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FATS
Ms. Simranpal Kaur
Nursing Tutor
DMCH, CON
COMPOSITION
FATS
Glycerol
Fatty Acid
CLASSIFICATION
Simple
Monoglyceride Diglyceride
Compound
Phospholipids Glycolipids Lipoproteins
Derived
Sterols Fatty Acids
Saturated fatty
acids
Unsaturated
fatty acids
MUFA
(Monounsaturated
Fatty Acids)
PUFA
(Polyunsaturated
Fatty Acids)
They do not have any double
bond in their hydrocarbon
chain
Unsaturated fatty acids have
double bonds in their
hydrocarbon chain.
When there is only one molecule
of fatty acid attached to a
glycerol molecule
They do not have any double
bond in their hydrocarbon
chain
SIMPLE LIPIDS
GLYCEROL
FATS = +
3 FATTY ACIDS
COMPOUND LIPIDS
Fat + Phosphorus = Phospholipids
Fat + Carbohydrate = Glycolipids
Fat + Protein = Lipoproteins
1. Low-density lipoprotein
2. High density lipoprotein
DERIVED LIPIDS
Derived Lipid Produced from fat & its
substances
Glycerol + Fatty Acids
o Glycerol :
o It makeup about 10% of Fats.
o It is water soluble base triglycerides
o During digestion Glycerol is removed & available for
Glucose formation
o Fatty Acids :
o It is refined Fuel of Fat- Cell burns for Energy
o They may be Saturated or Unsaturated
o E.g. Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid,
Arachidonic acid, Palmitic acid, Myristic acid,
Steric acid.
CALORIFIC VALUE & RDA
• One gram of fat gives 9 kilocalories.
Group Fat (g/day)
Adult men 20
Adult women 20
Pregnant women 30
Lactating women 45
Children (1-9 years) 25
Children (1-18 years) 22
DIETARY SOURCES
• Foods highest in saturated fats
• Coconut oil, butter, animal fats, chocolate, fish oil, cheese, cream, nuts, processed meat
etc.
• Foods highest in unsaturated fats
• Almonds, avocado, peanut butter, walnuts, vegetable oils, peas, beans and oily fish.
FUNCTIONS OF FATS
It is a concentrated source of energy, yielding more than twice the energy
supplied by carbohydrate per unit weight.
Fats are essential for the absorption of vitamin A,D,E,K and especially carotenoids
present in foods of vegetable origin.
Some animal fats, eg. Fish oils, butter and ghee contain vitamin A and many
vegetable fats contain vitamin E and red palm oil is a good source of carotene.
Fats contain essential fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic
acids which are essential for maintaining tissues in normal health.
FUNCTIONS OF FATS
Fats improve the palatability of the diet and give satiety value i.e. a feeling of fullness in the
stomach.
Fats helps to reduce the bulk of the diet as starchy foods absorb lot of water during cooking.
Phosphatides and other complex lipids are essential constituents of nervous tissue.
Fats are deposited in the adipose tissue and this deposit serves as a reserve source of energy
during starvation. Further, adipose tissue functions like an insulating material against cold and
physical injury.
FUNCTIONS OF LIPOPROTEINS
The function of lipoprotein particles is to
transport lipids around the body in the blood.
FUNCTIONS OF CHOLESTEROL
• Cholesterol plays a part in producing hormones such as
estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone and cortisone.
Hormone production
• It is produced when the sun’s ultraviolet rays reach the human
skin surface.
Vitamin D production
• It produces bile acids which aid in digestion and vitamin
absorption.
Bile production
• It plays a very important part in both the creation and
maintenance of human cell membrane.
Cell membrane
support
DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND STORAGE OF
FATS
DIGESTION
Dietary lipids
(triglycerides)
Lipid droplets in
chyme
Mono and
diglycerides in
micelles
Synthesis of
triglycerides
packaged into
chylomicrons
Blood circulation
Mouth
Stomach
Physical breakup
into small pieces
Emulsification by bile salts
Partial hydrolysis by
pancreatic lipase
Small
Intestine Intestinal
lining
ABSORPTION AND
TRANSPORTATION OF FATS
After digestion,
(Monoglycerides & Fatty Acids) Associates with bile
salts and
phospholipids
Micelles
IMPORTANT
Transport poorly soluble
monoglycerides and fatty
acids to epithelial cells found
in S.I.
Where they
can be
absorbed
In this process, micelles breakdown
constantly and reform again but it can not
be absorbed.
Re-synthesized into
Triacylglycerol (TAG)
Chylomicrones
These are lipoproteins that are designed for
transport of lipids in circulation. They flow
into circulation via lymphatic vessels, which
drain into general circulation
FAT STORAGE
• This blood transports lipids to the rest of the body and cells absorb them and utilize
for energy. This breakdown of fats to yield energy is called lipolysis.
• A majority of lipids enter the liver via lymph where the proteins and lipids are bound
together to form lipoproteins. The main four types of lipoproteins are:
• Chylomicrones
• Very low-density lipoproteins
• Low density lipoproteins
• High density lipoproteins
Apart from lipoproteins, cholesterol and phospholipids are also synthesized in the
liver. This is called lipogenesis.
METABOLISM
Principle sites of fat
metabolism are the liver
and adipose tissue.
About 20% of the
triglycerides are delivered
to the liver, where they are
broken apart and either
absorbed by the liver cells
to produce energy.
Fatty acids are oxidized by
certain enzymes in the
tissues to carbon dioxide
and water.
The oxidation takes place
through the tricarboxylic
acid (TCA) cycle.
MALNUTRITION
fats
OVERCONSUMPTION OF FAT
Atherosclerosis
Increased cancer risk
Risk of obesity
Cardiovascular Diseases
DEFICIENCY OF FAT
Poor vitamin
absorption
Depression
Increase
cancer risk
Any Query?

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3. Fats.pptx

  • 3. CLASSIFICATION Simple Monoglyceride Diglyceride Compound Phospholipids Glycolipids Lipoproteins Derived Sterols Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids MUFA (Monounsaturated Fatty Acids) PUFA (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids) They do not have any double bond in their hydrocarbon chain Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain. When there is only one molecule of fatty acid attached to a glycerol molecule They do not have any double bond in their hydrocarbon chain
  • 5. COMPOUND LIPIDS Fat + Phosphorus = Phospholipids Fat + Carbohydrate = Glycolipids Fat + Protein = Lipoproteins 1. Low-density lipoprotein 2. High density lipoprotein
  • 6. DERIVED LIPIDS Derived Lipid Produced from fat & its substances Glycerol + Fatty Acids o Glycerol : o It makeup about 10% of Fats. o It is water soluble base triglycerides o During digestion Glycerol is removed & available for Glucose formation o Fatty Acids : o It is refined Fuel of Fat- Cell burns for Energy o They may be Saturated or Unsaturated o E.g. Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid, Palmitic acid, Myristic acid, Steric acid.
  • 7. CALORIFIC VALUE & RDA • One gram of fat gives 9 kilocalories. Group Fat (g/day) Adult men 20 Adult women 20 Pregnant women 30 Lactating women 45 Children (1-9 years) 25 Children (1-18 years) 22
  • 8. DIETARY SOURCES • Foods highest in saturated fats • Coconut oil, butter, animal fats, chocolate, fish oil, cheese, cream, nuts, processed meat etc. • Foods highest in unsaturated fats • Almonds, avocado, peanut butter, walnuts, vegetable oils, peas, beans and oily fish.
  • 9. FUNCTIONS OF FATS It is a concentrated source of energy, yielding more than twice the energy supplied by carbohydrate per unit weight. Fats are essential for the absorption of vitamin A,D,E,K and especially carotenoids present in foods of vegetable origin. Some animal fats, eg. Fish oils, butter and ghee contain vitamin A and many vegetable fats contain vitamin E and red palm oil is a good source of carotene. Fats contain essential fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acids which are essential for maintaining tissues in normal health.
  • 10. FUNCTIONS OF FATS Fats improve the palatability of the diet and give satiety value i.e. a feeling of fullness in the stomach. Fats helps to reduce the bulk of the diet as starchy foods absorb lot of water during cooking. Phosphatides and other complex lipids are essential constituents of nervous tissue. Fats are deposited in the adipose tissue and this deposit serves as a reserve source of energy during starvation. Further, adipose tissue functions like an insulating material against cold and physical injury.
  • 11. FUNCTIONS OF LIPOPROTEINS The function of lipoprotein particles is to transport lipids around the body in the blood.
  • 12. FUNCTIONS OF CHOLESTEROL • Cholesterol plays a part in producing hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone and cortisone. Hormone production • It is produced when the sun’s ultraviolet rays reach the human skin surface. Vitamin D production • It produces bile acids which aid in digestion and vitamin absorption. Bile production • It plays a very important part in both the creation and maintenance of human cell membrane. Cell membrane support
  • 13. DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND STORAGE OF FATS
  • 14. DIGESTION Dietary lipids (triglycerides) Lipid droplets in chyme Mono and diglycerides in micelles Synthesis of triglycerides packaged into chylomicrons Blood circulation Mouth Stomach Physical breakup into small pieces Emulsification by bile salts Partial hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase Small Intestine Intestinal lining
  • 15. ABSORPTION AND TRANSPORTATION OF FATS After digestion, (Monoglycerides & Fatty Acids) Associates with bile salts and phospholipids Micelles IMPORTANT Transport poorly soluble monoglycerides and fatty acids to epithelial cells found in S.I. Where they can be absorbed In this process, micelles breakdown constantly and reform again but it can not be absorbed. Re-synthesized into Triacylglycerol (TAG) Chylomicrones These are lipoproteins that are designed for transport of lipids in circulation. They flow into circulation via lymphatic vessels, which drain into general circulation
  • 16. FAT STORAGE • This blood transports lipids to the rest of the body and cells absorb them and utilize for energy. This breakdown of fats to yield energy is called lipolysis. • A majority of lipids enter the liver via lymph where the proteins and lipids are bound together to form lipoproteins. The main four types of lipoproteins are: • Chylomicrones • Very low-density lipoproteins • Low density lipoproteins • High density lipoproteins Apart from lipoproteins, cholesterol and phospholipids are also synthesized in the liver. This is called lipogenesis.
  • 17. METABOLISM Principle sites of fat metabolism are the liver and adipose tissue. About 20% of the triglycerides are delivered to the liver, where they are broken apart and either absorbed by the liver cells to produce energy. Fatty acids are oxidized by certain enzymes in the tissues to carbon dioxide and water. The oxidation takes place through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
  • 19. OVERCONSUMPTION OF FAT Atherosclerosis Increased cancer risk Risk of obesity Cardiovascular Diseases
  • 20. DEFICIENCY OF FAT Poor vitamin absorption Depression Increase cancer risk