the value chain—from research1 and development through installation and maintenance, and in every state. Market indicators and employers’ reported optimism suggest that the industry will continue adding jobs at a brisk pace. The solar industry is poised to continue to be more efficient—worker productivity increased by 21.5% between 2012 and 2013, as measured by installation-related jobs per megawatt—and to provide new employment opportunities, particularly in the installation sector. After record 19.9% employment growth since September 2012, employers expect to grow their workforce by 15.6% over the next year. These projections, if realized, would result in an additional 22,240 new solar jobs across the U.S. Figure 1: California Regional Solar Employment 4 A “solar worker” is defined as an employee who spends at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related1 activities. The national Census found that approximately 91% of those meeting our definition of a “solar worker” in 2013 actually spent 100% of their time working on solar.
  5. 5. The success of California’s solar industry is both a reflection and vital component of the growth observed at the national level. As of November 2013, 47,223 solar workers were employed in the state across all industry sectors, with the majority concentrated in the San Francisco Bay area and in Southern California (see Figure 1 on p. 4). Employers of these workers are optimistic about growth, more so than those throughout the nation as a whole. Forty-nine percent of solar employers in California expect to add employees this year, with a total of 10,500 new solar workers (22.3% growth) added by November 2014. California’s success in solar employment is unsurprising given its status as the market leader in solar energy. The first to adopt pro-solar policies, California has served as an incubator for the industry for decades. Its early support is paying dividends, as California is home to more than 40% of the over 10,000 MW of total installed capacity in the country, and account for one-third of all solar workers in the nation. In their most recent Solar Market Insight report, Solar Energy Industries Association and GTM Research estimate that more than 2,000 MW of new PV capacity were installed in California during 2013, more than double what was added in the previous year. In 2014, nearly 400 MW of concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity—enough to power 140,000 households—is expected to come online from the world’s largest CSP facility, located in California. The state is expected to remain the national leader in solar energy installed capacity for the foreseeable future, with current Solar Market Insight forecasts predicting an additional 10,000 MW of PV capacity over the next three years.  
2 5 Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM2 Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3! Photo Courtesy NREL
  6. 6. Figure 2: Installed Solar Capacity—California Much of the success of California’s robust solar market—indeed, of most leading state solar markets in general—can be attributed to a suite of strong solar-friendly policies. The state is noteworthy for having one of the most aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets (33% of retail electricity sales derived from renewable technologies by 2020), and recently passed legislation allowing the California Public Utilities Commission to require retail sellers of electricity to procure renewable energy resources in excess of this limit.  In an effort to help3 utilities covered by the RPS achieve this target, California adopted a limited feed-in tariff program in 2008, which has continually been expanded through subsequent legislation leading to its current iteration—under which customers across a large number of sectors are eligible to participate. 4 Another powerful driver of growth in solar capacity in the state has been the California Solar Initiative (CSI), a statewide solar rebate program established in 2007 with the goal of adding 1,940 MW of new installed capacity by 2016.  As of the end of January 2014, nearly5 1,700 MW of solar capacity had been installed under the program, with both the residential and 6 California State Assembly (n.d.). Bill Text - AB-327 Electricity: natural gas: rates: net energy metering: California3 Renewables Portfolio Standard Program. Retrieved from California Legislative Information website: http:// leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201320140AB327. California Public Utilities Commission (2012). Summary of Feed-In Tariffs. Retrieved from http://4 www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUC/energy/renewables/feedintariffssum.htm. California Public Utilities Commission (2007, July). About the California Solar Initiative. Retrieved February 6,5 2014, from http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/puc/energy/solar/aboutsolar.htm. 0" 500" 1000" 1500" 2000" 2500" 2006" 2007" 2008" 2009" 2010" 2011" 2012" 2013" Megawa&s( ( Source:"SEIA"and"GTM"Research,""Solar"Market"Insight""report"series;"Larry"Sherwood,"IREC" Annual(Solar(Power(Capacity(Installa8ons,(2006=2013( Addi8onal(CSP(Expected((Q4(2013)( Concentrated(Solar(Power((MW=ac)( Addi8onal(PV(Expected((Q4(2013)( Photovoltaics((MW=dc)(
  7. 7. non-residential programs fully subscribed in the Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) territory and all of Southern California Edison’s (SCE) residential program cap met.  Over much of the past two6 years, CSI-supported installations represented between 75%-97% of the state’s quarterly installed residential capacity, dipping below 50% only as program caps were met in the aforementioned territories in the last half of 2013. 7 Despite its historical importance, however, the growth of the solar market remains strong even as the availability of the CSI rebates continues to wane. State policy allowing third-party ownership of solar energy systems remains a key component of the residential solar market’s sustained growth—one indicator of which is the increasingly rapid adoption of solar by middle- income households.  In just two years, these systems went from representing just under half of8 new residential installations (44.6% in Q3 2011) to 70% of systems installed in this market segment by Q3 2013.  In addition, both residential and non-residential installations throughout9 the state continue to benefit from the confluence of high retail electricity rates, existing federal incentives, and a renewed near-term commitment to net energy metering. 10 Methodology The data in this report are collected from a census of the solar industry and a representative sample of employers throughout the value chain of activities that contribute to the industry. As with the National Solar Jobs Census, this report includes information about all types of companies, from component manufacturers to installation subcontactors, engaged in the production, sale, installation, and use of all solar technologies, ranging from PV to CSP to solar water heating systems across the residential, commercial, and utility market segments in California. Unlike economic impact models that generate employment estimates based on economic data (such as company revenue) or jobs-per-megawatt (or jobs-per-dollar) assumptions, the National Solar Jobs Census series provides statistically valid and current data gathered from actual employers. The primary data contained in this report are drawn from a mixed-method 7 ! Go Solar California (2010). California Solar Statistics. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://6 www.californiasolarstatistics.org/reports/agency_stats/; Go Solar California (2010). Statewide Trigger Point Tracker. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://csi-trigger.com/. Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM7 Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3. Center for American Progress. (2013). Solar Power to the People: The Rise of Rooftop Solar Among the Middle8 Class. Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/RooftopSolar-4.pdf. Kann/ GTM Research, S., Mehta/ GTM Research, S., Shiao/ GTM Research, M., Honeyman/ GTM9 Research, C., Litvak/ GTM Research, N., Jones/ GTM Research, J., . . . Baca/ SEIA, J. (2013). Solar Market Insight 2013 Q3 | SEIA. Retrieved from http://www.seia.org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-2013-q3. Id.10
  8. 8. survey administered directly to employers. Data collection occurred during October and November 2013 in two stages: (1) through a survey of so-called “known universe” establishments, and; (2) via a random sampling of businesses within various construction, sales and distribution, and manufacturing industries. For this California report, 28,382 telephone calls were attempted and over 4,000 emails were sent to potential solar establishments throughout the state. This mixed approach, which the Bureau of Labor Statistics recognizes as the emerging standard  given its own limitations in11 calculating solar employment, allows us to draw broad conclusions about the California solar industry with a high degree of confidence, as well as generate accurate, local level employment estimates. Nearly 4,000 California employers participated in the survey, resulting in 674 full survey completions and a margin of error of +/-3.46%, which is more rigorous than the industry standard for similar studies. Because of the strict definitions and quality control measures used for Census data collection and analysis, the figures included in this report are conservative estimates, meaning that there may well be more solar workers than reported herein. It is also important to mention that there are limits to the survey approach. Because the research findings are based on survey responses, the employment growth figures cited in the following sections represent employers’ best estimates of how many jobs they will add over the coming year. As seen in the National Solar Jobs Census reports, actual growth may vary. In addition, this report includes employment and demographic information at the state assembly, state senate, and federal congressional district levels. Conducting small-sample estimation is a very challenging and labor-intensive exercise. For this study, a significant oversample of California firms was required to gather enough responses to make estimates for 80 assembly districts, 40 state senate districts, 53 congressional districts, and five Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Analysis of the data collected through this effort includes constructing zip-code distribution allocations for each district in the known and unknown databases, small-area means derivation, and comparisons to labor market statistics and demographic data. The results of this work are included in the tables in Section 3. ! 8 ! Based on conversations with BLS staff working in September 2010.11
  9. 9. 2. Labor Market Analysis: Overview of the Industry The California solar industry employs 47,223 solar workers,  more than five times the12 number of workers in Arizona, the next largest solar employer. The industry continues to grow rapidly, by approximately 8.1% since 2012, representing the addition of about 3,500 jobs. This is nearly five times faster than the statewide growth rate of 1.7%  and means that the industry13 created nearly nine jobs each day in California from September 2012 to November 2013. These strong growth figures are expected to accelerate through 2014, with nearly half of all employers expecting to add employees by November 2014 (48.8%) and only 1.2% expecting to shed workers (Figure 3). Figure 3: Employer Expectations, 12 Months—California ! When asked about their prospects for the 12 month period through November 2014, employers reported an expectation to add employees at a 22.3% clip. If these projections are realized, it would mean the addition of 10,510 solar jobs. This anticipated growth represents an astounding 47% of all new jobs projected to be created in the industry nationwide over the same time period. 9 In California, 93.5% of solar workers spend 100% of their time supporting solar activities (compared to 91%12 nationally). California Employment Development Department, California Current Month Labor Force, Seasonally Adjusted,13 October 2012-November 2013. More 48.8% Same number 42.7% Fewer 1.2% DK/NA 7.3%
  10. 10. By way of comparison, statewide job growth is projected to be 1.1% through 2014.  For14 additional comparison, the construction industry is projected to remain flat, while manufacturing is projected to cut 2% of its workforce. The fastest “Supersectors”  in the state (Professional,15 Scientific, and Technical Services, Healthcare and Social Assistance, and Educational Services (Private)) are each projected to grow by between 2-3%. 16 For this survey, employers were asked several preliminary screener questions to ensure quality control and to understand how establishments are organized and which activities they conduct. As in the National Solar Jobs Census 2013, California survey respondents were asked to select the appropriate sector to which their firm belongs, choosing from installation, manufacturing, sales and distribution, project development, academic, nonprofit, government, or - for those that did not fit neatly into a category - “other,” such as establishments that provide ancillary support to the solar industry (e.g., research and development, financial or legal services). Many establishments reported that their work spanned several sectors. Figure 4: Percentage of Respondents by Sector
 10 Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (EMSI), Class of Worker, 2013.414 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2003, October 27). NAICS Supersectors. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://15 www.bls.gov/ces/cessuper.htm. EMSI, Class of Worker, 2013.416 54.0% 15.5% 9.5% 5.4% 2.2% 0.3% 0.0% 11.8% 1.3% Installation Sales / Trade Manufacturing / Assembling Project Development Nonprofit Academic Government Other (Including R&D) Don't know
  11. 11. Table 1: Data by Sector—Number of Solar Workers in California *2013 employment in “Other” includes 66 solar workers at nonprofits, 132 in government, and 17 in academia. The state’s solar installation and manufacturing sectors account for a higher percentage of total California solar workers than are represented at the national level. California’s 26,052 installation workers represent 55.2% of the 47,223 workers employed statewide. At the national level, however, the installation sector accounts for only 48.8% of all solar workers. The manufacturing sector’s 10,504 workers constitute 22.2% of the state total, versus 20.9% of all solar workers at the national level. The remaining sectors in California represent a relatively smaller proportion of total solar workers than were found at the national level. Only 12.4% of solar workers in the state are employed in sales and distribution, compared with nearly 14% at the national level. State level employment in the project development and “other” sectors are both at about 5%, versus 8.5% and 7.9%, respectively, nationwide. As with the rest of the nation, California is primarily focused on photovoltaics (85.5% of establishments work with PV), while significantly fewer firms are engaged in water heating (24.1% versus 32.7% nationally, Figure 5). ! ! Sector 2013 Jobs 2014 Projected Employment 2013 - 2014 Expected Growth Rate Installation 26,052 33,716 29.4% Manufacturing 10,504 11,262 7.2% Sales and Distribution 5,877 6,975 18.7% Project Development 2,369 2,744 15.8% Other* 2,421 3,036 25.4% Total 47,223 57,733 22.3% 11
  12. 12. Figure 5: Solar Establishments by Technology Area Survey respondents were also asked to provide the percentage of overall revenues that are attributable to solar, to determine how integral the industry is to their business and whether they are diversified in other sectors. California is nearly identical to the national averages, with 66.5% of establishments deriving a majority of their revenues from solar goods and services, compared to 65.2% nationally, though the number of firms that receive all of their revenue from solar is more than four percentage points higher in California (48.4%) than the national average of 44.0% (Figure 6). Figure 6: Company Revenues Attributed to Solar 12 3.9% 11.1% 10.5% 24.1% 85.5% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% DK/NA Other Concentrating solar power Water heating, which includes pool heating Photovoltaic 48.4% 18.1% 30.6% 2.9% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA
  13. 13. As in the National Census, California employers were asked specific questions to determine whether the new solar workers added over the past year were newly created positions or represented existing employees given new solar tasks. In California, 72.2% of the new solar jobs over the past year were newly created positions (Figure 7). Figure 7: New Positions at Solar Establishments To get a better understanding of the types of workers being hired, employers were asked questions about the education and experience of the more recently hired solar workers at their firms. California establishments reported slightly lower education and experience requirements, with 40.9% requiring previous work related to the position (versus 50.2% nationally) and 25.4% requiring a bachelor’s degree (27.6% nationally). Perhaps as a nod to the state’s well-respected community college system, a slightly higher percentage of workers are required to have an associate’s degree or certificate (15.4% versus 13.1% nationally). 13 Newly created positions 72.2% Existing employees given added solar responsibilities 27.8%
  14. 14. Figure 8: Background of Newly Hired Solar Worker - Percent of Workers The new solar positions for 2013 are distributed across a range of skill-sets. Compared to the rest of the country, new solar positions in California are much more likely to be for production or technician jobs (66.1% versus 55.4% nationally), with fewer administrative (7.2% versus 10.3% nationally) and management/professional (7.9% versus 12.0%) positions. Figure 9: New Positions by Occupational Category, 2012–2013 14 15.4% 25.4% 40.9% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Required an associates degree or certificate from an accredited college, but not a bachelor's degree Required a bachelors degree or beyond Required previous work experience related to the position
  15. 15. Employers were also asked about the wages paid to their workers. California solar installation firms pay their employees an average of $24.26, which is $0.63 per hour more than the national average among solar firms in this sector. However, this difference is much less than the difference in wages paid to electricians and other construction related workers in California (versus the national average), who are paid $2 to $4 per hour more. California solar manufacturers pay their assembly workers a mean wage of $18.84 per hour, some $0.61 per hour more than the national average for solar manufacturing firms, and significantly higher than the $14-17 per hour paid for most assembly occupations in California. 17 California solar firms were also asked to provide a demographic profile of their workforce, with a particular focus on women, racial and ethnic minorities, and U.S veterans. Because of the sensitive nature of these questions, the survey was careful to avoid social obligation bias; however, as documented by survey experts, some bias in such questions is inevitable. As a result, it is likely that the figures reported below are inflated by some 10 to 15%. Despite this, the results presented in Figure 10 do provide a general understanding of the demographic makeup of the industry and a baseline from which to track progress in future Census reports and comparisons to national industry data. As Figure 10 illustrates, the California solar industry is generally diverse. Figure 10: Demographic Breakdown - Overall 
 15 EMSI Class of Worker, QCEW, Non-QCEW, Self-Employed, 2013.4.17
  16. 16. 2.1 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Installation This California-specific research effort includes responses from thousands of firms in the construction, installation, and maintenance sector. Based on the responses, our Census found 2,067 establishments deriving at least some of their revenue from installation services and related goods, employing 26,052 solar workers. This makes the installation sector the largest single segment of the solar industry in California, responsible for 55.2% of all solar workers in the state. The California installation sector is important to the national solar industry as well, as 37.4% of all U.S. solar installation workers are found in the Golden State. Optimism among California installers suggests that growth will continue over the short- term. Forty-eight percent of solar installation firms expect to add workers over the next 12 months (compared to 44% nationally), representing 7,664 new solar workers (a 29.4% employment growth rate) (Figure 11). These projected new solar workers represent 52.2% of the national projections for the sector. Figure 11: 12-Month Hiring Expectations—Installation Establishments The California installation workforce is somewhat diverse. Over 17% of California installation solar workers are Latino/Hispanic and nearly 15% are women. U.S. veterans represent 7.4% of all solar workers in the state. Just over 5% are African Americans and nearly 4% are Asian/Pacific Islanders. ! ! ! 16 More 47.9% Same number 43.8% Fewer 0.8% DK/NA 7.4%
  17. 17. As shown in Figures 12 and 13 below, photovoltaics dominate the California installation landscape, while most firms are installing for the residential market. Figure 12: Percentage of Firms by Technology—Installation Figure 13: Percentage of Firms by Project Size—Installation 17 90.8% 30.3% 6.1% 6.1% 2.8% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Photovoltaic Water heating, which includes pool heating Concentrating solar power Other Don't know/ Refused 12.9% 27.9% 43.9% 66.3% 86.8% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Utility scale projects that deliver wholesale electricity Large commercial and industrial 201 kilowatts or larger Medium to large commercial and industrial systems Small commercial systems up to 50 kilowatts Residential systems
  18. 18. As in the National Census, the California data reveal a sector that is highly focused on consumer demand. Eighty-five percent of respondents in this sector attribute consumer demand to solar’s increased competitiveness with incumbent electricity providers (compared to 77% nationally), as seen in Figure 14 below. Figure 14: Consumer Demand Drivers—Installation Installers were also asked about their opinions regarding lower-cost, internationally produced solar goods from countries such as China. As illustrated in Figure 15, installers are evenly split as to whether low cost manufacturers benefit the solar industry as a whole. Figure 15: International Manufacturing Impacts—Installation ! 18 3.4% 2.8% 0.3% 0.3% 2.5% 5.9% 15.6% 69.3% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% DK/NA Other To make America more energy independent To have power when the grid goes down They know a neighbor, friend, or family member who installed solar To benefit the environment and mitigate climate change Solar energy costs are now more competitive with utility To save money 39.7% 39.1% 21.2% Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, lowers costs, benefits solar industry as a whole Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, putting U.S. out of business, hurts solar industry as a whole DK/NA
  19. 19. 2.2 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Manufacturing This Census finds 336 solar manufacturing establishments in California, employing 10,504 solar workers. Manufacturers remain optimistic about future employment growth. Fifty-five percent of firms expect to add solar workers over the coming 12 months (Figure 16), and the sector is projected to grow by 7%. Figure 16: Growth Projections, 12-Month—Manufacturing Nationally, manufacturers are the most diverse of all sectors. In California, women represent 23.1% of all solar workers, 18.0% are Latino/Hispanic, 3.5% are African Americans, 12.3% are Asian/Pacific Islanders, and 6.0% are U.S. veterans. Manufacturers are predominantly producing components for photovoltaics, with about three-quarters of establishments engaged in PV, compared with only 15% in water heating and 10% in CSP (Figure 17). Figure 17: Establishments by Technology Type—Manufacturing 19 74.6% 15.3% 10.2% 30.5% 1.7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Photovoltaic Water heating, which includes pool heating Concentrating solar power Other Don't know/ Refused More 54.7% Same number 32.8% Fewer 1.6% DK/NA 10.9%
  20. 20. Solar manufacturers in California are diversified, with about two-thirds earning most of their revenue from solar goods and services (Figure 18). They are also most concerned about international competition; however, more than one-third believe such competition is good for the industry (Figure 19). Figure 18: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Manufacturing ! Figure 19: International Manufacturing Impacts—Manufacturing ! 20 35.6% 47.5% 16.9% Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, lowers costs, benefits solar industry as a whole Low cost international manufacturers in places like China, putting U.S. out of business, hurts solar industry as a whole DK/NA 45.8% 18.6% 30.5% 5.1% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA
  21. 21. 2.3 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Sales and Distribution California is home to 535 solar sales and distribution establishments, employing 5,877 solar workers. The employers in the solar sales and distribution sector sell all types of systems and play a pivotal role in the solar supply chain. These establishments work in wholesale and retail trade of components and finished products. The majority of sales and distribution companies deal in PV systems, with only 15.4% providing solar water heating equipment and 11.5% focused on CSP (Figure 20). Figure 20: Percentage of Establishments by Product Sales—Sales and Distribution The sales and distribution sector is much more solar-focused in California than the national average, with 68.3% of firms earning all of their revenues from solar, compared to 52.8% nationally (Figure 21). Figure 21: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Sales and Distribution 21 68.3% 12.5% 17.3% 1.9% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA
  22. 22. Solar sales and distribution establishments are very optimistic, with 63.5% expecting to add workers over the coming 12 months (compared to 55.3% nationally) and only 1% expecting to shed jobs (compared to 2% nationally (Figure 22), which is in line with estimates for continued strong sales of solar goods and services over the coming year.  This optimism is expected to18 create nearly 1,100 jobs through November 2014, which represents 18.7% growth in the sector statewide. Figure 22: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Sales and Distribution ! Women make up 22.2% of the California sales and distribution workforce, while Latino/ Hispanics represent 21.1%. Asian/Pacific Islanders comprise 11.4% of the sector, while 4% of the workers are African Americans. Veterans make up 6% of the sector. ! 22 IHS Inc. (2013, December 18). IHS News Flash: Solar Market Predictions for 2014 | IHS Online Pressroom.18 Retrieved from http://press.ihs.com/press-release/design-supply-chain/ihs-news-flash-solar-market- predictions-2014; Osborne/ PV Tech, M. (2014, January 22). ROTH Capital raises 2014 global solar market demand outlook - PV-Tech [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.pv-tech.org/news/ roth_capital_raises_2014_global_solar_market_demand_outlook.
  23. 23. 2.4 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Project Developers! ! This California Census report finds 132 project developers in the state that employ 2,369 solar workers. These firms are generally optimistic about growth, with 42% expecting to add workers and only 3% expecting to cut staff. The 375 projected new workers to be added by November 2014 represent 15.8% employment growth. Figure 23: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Project Developers Women make up 22.6% of the project developer workforce; Latino/Hispanics, 19.8%; Asian/Pacific Islanders, 11.8%; and African Americans, 3.8%. Six percent of the sector’s workers are veterans. PV remains the largest technology category that developers work with, though one third of firms in this sector report working with CSP (Figure 24). 23 More 41.7% Same number 44.4% Fewer 2.8% DK/NA 11.1% Photo Courtesy NREL
  24. 24. Figure 24: Percentage of Establishments by Technology—Project Development Project developers are slightly more “solar focused” than workers in other sectors, though still only 55.6% report that all of their revenue is derived from solar projects, as illustrated in Figure 25. Figure 25: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar—Project Development
 24 55.6% 22.2% 22.2% 0.0% 0% 20% 40% 60% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA
  25. 25. 2.5 Detailed Labor Market Analysis: Other A significant number of the solar establishments participating in this study did not identify with any of the specific sectors already described in this report.  These establishments, which19 have been grouped into an “other” category, include those engaged in research and development, finance and accounting, legal work, or other ancillary services that support the solar industry. This category includes those working in government, nonprofit, and academic institutions. Though none of these additional solar sectors were large enough from an employment perspective to warrant a dedicated category, the establishments classified as “other” collectively employ more than 2,400 solar workers. These “other” establishments have indicated that they anticipate strong growth over the coming 12 months – adding more than 615 new jobs at an employment growth rate of 25.4%. Thirty-four percent of survey respondents in this category expect to add solar workers by November 2014 (Figure 26). Figure 26: 12 Month Hiring Expectations—Other Though about 40% of the employers in this category described their firm as being a 100% solar-related business, this category has the highest percentage of establishments (39%) that obtain less than half their revenue from solar work (Figure 27). This is expected for a segment of the industry that often provides supporting services (such as consulting, finance, etc.) and is therefore more likely to contain firms that offer services to a wide range of industry sectors. ! 25 Nor were they specifically targeted.19 More 34.2% Same number 59.5% Fewer 0.0% DK/NA 6.3%
  26. 26. Figure 27: Percentage of Revenue Related to Solar Products—Other
 26 Photo Courtesy SolarCity 40.5% 15.2% 39.2% 5.1% All of it (100%) Most but not all (50% to 99%) Less than half (1% to 49%) DK/NA
  27. 27. 3. Geographic Data In addition to the statewide results, this report includes information about the distribution of solar workers across the state. To accomplish this, the state was broken into six major regions, Southern California (including San Diego, Orange, and Los Angeles counties and their outlying areas); the Inland Empire, the Central Coast, the Greater San Francisco Bay Area (including San Jose and the Silicon Valley), Greater Sacramento, and all other. The Greater San Francisco Bay Area is home to 45.9% of the state’s solar workers (21,653), followed by Southern California at 21.2% (10,002), as illustrated in Figure 28. Figure 28: Regional Solar Employment 
 27 Southern CA 21.2% Inland Empire 9.4% Central Coast 6.2% Greater Bay Area 45.9% Sacramento 6.6% All other 10.8%
  28. 28. Within these broad regions are six major metropolitan areas. Table 2 illustrates the employment in each of these regions. Table 2: Metropolitan Statistical Area The data also include information about each legislative district in California, including the state assembly and senate districts and the federal congressional districts, presented in the tables and maps below. Metropolitan Statistical Area Jobs Percent of Total Solar Jobs in California 2013 - 2014 Expected Growth Rate San Francisco-Oakland- Fremont 12,840 27% 18.3% Los Angeles-Long Beach- Santa Ana 8,087 17.1% 37.9% San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara 3,156 6.7% 28.0% Sacramento-Arden-Arcade- Rosevill 3,034 6.4% 32.2% Fresno 1,296 2.7% 11.6% 28
  29. 29. Figure 29: Employment by State Assembly Districts
 29
  30. 30. Table 3: Employment by State Assembly Districts Assembly District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 1 Dahle, Brian 643 92 24 147 25 59 2 Chesbro, Wesley 736 105 26 166 29 65 3 Logue, Dan 484 69 18 111 19 45 4 Yamada, Mariko 581 123 8 98 27 51 5 Bieglow, Frank 526 75 21 122 20 50 6 Gaines, Beth 959 203 13 164 45 84 7 Dickinson, Roger 548 115 8 96 26 48 8 Cooley, Ken 742 151 10 139 35 62 9 Pan, Richard 286 55 3 62 14 22 10 Levine, Marc 2139 548 79 191 394 80 11 Frazier, Jim 479 120 16 47 94 16 12 Olsen, Kristin 311 45 13 73 12 30 13 Eggman, Susan T. 189 27 9 45 7 19 14 Bonilla, Susan 591 149 20 56 113 21 15 Skinner, Nancy 1510 389 58 132 273 59 16 Buchanan, Joan 1709 438 63 153 315 64 17 Ammiano, Tom 3467 895 134 300 623 136 18 Bonta, Rob 1068 274 40 95 196 40 19 Ting, Philip Y. 298 75 10 29 57 10 20 Quirk, Bill 662 169 24 61 124 24 21 Gray, Adam 199 29 9 47 8 20 22 Mullin, Kevin 1467 374 53 134 273 54 23 Patterson, Jim 341 49 13 78 13 31 24 Gordon, Richard S. 1942 500 74 171 353 75 25 Wieckowski, Bob 3913 1005 147 346 714 149 26 Conway, Connie 185 27 8 44 7 19 27 Campos, Nora 1055 269 39 96 196 39 28 Fong, Paul 1353 346 50 122 250 51 29 Stone, Mark 1036 300 60 290 84 68 30 Alejo, Luis A. 473 133 27 132 37 31 31 Perea, Henry T. 314 45 12 72 12 30 32 Salas, Jr., Rudy 152 30 6 55 10 18 33 Donnelly, Tim 236 34 10 55 9 23 30
  31. 31. Assembly District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 34 Grove, Shannon L. 267 38 12 63 10 27 35 Achadjian, Katcho 708 201 40 198 56 46 36 Fox, Steve 250 50 10 90 17 29 37 Williams, Das 700 197 39 195 55 46 38 Wilk, Scott 432 82 21 158 26 24 39 Bocanegra, Raul 155 27 10 65 8 8 40 Morrell, Mike 259 52 10 93 17 31 41 Holden, Chris R. 507 101 19 182 36 58 42 Nestande, Brian 392 78 15 141 27 45 43 Gatto, Mike 303 58 15 110 19 17 44 Gorell, Jeff 372 72 17 132 23 21 45 Dababneh, Matthew 365 71 16 128 23 20 46 Nazarian, Adrin 185 34 10 70 11 10 47 Brown, Cheryl R. 215 43 8 77 15 25 48 Hernández, Roger 120 21 8 50 6 6 49 Chau, Ed 203 40 9 70 13 11 50 Bloom, Richard 373 75 15 123 25 21 51 Gomez, Jimmy 137 27 6 47 9 8 52 Rodriguez, Freddie 538 107 20 192 38 61 53 Pérez, John A. 283 58 10 89 20 16 54 Ridley-Thomas, Sebastian 319 63 13 109 21 18 55 Hagman, Curt 413 82 16 149 28 48 56 Pérez, V. Manuel 212 31 10 51 8 22 57 Calderon, Ian C. 302 58 14 109 19 17 58 Garcia, Cristina 120 22 7 47 7 6 59 Jones-Sawyer, Sr., Reginald B. 60 11 3 23 3 3 60 Linder, Eric 362 72 14 130 24 42 61 Medina, Jose 254 51 10 92 17 30 62 Bradford, Steven 224 44 9 75 15 13 63 Rendon, Anthony 126 24 6 47 7 7 64 Hall, III, Isadore 142 28 6 50 9 8 65 Quirk-Silva, Sharon 206 38 11 78 12 11 31
  32. 32. Assembly District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 66 Muratsuchi, Al 464 92 19 157 31 26 67 Melendez, Melissa A. 367 73 14 132 25 42 68 Wagner, Donald P. 484 93 23 174 30 27 69 Daly, Tom 280 54 13 100 17 15 70 Lowenthal, Bonnie 167 32 8 60 10 9 71 Jones, Brian W. 455 66 21 109 17 48 72 Allen, Travis 373 73 16 129 24 21 73 Harkey, Diane L. 537 107 21 178 36 31 74 Mansoor, Allen R. 887 180 33 286 62 51 75 Waldron, Marie 728 145 28 261 52 82 76 Chávez, Rocky I. 656 133 25 213 46 38 77 Maienschein, Brian 798 161 30 259 55 46 78 Atkins, Toni 451 92 16 144 32 26 79 Weber, Shirley N. 322 64 13 108 22 18 80 Gonzalez, Lorena 156 30 8 57 9 8 Total 47223 10605 1821 9525 5508 2834 % of Total CA Solar Workforce 22.5% 3.9% 20.2% 11.7% 6.0% 32
  33. 33. Figure 30: Employment by State Senate Districts
 33
  34. 34. ! Table 4: Employment by State Senate Districts Senate District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 1 Gaines, Ted 986 142 41 231 38 96 2 Evans, Noreen 1221 174 46 279 47 112 3 Wolk, Lois 1624 413 58 151 307 58 4 Nielsen, Jim 1570 332 22 269 74 138 5 Galgiani, Cathleen 401 58 19 97 15 42 6 Steinberg, Darrell 1450 310 20 240 68 129 7 DeSaulnier, Mark 2487 636 91 225 461 92 8 Yee, Leland Y. 758 109 32 177 29 74 9 Hancock, Loni 2724 701 103 239 495 105 10 Corbett, Ellen M. 4835 1241 181 429 885 184 11 Leno, Mark 3983 1026 152 347 720 155 12 Cannella, Anthony 224 32 12 55 8 25 13 Hill, Jerry 3601 923 134 320 660 136 14 Berryhill, Tom 248 36 11 59 9 26 15 Beall, Jim 2350 601 86 212 435 88 16 Vidak, Andy 369 53 18 90 14 40 17 Monning, Bill 1954 562 112 546 157 128 18 Fuller, Jean 316 57 18 125 17 17 19 Jackson, Hannah- Beth 985 273 55 274 75 64 20 Padilla, Alex 978 194 37 349 71 109 21 Knight, Steve 325 47 16 80 12 36 22 de León, Kevin 331 62 17 123 20 18 23 Vacant 506 101 19 183 33 60 24 Hernandez, Ed 253 50 11 88 16 14 25 Liu, Carol 725 139 34 259 45 40 26 Mitchell, Holly 848 171 32 276 59 49 27 Pavley, Fran 1019 197 46 359 65 56 28 Lieu, Ted W. 1161 231 44 415 84 130 29 Huff, Bob 852 170 32 305 60 97 30 Calderon, Ron 483 96 20 162 32 27 31 Roth, Richard D. 785 156 30 282 55 90 34
  35. 35. ! Senate District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 32 Torres, Norma J. 402 76 20 149 24 22 33 Lara, Ricardo 288 55 14 103 18 16 34 Correa, Lou 511 99 23 180 32 28 35 Wright, Roderick D. 393 75 19 141 24 22 36 Anderson, Joel 1216 245 47 397 84 70 37 Walters, Mimi 1568 312 64 526 105 89 38 Wyland, Mark 900 130 41 215 34 93 39 Block, Marty 1295 263 47 415 91 75 40 Hueso, Ben 301 57 15 110 18 16 Total 47223 10605 1821 9525 5508 2834 % of Total CA Solar Workforce 22.5% 3.9% 20.2% 11.7% 6.0% 35
  36. 36. Figure 31: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts Table 5: Employment by Federal Congressional Districts Congress. District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 1 LaMalfa, Doug 1223 175 45 278 48 110 2 Huffman, Jared 2995 766 110 270 554 112 3 Garamendi, John 721 141 9 149 34 57 4 McClintock, Tom 1247 257 17 228 59 106 5 Thompson, Mike 666 169 23 63 127 24 6 Matsui, Doris O. 642 128 8 127 30 52 7 Bera, Ami 618 127 8 114 29 52 8 Cook, Paul 668 96 27 155 26 64 9 McNerney, Jerry 573 82 24 134 22 56 36
  37. 37. Congress. District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 10 Denham, Jeff 304 44 13 72 12 31 11 Miller, George 2049 525 76 184 377 77 12 Pelosi, Nancy 3338 860 127 291 604 129 13 Lee, Barbara 1862 478 70 165 341 71 14 Speier, Jackie 1734 442 63 158 324 64 15 Swalwell, Eric 1612 412 59 147 300 59 16 Costa, Jim 645 92 24 147 25 59 17 Honda, Mike 4234 1084 157 379 780 159 18 Eshoo, Anna G. 2417 620 90 216 444 91 19 Lofgren, Zoe 859 219 31 78 160 32 20 Farr, Sam 772 223 45 216 62 51 21 Valadao, David 428 61 18 100 16 42 22 Nunes, Devin 202 29 9 48 8 20 23 McCarthy, Kevin 398 79 15 142 28 45 24 Capps, Lois 2047 594 119 573 167 135 25 McKeon, Buck 531 99 27 199 31 29 26 Brownley, Julia 385 74 18 137 24 21 27 Chu, Judy 1065 212 41 382 75 121 28 Schiff, Adam 543 102 28 202 32 29 29 Cárdenas, Tony 153 27 9 62 8 8 30 Sherman, Brad 383 75 17 133 25 21 31 Miller, Gary 207 41 8 75 14 24 32 Napolitano, Grace 354 69 16 123 23 20 33 Waxman, Henry 832 166 33 275 56 47 34 Becerra, Xavier 357 72 13 116 25 20 35 Negrete McLeod, Gloria 864 172 33 309 62 97 36 Ruiz, Raul 564 112 22 203 39 65 37 Bass, Karen 291 58 12 98 19 16 38 Sanchez, Linda 382 72 19 142 23 21 39 Royce, Ed 593 112 29 217 36 32 40 Roybal-Allard, Lucille 105 20 5 39 6 6 41 Takano, Mark 583 116 22 209 40 67 42 Calvert, Ken 636 127 24 228 45 72 43 Waters, Maxine 259 50 12 93 16 14 37
  38. 38. 
 Congress. District Legislator Total Empl. Women African American Latino/ Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander Veterans 44 Hahn, Janice 98 19 5 35 6 5 45 Campbell, John 1201 241 47 395 82 69 46 Sanchez, Loretta 174 33 9 64 10 9 47 Lowenthal, Alan 346 67 16 122 22 19 48 Rohrabacher, Dana 485 96 20 165 32 27 49 Issa, Darrell 1351 271 52 444 92 77 50 Hunter, Duncan D. 977 140 40 227 38 94 51 Vargas, Juan 246 45 13 95 14 13 52 Peters, Scott 676 136 26 221 47 39 53 Davis, Susan 325 67 11 102 23 19 Total 47223 10605 1821 9525 5508 2834 % of Total CA Solar Workforce 22.5% 3.9% 20.2% 11.7% 6.0% 38
  39. 39. 4.0 Conclusions With California’s status as the nation’s most populous state, its largest economy, and second-largest consumer of electricity, it comes as no surprise that energy concerns are of great and recurring importance to the Golden State. As part of its efforts to ensure the energy needs of its residents and businesses are adequately addressed, California has adopted a suite of oftentimes bold or innovative policies that have allowed it to attain another important status – the nation’s market leader in solar energy. The state’s more than 4,000 MW of cumulative installed solar capacity (over 40% of total solar capacity in the nation) has translated into an employment boom that continues to create new opportunities for workers still grappling with an unemployment rate higher than the national average. California is by far the leader in solar jobs. However, its 47,223 solar workers are not evenly distributed across the state, but are rather concentrated in regions where demand for solar energy is high and where solar business owners are more likely to establish a new location or company headquarters. For example, the Greater San Francisco Bay area is home to nearly half of California’s solar workers, though the region makes up only 22% of the state population. Though the region is home to some of the highest incomes in the state, solar is increasingly becoming adopted by those with more modest incomes, suggesting that the relative wealth in the area alone is insufficient to fully explain the high concentration of solar workers. A more likely driver of solar employment in the region is that the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, which combines the economic and technological strength of San Francisco, Oakland, and the Silicon Valley, has all the components necessary for a successful innovation economy, including access to high skilled labor, capital, technology, and supporting services (e.g., financial and legal). California’s solar market is expected to continue its impressive growth. Over the next three years, nearly 10,000 MW of additional solar photovoltaic capacity is expected to be installed in the state. This projected growth in installations will in turn have a substantial impact on the number of Californians employed by the solar industry. Over the 12 month period ending in November 2014, solar employers anticipate adding over 10,500 solar workers, a figure representing 22.3% growth in employment compared with the 47,223 solar workers currently employed in the state. As is the case with other strong state solar markets and the nation at large, much of California’s solar success has been due to its historically robust pro-solar policies. Its combination of RPS targets, net energy metering rules, effective statewide and local incentives, and policies allowing for innovative financing models to prosper—along with existing federal policies and incentives supporting solar—have long been drivers of growth for the state’s solar industry. While some of these policies will soon expire, the state appears to be exploring the continuation and adoption of policies the industry needs to continue to grow. 39
  40. 40. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! If you find this California Census to be useful, please don't hesitate to make a tax- deductible donation to The Solar Foundation®. Each donation, no matter the size, helps us provide credible research that deepens our understanding of the industry and drives the market. ! More information at www.TheSolarFoundation.org ! 40
  41. 41. ! 5. Appendices 5.1 Data Sources ! EMSI Data Sources and Calculations Industry Data ! In order to capture a complete picture of industry employment, EMSI basically combines covered employment data from Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) produced by the Department of Labor with total employment data in Regional Economic Information System (REIS) published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), augmented with County Business Patterns (CBP) and Nonemployer Statistics (NES) published by the U.S. Census Bureau. Projections are based on the latest available EMSI industry data, 15-year past local trends in each industry, growth rates in statewide and (where available) sub-state area industry projections published by individual state agencies, and (in part) growth rates in national projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. ! State Data Sources ! This report uses state data from the following agencies: California Labor Market Information Department; ! ! !! ! 41
  42. 42. 5.2 Data Limitations and Methodology The California Solar Jobs Census methodology is most closely aligned with the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ methodology for its Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) and Current Employment Statistics (CES).  Like BLS, this study uses survey questionnaires and employer-reported data, though ours are administered by phone and email, as opposed to mail. ! Also like BLS, we develop a hierarchy of various categories that represent solar value chain activities (within their broader NAICS framework), develop representative sample frames, and use statistical analysis and extrapolation in a very similar manner to BLS.  We also constrain our universe of establishments by relying on the most recent data from the BLS or the state departments of labor, depending on which is collected most recently.  We believe that the categories that we have developed could be readily adopted by BLS should it choose to begin to quantify solar employment in its QCEW and CES series. ! The California survey was administered to a known universe of solar employers that includes approximately 4,000 establishments and is derived from SEIA’s National Solar Database as well as other public and private sources. Of these establishments, 852 provided information about their solar activities (or lack thereof), and 476 completed full or substantially completed surveys. ! The survey was also administered to a stratified, clustered, random sampling from various industries that are potentially solar-related that include a total of 25,149 establishments in California. After an extensive cleaning and de-duplication process, a sampling plan was developed that gathered information on the level of solar activity (including none) from 2,889 establishments. Of these, 125 establishments qualified for and completed full surveys. This level of sampling rigor provides a margin of error for establishment counts at +/-1.25% and employment at +/-3.46% at a 95% confidence interval. For a more complete description of the methodology, please see the National Solar Jobs Census 2013 available at www.TSFcensus.org. ! It is of further importance to note that the figures provided in this report are estimates based on surveys administered only to employers in installation, manufacturing, sales and distribution, project development and “other” establishments in research and development, legal services, finance and accounting, academia, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and other ancillary employers that do solar work. Data for the “other” category do not capture all jobs or establishments in the category. Although some “other” establishments are included in the Known Universe, accounting, legal, finance, and other ancillary establishments spend only a very small portion of their time on solar activities. Thus, full inclusion would lead to inflated employment counts. 
 42
  43. 43. 5.3 Frequently Asked Questions 1. Are these "Direct Jobs" only? Direct, indirect, and induced are terms intended to explain the various levels of economic activity that result from changes to an economy.  These figures, generated by economic modeling exercises, are best applied to specific projects rather than entire industries.   For example, a utility scale solar project would have a certain number of people working on the construction of the plant (direct), the workers who manufacture and deliver the goods (indirect), and support the local economy by increasing the spending on goods and services, such as restaurants, gas stations, and retail establishments (induced).  Census data includes most of the direct and indirect jobs in the solar industry, with the exception of some indirect jobs in the component and materials supply chain. 2. How does your methodology compare with the Bureau of Labor Statistics? The Census methodology is the most closely aligned with the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ methodology for its Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) and Current Employment Statistics (CES).  Like BLS, this study uses survey questionnaires and employer-reported data, though ours are administered by phone and email, as opposed to mail.   Also like BLS, we develop a hierarchy of various categories that represent solar value chain activities (within their broader NAICS framework), develop representative sample frames, and use statistical analysis and extrapolation in a very similar manner to BLS.  We also constrain our universe of establishments by relying on the most recent data from the BLS or the state departments of labor, depending on which is collected most recently.  We believe that the categories that we have developed could be readily adopted by BLS should it choose to begin to quantify solar employment in its QCEW and CES series. 3. How is a solar worker defined? A "solar worker" is defined as those workers who spend at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related activities. This definition helps to avoid the over-counting that is inherent in methods that count every single job in terms of FTEs or job hours. For example, although the BLS does not yet quantify solar jobs, they count other types of occupations by counting every single job separately regardless of hours or fraction of time actually spent on the job. As a result, according to the BLS, someone with three part-time jobs yields three jobs. Although the BLS and others consider our methodology to be the emerging standard for tracking jobs they do not yet track, critics of our methodology claim a 50% definition causes jobs to be over counted. However, the reality is that 93.5% of those in California who meet our definition of a solar worker in 2013 (versus 91% nationally), actually spend 100% of their time supporting solar-related activities. Because the Census covers sectors directly related to new installed solar capacity and the sectors that support these efforts, jobs figures are best thought of as covering direct and indirect jobs. 43
  44. 44. 4. What is the minimum education necessary to enter the solar job field? While there exist entry-level positions for individuals interested in entering certain solar job fields, there is not always an immediate pathway into these jobs. Of the employers who participated in the California Solar Jobs Census, 41% indicated that they look for previous related experience in the solar workers they hire. In addition, over 15% noted they require at least an associate’s degree or certificate from an accredited college and one quarter seek workers with a bachelor’s degree or beyond. Those interested in beginning a career in the solar industry can learn more about the education, experience, and skills required for these jobs by visiting the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Career Map at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/careermap. ! ! ! More FAQs about the Census methodology and national results are available in the National Solar Jobs Census 2013, available at www.TSFcensus.org. ! ! 44
  45. 45. ! 6. Solar Employment in Other States Due to the immense investment of time and funding required to do so accurately with a survey-based methodology, the Census report series does not directly provide estimates of solar employment in each of the 50 states. In early 2013, The Solar Foundation® published its first-ever State Solar Jobs Map (www.solarstates.org), an interactive, web-based tool presenting the most credible estimates of state-level jobs currently known. These figures were internally generated by The Solar Foundation® with technical assistance from the Solar Energy Industries Association’s Research Department using thousands of data points from a combination of high-quality sources, including survey results from National Solar Jobs Census Series and the Solar Energy Industries Association’s “National Solar Database.” These state employment figures were produced using a carefully developed dual methodology—one for installation and construction jobs and another for distributed generation and non-installation jobs. In brief, method one employed labor intensity multipliers developed internally and cross checked with leading studies on the subject, while method two was based not only on a direct count of solar workers, but also the average number of jobs per solar establishment and total number of establishments in each state. The final state totals provided are the rounded average of our high and low estimates. Updated state-level employment estimates were made available through The Solar Foundation’s® State Solar Jobs Map website (www.solarstates.org) on February 11th, 2014. ! 45
  46. 46. ! Copyright Notice ! Unless otherwise noted, all design, text, graphics, and the selection and arrangement thereof are Copyright February 2014 by The Solar Foundation® and BW Research Partnership. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Any use of materials in this report, including reproduction, modification, distribution, or republication, without the prior written consent of The Solar Foundation® and BW Research Partnership, is strictly prohibited. ! ! Please cite this publication when referencing this material as “California Solar Jobs Census 2013, The Solar Foundation, available at: www.TSFcensus.org.”

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