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General characters of division chlorophyta 005

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General characters of division chlorophyta 005

  1. 1. GENERAL CHARACTERS OF DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA
  2. 2. DISTRIBUTION • Wide range of distribution – Aquatic • Fresh water • Marine water – Terrestrial
  3. 3. DISTRIBUTION • Still / Stagnant water – Volvox – Spirogyra – Chlamydomonas • Fresh flowing water – Oedogonium – Cladophora
  4. 4. DISTRIBUTION • Marine Water Species – Caulerpa – Bryopsis • Terrestrial Species – Trentepholia – Pleurococcus
  5. 5. CELL STRUCTURE • Eukaryotic • Extremely Variable Shapes • Cell wall composed of two layers • Inner layer made up of Cellulose • Outer layer made up of Pectic substances • Protoplast surrounded by cell membrane • Protoplast vacuolated • Cell may be Uni-nucleated or Multi-nucleated
  6. 6. Chloroplast in Chlorophyta • The most prominent feature of the cell • Variety of shapes • Number of Chloroplasts is also variable
  7. 7. Shapes of Chloplast • Cup shaped – Chlamydomonas • Stellate – Zygnema • Ribbon shaped – Spirogyra • Discoid – Cladophora • Reticulate – Oedogonium
  8. 8. Cup shaped – Chlamydomonas
  9. 9. Stellate– Zygnema
  10. 10. Ribbon shaped – Spirogyra
  11. 11. Discoid – Cladophora
  12. 12. Reticulate – Oedogonium
  13. 13. The Pigments • Chlorophyll a • Chlorophyll b • Carotenes • Lutein • Lycopene • Zeaxanthin • Violaxantin • Neoxanthin • Siphoxanthin
  14. 14. Reserve Food • Chloroplasts are associated with Pyrenoids • Pyrenoids – Bodies for reserve food material • Central core – Proteinacious • Surrounded by starch plates
  15. 15. Range of thallus • Unicellular and Motile • Unicellular and Motile but colonial • Unicellular non motile coccoid • Filamentous unbranched • Filamentous branched • Parenchymatous thalloid • Heterotrichous form • Siphonaceous form
  16. 16. Unicellular and Motile • Chlamydomonas
  17. 17. Unicellular and Motile but colonial • Volvox
  18. 18. Unicellular non motile coccoid • Scenedesmus • Chlorella
  19. 19. Filamentous unbranched • Ulothrix • Zygnema
  20. 20. Filamentous branched • Cladophora
  21. 21. Parenchymatous thalloid • Ulva
  22. 22. Heterotrichous form • Chaetophora
  23. 23. Siphonaceous form • Caulerpa
  24. 24. Economic Importance of Algae • Agriculture • Chemical Industry • Medicine • Food
  25. 25. Economic Importance of Algae • Algae As Food – Rich source of Proteins, Fats and Vitamins – Algae like Laminaria, Gracilaria used as food in China – Porphyra used as supplimentary diet by Japnese
  26. 26. Economic Importance of Algae • Algae As Food – Phaeophyceae(Brown Algae) • Laminaria& Sargassum – Rhodophyceae(Red Algae) • Porphyra & Palmaria – Chlorophyceae(Green Algae) • Ulva, Chlorella, Spirulina & Caulerpa
  27. 27. Algae As Food – Phaeophyceae(Brown Algae) • Laminaria& Sargassum
  28. 28. Algae As Food – Rhodophyceae(Red Algae) • Porphyra & Palmaria
  29. 29. Algae As Food – Chlorophyceae(Green Algae) • Ulva, Chlorella, Spirulina & Caulerpa
  30. 30. Economic Importance of Algae • Algae As Food – Some Important Products – Agar-agar – Gelidium, Gracilaria & Hypnea – Glycerol – Sorbitol – Dulcitol – Floridian Starch – Spirulina – Protein Rich nutritional Supplement
  31. 31. Economic Importance of Algae • Algae As Biofertilizers – Algae which fix Atmospheric Nitrogen • Anabaena • Nostoc • Tolypothrix – Algae form symbiotic relation with other plants • Anabaena and Azolla (Pteridophyte)(an aquatic plant) – used in Rice fields
  32. 32. Anabaena Nostoc Tolypothrix Tolypothrix
  33. 33. Economic Importance of Algae • Algae As Biofertilizers – Used directly as Fertilizers as they are rich in Potassium but poor in Nitrogen – Some times sea weeds are burnt and ashes are spread in the fields
  34. 34. REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE • Vegetative reproduction • Asexual Reproduction • Sexual Reproduction
  35. 35. REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE Alternation of Generation Alga (n) Male Gametangia (n) Gamets (n) Zygote (2n) Zygospore (2n) Female Gametangia (n) (n)(n) (n) (n) Gamets (n) Mature Spores (n) Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Spores (n) Germination of Spores (n)

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