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Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki

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Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki

  1. 1. 1 AMMONIA Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  2. 2. 2 AMMONIA APPLICATION • AS A REFRIGERANT. • FOR MFG. OF SYNTHETIC FIBRES, FERTILIZERS,EXPLOSIVES, ETC. • FOR EXTRACTION OF METALS SUCH AS COPPER,NICKEL FROM THEIR ORES. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  3. 3. 3 PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA • AMMONIA HAS GOT A PUNGENT SMELL & CAN BE SMELT AT AS LOW A LEVEL AS 1 PART PER MILLION. • AMMONIA IS LIGHTER THAN AIR & THEREFORE GETS DISPERSED EASILY. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  4. 4. 4 PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA • AMMONIA IN LIQUID FORM IS COLOURLESS BUT GIVES WHITE EXPANDING CLOUDS WHEN VAPORISED IN ATMOSPHERE. • AMMONIA READILY DISSOLVES IN WATER. • UNDER NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE & TEMP., AMMONIA IS PRESENT IN GASEOUS FORM. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  5. 5. 5 • THIS THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (8HRS. SAFE EXPOSURE WITHOUT ANY SIDE EFFECTS) OF AMMONIA IS 25 PARTS PER MILLION BY VOLUME. • FIRE HAZARD IS EXTREMELY LOW THE FLAMMABLE RANGE OF AMMONIA IS 16 TO 25 PERCENT BY VOLUME IN AIR. PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  6. 6. 6 HAZARDS OF AMMONIA • THE IRRITATION OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT OCCURS AT CONCENTRATION OF ABOVE 140-150 PARTS PER MILLION. • THE EFFECTS OF 500 PARTS PER MILLION OF AMMONIA CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR HAS NOT BEEN CONSIDERED SERIOUS FOR ON E HOUR EPOSURE. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  7. 7. 7 AMMONIA HAZARDS • Chemicals : a) Forms explosive compound by reacting with halogens hypochlorite's, mercury, etc. b) Copper, zinc, cadmium are attacked by ammonia in the presence of moisture. • Fire : Oxy-acetylene burning or welding on ammonia system can constitute a serious explosion and strict precautions must be taken while carrying out such jobs. • Engineering Hazards : a) Failure of gaskets joints, safety and controls. b) Corrosion of external surfaces of pipes. c) Non condensable gases – results high discharge pressure. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  8. 8. 8 SUMMARY OF SYMPTOMS/EFFECTS ON HUMAN BODY 25 PPM Odor detectable by most persons Max. 8 Hrs. 100 PPM 1. Eye irritation. 2. Conjunctivitis. 3. Swelling of eye lids. 4. Lips dry. 5. Red mouth/Throat burning. Deliberate exposure for long period not permitted. 400-700 PPM Immediate eye and respiratory tract irritation. No serious effect up to 1 hr. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  9. 9. 9 SUMMARY OF SYMPTOMS/EFFECTS ON HUMAN BODY 1700 PPM Coughing severe eye and respiratory tract protection Could be fatal after ½ an Hrs. 2000- 3000 PPM Could be fatal after 15 Min. 5000- 10000 PPM Fatal within minutes. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  10. 10. 10 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE OF AMMONIA - ACTIONS • Pour sufficient water at leakage point. • Wear respiratory protection. • Isolate area of leak. • Depressurize the pipe line. • Rectify the leakage point. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  11. 11. 11 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE OF AMMONIA - ACTIONS • Stand or Run opposite to direction of wind. • Immediately inform your supervisor. • Activate Emergency Alarm. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  12. 12. 12 FIRST AID FOR AMMONIA EXPOSURE. • Flush eyes with water. Keep eyelids open while flushing. • Eyes can be washed with 0.5-1% alum. • Neutralize ammonia by mouthwash garble & with a mixture of one part of vinegar with four parts of warm water. • Thoroughly wash the affected skin with running water for at least 10 min. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  13. 13. 13 • Drink plenty of water at regular intervals. • Inhale warm water vapors • In case of severe discomfort, consult a doctor. • Antidote; • Atropine injection 0.6 mg & repeat 2 hourly till necessary. FIRST AID FOR AMMONIA EXPOSURE Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  14. 14. 14 PRECAUTIONS WHILE WORKING ON AMMONIA LINES • Isolate Area of Work. • Use personal protective equipment. • Keep water hose always ready. • De-pressurize area of work. • Confirm the removal of ammonia from the system by crack opening the drain / vent valves. • Keep drain / vent always open while working on ammonia lines. • In case of minor leakage while working immediately pour water on the leakage point. • Keep emergency vehicle ready. • Ensure NH3 safety trained personnel only to work. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  15. 15. 15 AMMONIA – LEAK DETECTION • Easily detectable by odor. • By Hydrochloric acid / Sulphur sticks. • Infra red Sensors. – Continuous monitoring of air. – Leakage levels settings. – Alarm / Trip signals in case leakage is high. • Continuous Sampling : – Rosemount Analyzer. – Display of actual concentration. – Alarm / Trip signals in case leakage is high. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  16. 16. 16 AMMONIA - STORAGE • Storage Area : - Should be cool, dry, well ventilated, must be protected from external heat sources. - Exhaust fan s must be provided on roofs. - Water connection with flex. Hose is must. - While selecting the storage area wind direction must be considered, so as to leakage will be carried away from the residential areas. - Suitable detectors should be installed to detect the leakage and activate alarms. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  17. 17. 17 AMMONIA - STORAGE • Storage in Tank / vessels : - Tanks should be installed above ground. - Being the compressed gas tanks comes under pressure vessels act. Hence must be tested as per guidelines of MFR Act. - It is recommended to connect the tanks in parallel so that in case of emergency ammonia from one tank can be transferred to other tank. - The area of storage tanks must have bunds of adequate height, with water connection and drain point. - Shut Off valves should be easily approachable . - Each storage tank should be electrically grounded. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  18. 18. 18 AMMONIA - STORAGE • Storage in Tanks / vessels : – At least 2 nos. safety valves must be provided for each tank. Safety valve must be fitted with 3 way valve. These safety valves must be checked at regular intervals. – Local pressure indicator must be mounted on tanks. – Each storage tank must be protected with one fire hydrant point. – It is necessary to insulate the tanks to reduce heat gain and prevent frosting. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  19. 19. 19 AMMONIA - STORAGE • Storage in Cylinders : – Cylinders must be kept away from the heat source. – Cylinders must be pressure tested. – Must be kept upright and secured tightly. – Store cylinders away from oxidizing gases, chlorine, bromine etc. – Protective covers for cylinders valves must in place. – Correct tools must be used for opening and closing of the valves. – While disconnecting the cylinder valves must be closed and bleed line opened to release residual ammonia from hose. Connector should not be opened till the frost on pipe melts. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki
  20. 20. 20 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR AMMONIA • Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus. • Man with CABA. • Safe Shower. • Eye Wash. • Ammonia Face Mask with canister. • Mini canister. • Jumbo canister. Ammonia Safety created by Salim Solanki

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