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CYBER SECURITY
INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY
VERSION: 1.3
DATE: 25/09/2019
AUTHOR: SYLVAIN MARTINEZ
REFERENCE: ES-CSIC
CLASSIFICATION: PUBLIC
2
• Presentation goal;
• Definition;
• History;
• Main types;
• Logical Operations;
• Concept;
• Main Algorithms;
• Concept;
• Type of algorithms;
• ECB;
• CBC;
• Stream Cipher
concept;
• Keystream;
• Main Algorithms;
• Overall Concept;
• Main Algorithms;
CONTENTS
PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
• Take Away;
PRESENTATION GOAL
3
LEARN ABOUT ITS MAIN USAGE
3
LEARN ITS MAIN ALGORITHMS
2
LEARN ABOUT CRYPTOGRAPHY
CORE CONCEPTS
1
TO LEARN ABOUT CRYPTOGRAPHY
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
Icons: from The Noun Project unless stated otherwisePUBLIC
DEFINITION
4PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
CRYPTOGRAPHY is the science related to hiding
information. With the aim to provide a combination
or all of the following: Confidentiality, Integrity,
Authentication and Non-repudiation. This can be
achieved through the design of cipher algorithms.
HISTORY
5PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
KRYPTOS (Greek) meaning HIDDEN, SECRET
1900 BC
NON STANDARD
HIEROGLYPHS
1500 BC
MESOPOTAMIA
CLAY TABLETS
700 BC
SCYTALE
SPARTAN
KAMA SUTRA
300 BC 50 BC
CAESAR SHIFT CIPHER
VIGENÈRE CIPHER
1553 1586
STEGANOGRAPHY
QUEENS OF SCOTS
1940
WWII - ENIGMA
QUANTUM COMPUTER
2000s
MAIN TYPES
6PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
HIDE DATAENCRYPTION
REVEAL ORIGINAL DATADECRYPTION
CREATES A UNIQUE SIGNATURE FROM DATAHASH
HIDE DATA WITHIN OTHER DATASTEGANOGRAPHY
LOGICAL OPERATIONS
7PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
1
1
OR
=
1
0
0
OR
=
0
1
0
OR
=
1
1
1
AND
=
1
0
0
AND
=
0
1
0
AND
=
0
1
1
XOR
=
0
0
0
XOR
=
0
1
0
XOR
=
1
OR AND XOR
NOR NAND XNORMORE LOGICAL OPERATIONS: NOT
CONCEPT
8PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
To be, or
not to be:
That is the
question
INPUT
HASH FUNCTION
4565 DEFG
2C4G FG67
DIGEST
COMPLETELY DIFFERENT HASH
DIFFERENT HASH
CANNOT REVERT HASH
SAME HASH
AVALANCHE EFFECT
UNIQUE
ONE WAY
FAST
DETERMINISTIC
SMALL SOURCE CHANGE
DIFFERENT SOURCE
"CLEAR TEXT" SOURCE
SAME SOURCE
IDEAL HASH FUNCTION
MAIN ALGORITHMS
9PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE
MD5
RONALD RIVEST
1991
128-BIT HASH VALUE
4 ROUNDS OF 16
OPERATIONS (XOR, AND,
OR, NOT)
DATA INTEGRITY &
CHECKSUM
SSL DIGITAL CERT
PASSWORDS
COLLISION ATTACK
NO LONGER SUITABLE
STILL WIDELY IN USE
SHA-1
NSA
1995
160-BIT HASH VALUE
HEXADECIMAL
40 DIGITS LONG
80 ROUNDS
CHECKSUM, PWD,
SSL/TLS CERT (NOT NOW)
U.S GOV APPROVED
COLLISION ATTACK
SHATTERED
CHOSEN-PREFIX
NO EASY/CHEAP ATTACKS
SHA-2
NSA
2001
224, 256, 384, 512-BIT
HASH VALUE
64 OR 80 ROUNDS
CHECKSUM, PWD,
BITCOIN, TLS, SSL, PGP,
SSH, S/MIME, DKIM,
DNSSEC, IPSEC
PARTIAL COLLISION
ATTACK ONLY
SHA-3
NSA
2015
KECCACK FAMILY
SPONGE CONSTRUCTION
ABSORBED/SQUEEZED
PADDING, PERMUTATION
CHECKSUM, PWD,
ETHEREUM, TLS, SSL,
DNSSEC, IPSEC
NONE KNOWN YET
RISKS
OVERALL CONCEPT
10PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
PASSWORD/ KEY
ENCRYPTION
DECRYPTION
To be, or
not to be:
That is the
question
PLAIN TEXT
fDrTrg1er
65Hjt2s,R.
Lks.,3!dAc
dvijn4sv
CIPHER TEXT
INPUT IS BROKEN INTO BLOCK OF DATA
EACH BLOCK OF DATA IS ENCRYPTED/DECRYPTED
INPUT IS BROKEN INTO A STREAM OF DATA
EACH BITS OF DATA IS ENCRYPTED/DECRYPTED
TYPE OF CIPHER ALGORITHMS
11PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
BLOCK CIPHER
STREAM CIPHER
BLOCK CIPHER CONCEPT - ECB
12PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
Source: https://elysiumsecurity.com/crypto/page_crypto.html
ELECTRONIC CODEBOOK MODE (ECB)
BLOCK CIPHER CONCEPT - CBC
13PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
Source: https://elysiumsecurity.com/crypto/page_crypto.html
CHAIN BLOCK CHAINING MODE (CBC)
STREAM CIPHER CONCEPT
14PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
To be, or
not to be:
That is the
question
PLAIN TEXT
fDrTrg1er
65Hjt2s,R.
Lks.,3!dAc
dvijn4sv
CIPHER TEXT
…010010010101… …001011011100…
…110100010110…
PASSWORD/ KEY
XOR
KEYSTREAM GENERATOR
LINEAR FEEDBACK SHIFT REGISTER (LFSR)
STREAM CIPHER CONCEPT – KEYSTREAM LFSR
15PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
MAIN ALGORITHMS
16PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE
RC4
RONALD RIVEST
1987
40-2018 BITS
1 ROUND
PERMUTATION "S"
KEY-SCHEDULING IV
WEP, WPA, BITTORRENT,
MS REMOTE DESKTOP,
KERBEROS, SKYPE, SSH
MULTI SESSION ATTACK
ROYAL HOLLOWAY
NO LONGER IN TLS
[DES]
TRIPLE DES
IBM
[1975], 1998
KEY: 168, 112, [56] BITS
BLOCK: 64 BITS
[16], 48-DES ROUNDS
STANDARD USED
GLOBALLY (CREDIT CARD,
PGP, ETC).
[S-BOX RESISTANT 20
YEARS EARLY]
NO LONGER SECURED
TWOFISH
BRUCE SCHNEIER
1998
KEY: 128, 192, 256 BITS
BLOCK: 128 BITS
16 ROUNDS
AES FINALIST
OPENPGP
DIFFERENTIAL ATTACK
AES
(RIJNDAEL)
VINCENT RIJMEN
JOAN DAEMEN
1998
KEY: 128, 192, 256 BITS
BLOCK: 128 BITS
10, 12 or 14 ROUNDS
NEW STANDARD
DES/TDES REPLACEMENT
SINCE 2002
XSL ATTACK
RELATED KEY ATTACK
NO PRACTICAL ATTACKS
RISKS
OVERALL CONCEPT – RECEIVING DATA
17PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
PUBLIC KEY
ENCRYPTION
DECRYPTION
To be, or
not to be:
That is the
question
PLAIN TEXT
fDrTrg1er
65Hjt2s,R.
Lks.,3!dAc
dvijn4sv
CIPHER TEXT
PRIVATE KEY
OVERALL CONCEPT - AUTHENTICATION
18PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
PUBLIC KEY
ENCRYPTION
DECRYPTION
To be, or
not to be:
That is the
question
PLAIN TEXT
fDrTrg1er
65Hjt2s,R.
Lks.,3!dAc
dvijn4sv
CIPHER TEXT
PRIVATE KEY
MAIN ALGORITHMS
19PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE
RSA
RIVEST
SHAMIR
ADLEMAN
1977
FACTORISATION
KEY: 1,024 – 4,096 BITS
1 ROUND
TLS, SSH, ETC.
FACTORING PROBLEM
NO LONGER A PROBLEM
ECDSA
NIST
2005
ELLIPTIC CURVE
𝑦"
= 𝑥%
+ 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏
SIGNATURE,
KEY AGREEMENT, PRG
SONY/FAILOVERFLOW
JAVA FLAWS
DSA
NIST
1991
ELLIPTIC CURVE
KEY GENERATION
KEY DISTRIBUTION
SIGNING
SIGNATURE VERIF
SECRECY AND
RANDOMNESS OF K
DIFFE-HELMAN
WHITFIELD DIFFIE
MARTIN HELLMAN
1976
MULTIPLICATIVE GROUP
OF INTEGERS MODULO P
KEY AGREEMENT
PROTOCOL
MAN IN THE MIDDLE
LOGJAM ATTACK
RISKS
TAKE AWAY
20PUBLIC
CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
ONLY USE STANDARD ALGORITHMS1
BEWARE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION2
KEEP YOUR PRIVATE KEYS SAFE3
BEWARE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS4
CHECK FIPS CERTIFICATION DETAILS5
© 2015-2019 ELYSIUMSECURITY LTD
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
HTTPS://WWW.ELYSIUMSECURITY.COM
CONSULTING@ELYSIUMSECURITY.COM
ABOUT ELYSIUMSECURITY LTD.
ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES PRACTICAL EXPERTISE TO IDENTIFY
VULNERABILITIES, ASSESS THEIR RISKS AND IMPACT, REMEDIATE THOSE
RISKS, PREPARE AND RESPOND TO INCIDENTS AS WELL AS RAISE
SECURITY AWARENESS THROUGH AN ORGANIZATION.
ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES HIGH LEVEL EXPERTISE GATHERED
THROUGH YEARS OF BEST PRACTICES EXPERIENCE IN LARGE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES ALLOWING US TO PROVIDE ADVICE BEST
SUITED TO YOUR BUSINESS OPERATIONAL MODEL AND PRIORITIES.
ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES A PORTFOLIO OF STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL
SERVICES TO HELP COMPANIES PROTECT AND RESPOND AGAINST CYBER
SECURITY THREATS. WE DIFFERENTIATE OURSELVES BY OFFERING
DISCREET, TAILORED AND SPECIALIZED ENGAGEMENTS.
ELYSIUMSECURITY OPERATES IN MAURITIUS AND IN EUROPE,
A BOUTIQUE STYLE APPROACH MEANS WE CAN EASILY ADAPT TO YOUR
BUSINESS OPERATIONAL MODEL AND REQUIREMENTS TO PROVIDE A
PERSONALIZED SERVICE THAT FITS YOUR WORKING ENVIRONMENT.

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INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY

  • 1. CYBER SECURITY INTRODUCTION TO CRYPTOGRAPHY VERSION: 1.3 DATE: 25/09/2019 AUTHOR: SYLVAIN MARTINEZ REFERENCE: ES-CSIC CLASSIFICATION: PUBLIC
  • 2. 2 • Presentation goal; • Definition; • History; • Main types; • Logical Operations; • Concept; • Main Algorithms; • Concept; • Type of algorithms; • ECB; • CBC; • Stream Cipher concept; • Keystream; • Main Algorithms; • Overall Concept; • Main Algorithms; CONTENTS PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT • Take Away;
  • 3. PRESENTATION GOAL 3 LEARN ABOUT ITS MAIN USAGE 3 LEARN ITS MAIN ALGORITHMS 2 LEARN ABOUT CRYPTOGRAPHY CORE CONCEPTS 1 TO LEARN ABOUT CRYPTOGRAPHY CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT Icons: from The Noun Project unless stated otherwisePUBLIC
  • 4. DEFINITION 4PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT CRYPTOGRAPHY is the science related to hiding information. With the aim to provide a combination or all of the following: Confidentiality, Integrity, Authentication and Non-repudiation. This can be achieved through the design of cipher algorithms.
  • 5. HISTORY 5PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT KRYPTOS (Greek) meaning HIDDEN, SECRET 1900 BC NON STANDARD HIEROGLYPHS 1500 BC MESOPOTAMIA CLAY TABLETS 700 BC SCYTALE SPARTAN KAMA SUTRA 300 BC 50 BC CAESAR SHIFT CIPHER VIGENÈRE CIPHER 1553 1586 STEGANOGRAPHY QUEENS OF SCOTS 1940 WWII - ENIGMA QUANTUM COMPUTER 2000s
  • 6. MAIN TYPES 6PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT HIDE DATAENCRYPTION REVEAL ORIGINAL DATADECRYPTION CREATES A UNIQUE SIGNATURE FROM DATAHASH HIDE DATA WITHIN OTHER DATASTEGANOGRAPHY
  • 8. CONCEPT 8PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT To be, or not to be: That is the question INPUT HASH FUNCTION 4565 DEFG 2C4G FG67 DIGEST COMPLETELY DIFFERENT HASH DIFFERENT HASH CANNOT REVERT HASH SAME HASH AVALANCHE EFFECT UNIQUE ONE WAY FAST DETERMINISTIC SMALL SOURCE CHANGE DIFFERENT SOURCE "CLEAR TEXT" SOURCE SAME SOURCE IDEAL HASH FUNCTION
  • 9. MAIN ALGORITHMS 9PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE MD5 RONALD RIVEST 1991 128-BIT HASH VALUE 4 ROUNDS OF 16 OPERATIONS (XOR, AND, OR, NOT) DATA INTEGRITY & CHECKSUM SSL DIGITAL CERT PASSWORDS COLLISION ATTACK NO LONGER SUITABLE STILL WIDELY IN USE SHA-1 NSA 1995 160-BIT HASH VALUE HEXADECIMAL 40 DIGITS LONG 80 ROUNDS CHECKSUM, PWD, SSL/TLS CERT (NOT NOW) U.S GOV APPROVED COLLISION ATTACK SHATTERED CHOSEN-PREFIX NO EASY/CHEAP ATTACKS SHA-2 NSA 2001 224, 256, 384, 512-BIT HASH VALUE 64 OR 80 ROUNDS CHECKSUM, PWD, BITCOIN, TLS, SSL, PGP, SSH, S/MIME, DKIM, DNSSEC, IPSEC PARTIAL COLLISION ATTACK ONLY SHA-3 NSA 2015 KECCACK FAMILY SPONGE CONSTRUCTION ABSORBED/SQUEEZED PADDING, PERMUTATION CHECKSUM, PWD, ETHEREUM, TLS, SSL, DNSSEC, IPSEC NONE KNOWN YET RISKS
  • 10. OVERALL CONCEPT 10PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT PASSWORD/ KEY ENCRYPTION DECRYPTION To be, or not to be: That is the question PLAIN TEXT fDrTrg1er 65Hjt2s,R. Lks.,3!dAc dvijn4sv CIPHER TEXT
  • 11. INPUT IS BROKEN INTO BLOCK OF DATA EACH BLOCK OF DATA IS ENCRYPTED/DECRYPTED INPUT IS BROKEN INTO A STREAM OF DATA EACH BITS OF DATA IS ENCRYPTED/DECRYPTED TYPE OF CIPHER ALGORITHMS 11PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT BLOCK CIPHER STREAM CIPHER
  • 12. BLOCK CIPHER CONCEPT - ECB 12PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT Source: https://elysiumsecurity.com/crypto/page_crypto.html ELECTRONIC CODEBOOK MODE (ECB)
  • 13. BLOCK CIPHER CONCEPT - CBC 13PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT Source: https://elysiumsecurity.com/crypto/page_crypto.html CHAIN BLOCK CHAINING MODE (CBC)
  • 14. STREAM CIPHER CONCEPT 14PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT To be, or not to be: That is the question PLAIN TEXT fDrTrg1er 65Hjt2s,R. Lks.,3!dAc dvijn4sv CIPHER TEXT …010010010101… …001011011100… …110100010110… PASSWORD/ KEY XOR KEYSTREAM GENERATOR
  • 15. LINEAR FEEDBACK SHIFT REGISTER (LFSR) STREAM CIPHER CONCEPT – KEYSTREAM LFSR 15PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT
  • 16. MAIN ALGORITHMS 16PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE RC4 RONALD RIVEST 1987 40-2018 BITS 1 ROUND PERMUTATION "S" KEY-SCHEDULING IV WEP, WPA, BITTORRENT, MS REMOTE DESKTOP, KERBEROS, SKYPE, SSH MULTI SESSION ATTACK ROYAL HOLLOWAY NO LONGER IN TLS [DES] TRIPLE DES IBM [1975], 1998 KEY: 168, 112, [56] BITS BLOCK: 64 BITS [16], 48-DES ROUNDS STANDARD USED GLOBALLY (CREDIT CARD, PGP, ETC). [S-BOX RESISTANT 20 YEARS EARLY] NO LONGER SECURED TWOFISH BRUCE SCHNEIER 1998 KEY: 128, 192, 256 BITS BLOCK: 128 BITS 16 ROUNDS AES FINALIST OPENPGP DIFFERENTIAL ATTACK AES (RIJNDAEL) VINCENT RIJMEN JOAN DAEMEN 1998 KEY: 128, 192, 256 BITS BLOCK: 128 BITS 10, 12 or 14 ROUNDS NEW STANDARD DES/TDES REPLACEMENT SINCE 2002 XSL ATTACK RELATED KEY ATTACK NO PRACTICAL ATTACKS RISKS
  • 17. OVERALL CONCEPT – RECEIVING DATA 17PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT PUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION DECRYPTION To be, or not to be: That is the question PLAIN TEXT fDrTrg1er 65Hjt2s,R. Lks.,3!dAc dvijn4sv CIPHER TEXT PRIVATE KEY
  • 18. OVERALL CONCEPT - AUTHENTICATION 18PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT PUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION DECRYPTION To be, or not to be: That is the question PLAIN TEXT fDrTrg1er 65Hjt2s,R. Lks.,3!dAc dvijn4sv CIPHER TEXT PRIVATE KEY
  • 19. MAIN ALGORITHMS 19PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT ALGORITHM ORIGIN SPECIFICITY MAIN USAGE RSA RIVEST SHAMIR ADLEMAN 1977 FACTORISATION KEY: 1,024 – 4,096 BITS 1 ROUND TLS, SSH, ETC. FACTORING PROBLEM NO LONGER A PROBLEM ECDSA NIST 2005 ELLIPTIC CURVE 𝑦" = 𝑥% + 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 SIGNATURE, KEY AGREEMENT, PRG SONY/FAILOVERFLOW JAVA FLAWS DSA NIST 1991 ELLIPTIC CURVE KEY GENERATION KEY DISTRIBUTION SIGNING SIGNATURE VERIF SECRECY AND RANDOMNESS OF K DIFFE-HELMAN WHITFIELD DIFFIE MARTIN HELLMAN 1976 MULTIPLICATIVE GROUP OF INTEGERS MODULO P KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL MAN IN THE MIDDLE LOGJAM ATTACK RISKS
  • 20. TAKE AWAY 20PUBLIC CONCLUSIONASYMMETRICSYMMETRICHASHESCONTEXT ONLY USE STANDARD ALGORITHMS1 BEWARE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION2 KEEP YOUR PRIVATE KEYS SAFE3 BEWARE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS4 CHECK FIPS CERTIFICATION DETAILS5
  • 21. © 2015-2019 ELYSIUMSECURITY LTD ALL RIGHTS RESERVED HTTPS://WWW.ELYSIUMSECURITY.COM CONSULTING@ELYSIUMSECURITY.COM ABOUT ELYSIUMSECURITY LTD. ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES PRACTICAL EXPERTISE TO IDENTIFY VULNERABILITIES, ASSESS THEIR RISKS AND IMPACT, REMEDIATE THOSE RISKS, PREPARE AND RESPOND TO INCIDENTS AS WELL AS RAISE SECURITY AWARENESS THROUGH AN ORGANIZATION. ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES HIGH LEVEL EXPERTISE GATHERED THROUGH YEARS OF BEST PRACTICES EXPERIENCE IN LARGE INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES ALLOWING US TO PROVIDE ADVICE BEST SUITED TO YOUR BUSINESS OPERATIONAL MODEL AND PRIORITIES. ELYSIUMSECURITY PROVIDES A PORTFOLIO OF STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL SERVICES TO HELP COMPANIES PROTECT AND RESPOND AGAINST CYBER SECURITY THREATS. WE DIFFERENTIATE OURSELVES BY OFFERING DISCREET, TAILORED AND SPECIALIZED ENGAGEMENTS. ELYSIUMSECURITY OPERATES IN MAURITIUS AND IN EUROPE, A BOUTIQUE STYLE APPROACH MEANS WE CAN EASILY ADAPT TO YOUR BUSINESS OPERATIONAL MODEL AND REQUIREMENTS TO PROVIDE A PERSONALIZED SERVICE THAT FITS YOUR WORKING ENVIRONMENT.