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ENGINEERING 
IoE as Connected Intelligence: 
Radios for this new Era 
Amin Arbabian 
EE Department 
Stanford University 
D...
ENGINEERING 
Internet of Everything 
Network Source: General Electric 
Source: Qualcomm 
Source: GreenPeak Technologies So...
Image: Reuters 
3 ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING 
Other Examples? 
4 
Cellular Phones, 1970’s 
Dr. Martin Cooper 
Electricity, 1800’s 
Today 
Today
Source: Business Insider 
5 ENGINEERING
How To Design Wireless Connectivity For 
ENGINEERING 
The Trillion “Things” Era?
ENGINEERING 
Inside a “Small” Radio 
7 
Dust Networks 
Nordic nRF24L01 
Timing 
Reference 
Cost, Footprint, and Scalabilit...
ENGINEERING 
Connecting a Trillion Things: 
Most of IoE Connectivity will be 
EXTREMELY ASYMMETRIC
Eliminating the Battery: Wireless Power 
ENGINEERING 
9 
Nikola Tesla 1899
Delivering Wireless Power to mm-Sized 
ENGINEERING 
Sensors at a Distance 
Distance-to-Size ratio
ENGINEERING 
Powering the Ant-Sized Radio 
11 
Wavelength Mismatch: 
Sensor Node Not to scale! 
• TX: Inefficient Power De...
ENGINEERING 
Wireless Power Delivery 
Optimal Freq. for wireless power delivery: 
§ Assuming a fixed antenna gain for TX ...
ENGINEERING 
Wireless Power Delivery 
Optimal Freq. for wireless power delivery: 
§ Assuming a fixed aperture for TX and ...
-20 
-25 
-30 
-35 
Qc=5 Qc=10 Qc=20 
Received -40 
-45 
2 (a) ENGINEERING 
More Detailed Calculations 
0 
Power (dBm) 
-2...
mm-Wave Downlink 
(power and data) 
ENGINEERING 
Proposed Solution 
15 
Uplink 
mm-Wave 
IoT Radios 
Incoming Messages als...
Entire Radio on a Single Ant-Sized Chip 
16 ENGINEERING 
Image: Shutterstock
• True single-chip solution- Nothing else connected 
• Wireless energy delivery, synchronization, 
communication, and mult...
ENGINEERING 
Ant-Sized Radio in Action 
18
ENGINEERING 
Next Stop: Human Body 
19 
Jan M. Rabaey 
L. Alarcon, F. Burghardt, D. Chen, A. S. Gambini, A. Kumar, Y.M. Li...
~7 cm 4 
3.5 
3 
2.5 
2 
1.5 
1 
0.5 
ENGINEERING 
The Power in Sound 
20 
λ 
Implant 
(<1 mm3) 
Aperture mismatch! 
λ 
Im...
Acoustic transducer array 
Implants 
Tissue 
Ultrasonic power and 
data downlink 
RF/US data uplink 
Incoming Sound Waves ...
ENGINEERING 
Sound-Powered Implants 
22 
1st Generation Proof-of-Concept 
Collaboration with Prof. Khuri-Yakub, 
SOE Stanf...
Acknowledgements 
Collaborators and Students: 
• Prof. Khuri-Yakub, Dr. Amin Nikoozadeh, Prof. 
Niknejad, Dr. Maryam Tabes...
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Amin Arbabian - Stanford Engineering - Internet of Things as Connected Intelligence - Radios for this New Erara

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Today most people on Earth are connected through wired or wireless networks, or both. The next leap in connectivity will give people the ability to control objects and machines. The Internet of Everything (IoE) will tag objects with tiny wireless devices for communication, computation and sensing. Some projections show demand for such IoE smart sensors will grow from billions to trillions within a decade. The essential enabling technology is an ultra-low power smart radio to provide a unique IP address and location. In this talk, Amin Arbabian discusses how he developed an ant-sized wireless-powered radio chip that costs pennies to fabricate– making it cheap enough to become the missing link to enable the Internet of Everything.

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Amin Arbabian - Stanford Engineering - Internet of Things as Connected Intelligence - Radios for this New Erara

  1. 1. ENGINEERING IoE as Connected Intelligence: Radios for this new Era Amin Arbabian EE Department Stanford University December 4th 2014
  2. 2. ENGINEERING Internet of Everything Network Source: General Electric Source: Qualcomm Source: GreenPeak Technologies Source: BrivoLabs Source: Rockwell Automation ?
  3. 3. Image: Reuters 3 ENGINEERING
  4. 4. ENGINEERING Other Examples? 4 Cellular Phones, 1970’s Dr. Martin Cooper Electricity, 1800’s Today Today
  5. 5. Source: Business Insider 5 ENGINEERING
  6. 6. How To Design Wireless Connectivity For ENGINEERING The Trillion “Things” Era?
  7. 7. ENGINEERING Inside a “Small” Radio 7 Dust Networks Nordic nRF24L01 Timing Reference Cost, Footprint, and Scalability Power Source: Battery Antenna Chip/ Package/ Other
  8. 8. ENGINEERING Connecting a Trillion Things: Most of IoE Connectivity will be EXTREMELY ASYMMETRIC
  9. 9. Eliminating the Battery: Wireless Power ENGINEERING 9 Nikola Tesla 1899
  10. 10. Delivering Wireless Power to mm-Sized ENGINEERING Sensors at a Distance Distance-to-Size ratio
  11. 11. ENGINEERING Powering the Ant-Sized Radio 11 Wavelength Mismatch: Sensor Node Not to scale! • TX: Inefficient Power Delivery and Focusing • RX: Poor Power Pick-Up Efficiency
  12. 12. ENGINEERING Wireless Power Delivery Optimal Freq. for wireless power delivery: § Assuming a fixed antenna gain for TX and RX
  13. 13. ENGINEERING Wireless Power Delivery Optimal Freq. for wireless power delivery: § Assuming a fixed aperture for TX and RX mm-Wave
  14. 14. -20 -25 -30 -35 Qc=5 Qc=10 Qc=20 Received -40 -45 2 (a) ENGINEERING More Detailed Calculations 0 Power (dBm) -20 -30 Received Power (dBm) -40 -50 -60 -70 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency (GHz) -10 Calculations for a mm-sized sensor -10
  15. 15. mm-Wave Downlink (power and data) ENGINEERING Proposed Solution 15 Uplink mm-Wave IoT Radios Incoming Messages also used to Power Up the Radios
  16. 16. Entire Radio on a Single Ant-Sized Chip 16 ENGINEERING Image: Shutterstock
  17. 17. • True single-chip solution- Nothing else connected • Wireless energy delivery, synchronization, communication, and multi-access • Achieves 12Mbps for UL, Standby power <1.5μW ENGINEERING Entire Radio Weighs 1mg M. Tabesh, M. Rangwala, A. M. Niknejad, A. Arbabian, “A Power-Harvesting Pad-Less mm-Sized 24/60GHz Passive Radio with On-Chip Antennas,” VLSI Circuits (VLSIC), 2014 Symposium on. IEEE, 2014.
  18. 18. ENGINEERING Ant-Sized Radio in Action 18
  19. 19. ENGINEERING Next Stop: Human Body 19 Jan M. Rabaey L. Alarcon, F. Burghardt, D. Chen, A. S. Gambini, A. Kumar, Y.M. Li, T.T. Liu, N. Pletcher, J. Richmond BWRC, EECS Dept. Univ. of California, Berkeley Pushing the boundaries further Source Rex Features
  20. 20. ~7 cm 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 ENGINEERING The Power in Sound 20 λ Implant (<1 mm3) Aperture mismatch! λ Implant (1 mm3) l << λ vp = 1.5 mm/μs, λ = 1.5 mm @ 1 MHz mm-sized focal spot Gélat et. al., Phys. Med. Biol., 2012 p v f λ = Smaller dimensions (human hair) Human body- a serious obstacle
  21. 21. Acoustic transducer array Implants Tissue Ultrasonic power and data downlink RF/US data uplink Incoming Sound Waves Carry Both Messages AND Power to Activate Implants 21 ENGINEERING
  22. 22. ENGINEERING Sound-Powered Implants 22 1st Generation Proof-of-Concept Collaboration with Prof. Khuri-Yakub, SOE Stanford Univ. 2nd Generation, in progress
  23. 23. Acknowledgements Collaborators and Students: • Prof. Khuri-Yakub, Dr. Amin Nikoozadeh, Prof. Niknejad, Dr. Maryam Tabesh, Dr. Nemat Dolatsha, Jayant Charthad, Jerry Chang, Marcus Weber, Mustafa Rangwala Funding Agencies and Support: • DARPA Young Faculty Award Program (Dr. Doug Weber) • Stanford CIS/ System-X Alliance • Stanford SOE Terman Fellowship Ann Guerra ENGINEERING 23

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