hazop adsorption filtration hydrogen methanol hydrogenation troubleshooting biofuels chemistry catalyst deactivation ammonia ammonia plant carbon formation membrane processes gasification coal fatty acids revamps improve efficiency increase production reaction chemistry sulfur removal poisons purification ammonia plants foaming mechanical seals reaction kinetics hdpe process technology ldpe process technology polypropylene polyethylene polyolefins sulfur guards glycerin corrosion safety catalyst yields catalytic reforming mercury chlorides pressure drop distillation methanol plant water gas shift secondary reforming pre-reforming catalyst discharge process safety catalyst loading steam reforming catalysts process technology pressure relief systems methanol production hydroformylation pressure vessels reactor modeling tools description of fluid naphtha steam reforming benfield liquor suspensions anhydrous ammonia zeolites (molecular sieves) activated carbon physical solvents catalytic oxidation throughput regulation centrifugal compressors reciprocating compressors valves pipeline design for isothermal causes of pressure surge mass transfer heat transfer ion exchange electrodialysis dialysis pervaporation reverse osmosis fouling adiabatic flow isothermal flow mollier chart - hydrogen viscosity equilibrium effects failure mechanisms integrated gasification combined cycle (igcc) liquid fuels igcc plants petcoke development drivers igcc technology operational performance gasification-based energy conversion systems catalytic reactions membranes molecular sieves gas processing shale gas ethylene solvent crystallization inclusion thermal fractionation transesterification crystallization co-crystallization refrigeration renewable fuels biodeisel crude oil project management aghr kinetics sulfided state “dirty” shift catalysts iron-chrome catalysts gasification heavy oil gasification of coal selective hydrogenation temperature amines reaction rate fatty amines nitrogen impurities pressure stirred vessels catalyst storage charging health and safety precautions handling sulfur arsenic pyrolysis gasoline catalytic reformer acetylene oxygen process requirements nanocatalysis turndown reactor design equilibrium operations start-up catalyst activity by-product formation low temperature shift catalyst high temperature shift catalyst hts lts steam reforming catalysts process design design methodology applied mechanical design methane steam reformer re-tube studies metal dusting low temperature shift high temperature shift poisoning steam reforming catalyst burners reactions operating conditions nickel carbonyl hazard shutdown methanation catalyst catalyst start-up approach to equilibrium plant data analysis tube wall temperature measurement hydrogen plants ammonia synthesis operator training chloride removal hydrodesulfurization dechlorination catalysis methane steam reforming co2 removal causes of relief situations and installation of pressure relief devices statutory and other government approved requiremen isolation of relief systems steam boilers and associated equipment air receivers selection sizing pasquill - gifford methods monin-obukhov length gas dispersion meteorological parameters modeling the dispersion of oxides of nitrogen accidental releases of heavy gases air quality standards common problems affecting the header designs common problems affecting the catalyst common miscellaneous problems primary reformer - best practices guide common problems affecting the furnace box common problems affecting the tubes common problems affecting refractory common problems affecting the fluegas duct common problems affecting burners el impacto en el rendimiento del catalizador por e steam to carbon ratio carbon gasification carbon formation for naphtha feeds natural gas carbon formation chemistry reforming reactions theory of carbon formation in steam reforming steam calculation of an ammonia plant energy consumption calculation of caloric value and other characteris pickling & passivation steam blowing procedure chemical cleaning procedure pre-commissioning best practices piping and vessels flushing and cleaning procedure ammonia plant technology safe design of thermal oxidizers process design of vent headers mechanisms for ozone formation vent gas collection and destruction systems reverse osmosis electrodialysis granular carbon air stripping waste minimization techniques (wmt) treatment of aqueous organic effluent streams abatement technology absorption biological filtration reduction of discharges to atmosphere of volatile discharge measurement voc control thermal incineration condensation "on-purpose" hydrogen production uprating steam reformer post-reforming operational aspects oxygen-blown secondary reformer uprating options steam reforming catalysts and tube metallurgy downstream units training operators to use emergency isolation valv emergency isolation when no remotely operated valv detection of leaks and fires hand operated emergency valves actuators emergency isolation of chemical plants process flow diagrams process engineering preliminary engineering line diagrams oxigenadores mercurio eliminación de haluro eliminación de azufre purificación mecanismos de reacción hidrocarburos insaturados deberes de purificación h2 co2 oxígeno reducción de gases - co arsano degradation of amines and alkanolamines during sou amine reclaimer regenerator lean/rich heat exchanger three phase flash tank absorber inlet gas knockout amine gas treating extractive denitrogenation extractive desulfurization homogeneous catalysis industrial catalysis (iils) immobilized ionic liquids;shale gas sweeten petrochemical industries refining hydrocarbon liquid purification hydrocarbon gas purification shale liquids catalytic distillation oxidative coupling sulfur removal from ngls hydrogen transfer b scission (cracking) fcc catalyst reformer burner types/design excess air/heater efficiency maintenance combustion characteristics types of reformers good practice low nox equipment burner maintenance burner operation burner design partial combustion claus zinc titanates claus sulfur recovery units reactant induced deactivation thermal sintering catalyst poisoning deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts support media methanator reactor loading primary reforming ammonia production discharging catalysts pre-reduced catalysts nickel carbonyl catalyst catastrophes syngas production sealing considerations casing pressure rating driver power rating flow / head rating sequence basic nett positive suction head (npsh) centrifugal pumps amines stereochemistry amines applications amines reaction mechanisms amines production processes amines catalysis casale isothermal methanol converter (imc) methanol casale advanced reactor concept (arc) converter retrofit an specific heat an freezing point ammonium nitrate (an) properties an surface tension an deliquescence an density an decomposition an vapor pressure an combustion an viscosity an detonation an thermal conductivity pumps for ammonium nitrate service gtl shale gas processing shale gas pre-treatment isothermal sweet shift adiabatic sweet shift cos reactor catalyst shift reactor catalyst acid gas reactor catalyst syn gas sour shift sour shift catalyst ht shift hydrocracker unit fischer tropsch coal-to-liquids combined reforming gas heated reforming autothermal reforming ge gasifier lurgi methanol plant texaco gasifier aluminium aluminium alloys austenitic stainless steel nickel and nickel alloys pumps for sodium hydroxide selective oxidation cycloproportion cross coupling hydrosilylation decarbonylation carbonylation dehydrogenation mass transport and reactor design heterogeneous reaction mechanisms catalytic reaction rotary positive displacement pumps isothermal methanol converter methanol synthesis converter hydro-fracking unconventional oil and gas fracking products from petroleum based feedstocks biobased products from biomass chloride and caustic environments avoiding stress corrosion cracking of carbon low pressure syste thrust transfer system epicyclic gears torsional compliance pitch line velocity high precision gears flash temperature theory parallel shaft gears ifp fixed-bed semi-regenerative catalytic reforming technology unit revamps ifp (ccr) technology optimization arsine and other guards chloride guards mercury guards system start-up / shutdown / standby / upsets vessel entry synthesis gas applications vulcan series como catalyst vulcan series nimo catalyst pre-sulfiding on-line sulfiding operating problems catalyst problems converter problems methanol synthesis loop isothermal shift atr pre-reformer feed preparation (hds). feed preparation (saturato conventional methanol plant flow sheet conventional ammonia plant flow sheet “reducing risk and increasing profitability” syngas process integration octanizing fixed bed reforming semi regenerative reforming rz platforming (ccr) continuous catalytic regenerative reforming reforming process flow sheets reforming catalyst catalyst dualforming process variables reactor temperature feedstock yield reactor pressure hydrogen / hydrocarbon ratio space velocity mechanisms recovery column refining column topping column aa grade methanol dewatering column thermowell design pre-reformer isolation floating hold down screen hold down grating catalyst drop out nozzle outlet collector design pre-reforming technology pre-reformer design inlet baffle design synetix lcm uhde combined reforming uhde conventional reforming haldor topsøe conventional reforming mw kellogg conventional reforming lurgi combined reforming mgc conventional reforming mgc combined reforming haldor topsøe combined reforming hazop process glossary hazop reporting hazard study hazcon hazdem risk matrix hazard review post start-up review project close-out safety review pre-commissioning design verification construction project definition feed concept hazard review hazard studies kinetics experiments and modeling process chemistry chemical system continuous vapor phase chlorination reactor h - acid caustic fusion stage coupling hub attachment limited end float critical speeds quill shaft couplings elastomeric element couplings diaphragm couplings gear tooth couplings shaft couplings for special purpose rotary machine non-isothermal non-adiabatic reactor modeling heat and mass transfer parameters n-butane oxidation electric motor drives vertical pumps horizontal axially split casing pumps calculation of duty properties of fluid large water pumps pressure relief streams pressure protective devices pressure systems calculation of the nozzle exit state calculation of the adiabatic flame temperature calculation of the enthalpy of the reactants gas turbine engine stanjan the element potential method for chemical equilibr predicted value of y given regressors overall test of significance of the regression par using the critical value approach using the p-value approach test hypothesis on a regression parameter test of statistical significance test hypothesis of zero slope coefficients confidence intervals for slope coefficients regression coefficients table anova table multiple regressions scale of modeling for multiphase reactors steady state versus dynamic model deterministic versus empirical modeling temperature extremes: minimum operating temperature downstream pressure upstream density flowrate inlet fluid phase(s) upstream compressibility factor orifice restrictor upstream pressure temperature extremes: maximum hygiene inhalation of vapors on chemical plants occupational exposure limits fluid velocity trip settings maximum design pressure corresponding temperature alarm settings normal operating temperature equipment reference required temperature range line size reynolds number minimum design pressure nozzle size line reference specification of function monitoring of fugitive emissions pressure relief devices remakable joints machine seals fugitive emissions “protein” bacterial harvesting system “protein” organism flocculation dewatering of a specialty latex harvesting and thickening of single cell protein electro-dialysis electrodecantation electrodewatering harvesting of mycoprotein for human consumption effective design and operation of a process for ha isolation of individual molecular species part-cell separations whole-organism case biological separation the network modulus compressive yield stress test methods suspensions processing basic principles inorganic salt coagulants dispersants surfactants flocculants coagulants safety considerations side – fired and terrace wall reformer reformers top – fired reformer background temperature measurement best practices temperature measurement tube temperature measurement tube wall temperature measurement on steam reforme propagation of combustion lean and rich flammability limits types of combustible mixtures ignition phenomena detonation minimum energy of ignition explosion limit glow flame structure flammability limits: examples combustion of gaseous fuels deflagration flammability limits: definition selfignition laminar and turbulent flames flammability limits premixed and diffusion flames minimum ignition energy of gases combustible mixture the importance of sedimentation to suspension proc determination of argon in ammonia plant process ga determination of iron cost estimating turbo blowers reduction with lpg feed catalyst reduction by nh3 cracking catalyst reduction with methanol epc projet management theory of separation nozzle characteristics centrifuge types centrifugal separation determination of diethanolamine;auto titrator determination of residue on evaporation in anhydro nitrogen in natural gas gas chromatography carbon dioxide ethane ion chromatography anions oxygen in anhydrous ammonia air-steam regeneration procedure in-situ oxidation high and low temperature shift catalysts low temperature shift catalyst reduction high temperature shift catalyst reduction procedur low temperature shift catalyst reduction procedure colloidally stable suspensions spherical particles of around 1 µm effect of particle size distribution rheology of flocculated / aggregated systems effect of particle shape dilute flocculated systems submicron particles very concentrated systems particle packing rheology rheological concepts structure of stable suspensions of monodisperse p concentrated suspensions dilute suspensions structure of flocculated suspensions mechanisms of flocculation stability and the state of dispersion of suspended surface forces dispersion's carbon formation in mixed feed preheat coils the theory underlying filtration processes complete blocking the mechanism of simple filtration systems standard blocking cake filtration classical theory for the permeability of porous ca intermediate blocking the rate of filtration through a compressible cake cake filtration – models and mechanisms the compression or consolidation of filter cakes semi-empirical relations for constant pressure and degree of dewatering the rate of consolidation the range and selection of filtration equipment te multiphase theory of filtration constant rate filtration constant pressure filtration crossflow filtration scale gas analysis: determination of hydrogen sulfide b plant analytical techniques analytic chemistry residue and oil hydrocarbons in anhydrous ammonia by gas chromatog gc method argon carbon monoxide in anhydrous ammonia inert gas in anhydrous ammonia inert gas analysis seals and sealant systems centrifuges large electric motors and alternators oil lubricated plain bearings and lubricating oil gas turbines/expanders and steam turbines condition monitoring gearboxes knock-out pots pulsation dampers protection against high or low temperature dynamic machines displacement measuring devices sealless pumps special considerations for dry vacuum pumps positive displacement machines dynamic compressors and blowers dynamic pumps critical machine systems protection against over pressure vibration detection devices inlet guide vane units system equipment specifications mechanism and effects of surge control schemes including surge protection dynamic considerations use of compressor characteristics in throughput r multiple stage having more than one impeller multiple stage having more than one impeller single compressor stage anti-surge protection backing material surface thickness cleaning procedure white metal bond soundness tinning witnessed inspection machining inspection of bond for seal rings method of calculating reflectance cast white metal bearings two column system distillation systems sludge derived adsorbents metal oxides polymers materials used for h2s adsorption biological methods materials used for h2s adsorption biological methods physical solvents physical solvents liquid-phase oxidation systems physical solvents liquid-phase oxidation systems h2s scavengers liquid-phase oxidation systems h2s scavengers liquid-phase oxidation systems h2s scavengers amine absorption units amine absorption units caustic scrubbers caustic scrubbers chemical oxidants claus process associated and shale gas upgrading a comprehensive guide to controlling h2s emissions selective catalytic reduction selective non-catalytic reduction direct thermal oxidation fixed bed adsorption regenerative thermal oxidation environmental pollution control catalytic solutions industrial gases cleaning the removal of organic and inorganic compounds methanol distillation column protection against crank case explosions procedures required to avoid fires and explosions operating and maintenance lubricated air compressors inlet line throttle valve inlet line cut-off valve molecular weight variation droplets in suspension standby machines bypass clearance volume variation process gas composition compressor inlet valve lifter speed variation gas solution in lubricating oil for cylinder and g particulate contamination compressibility variation polymer deposit hybrid regulation systems gas dryness driver considerations reliability classification compressor type separation system kinetic effects conversion-yield effects heat effects estimation of conversion classification of chemicals effect of recycle recycle structure multiple reactors reaction and reactor batch vs continuous product strategy chemical process conception fixed bed reactor scale-up checklist sofc (solid oxide fuel cells) pcfc (proton conducting fuel cell) pafc (phosphoric acid fuel cell) spfc (solid polymer fuel cell) afc (alkaline fuel cell) mcfc (molten carbonate fuel cells) dmfc (direct methanol fuel cell) fuel cells novel reactor technology thiele modulus equivalent pellet diameter pellet density voidage reactor and catalyst design fluid bed reactors divided bed reactors with intercooling radial flow reactors with intercooling autothermal reactors hot/cold shot reactors non adiabatic reactors tubular reactor with external heating/cooling tube cooled reactors single bed reactors adiabatic reactors moving bed reactors divided bed reactors radial flow reactors solid catalyzed gas phase reactor selection scale-up and specification of gas-liquid reactors packed columns bubble columns gas-liquid reactor modeling scale of mixing gas flow pattern : mean driving force for mass tra laboratory gas-liquid reactor experiments liquid flow patterns direct measurement of reaction kinetics equilibrium and diffusivity experimental determination of regime preliminary selection of reactor type chemical and physical rates rate and yield determining steps modification for exothermic and complex reactions equipment for high viscosity liquids equipment for low viscosity liquids gas - liquid reactors integral and differential heats estimation of heats of solution and mixing calculation of heats of solution / dilution temperature effect on heat of reaction heats of neutralization estimation of standard heats of formation heat of formation data compilations analogous reactions determination of heats of reaction heats of formation standard states hess's law physical properties and thermochemistry for reacto micromixing and macromixing models based on method of moments reaction is second order reaction is first order residence time distribution data stirred vessel reactor loop reactor gas phase reactions scraped-film reactor liquid reactors - high viscosity extruder in-line flow mixers backmixed gas reactor z-blade mixer jet-mixed reactor vessel liquid phase reactions continuous flow spinning cone thin-film reactor liquid reactors - low viscosity gas reactors - backmixed or batch costing gas reactors - plug flow residence time and flow pattern modeling of ideal reactor types homogeneous reactors laboratory microreactors effective diffusivity langmuir - hinshelwood kinetics berty reactor reaction kinetic equation effective rate constant transport limitations solid catalyzed reactions how to use the gbhe reactor technology guides fan and compressor applications positive displacement blowers sliding vane compressors screw compressors liquid ring compressors axial compressors fans the preliminary choice of fan or compressor integration of special purpose centrifugal fans in critical classification for high substance hazard reasons for critical class general purpose fans centrifugal blowers examination of critical centrifugal fans and blowe mixer design correlations motionless mixers tubular jet flow mixers for miscible liquids jet mixed tanks flow and circulation heat-transfer in stirred vessels vortex formation and surface entrainment in unbaff mixing time for liquids in stirred tanks power requirements tubular ('flow') mixers mechanically agitated vessels jet mixed vessels mixing of miscible liquids nozzles and venturis orifices ratio of isothermal to adiabatic pressure drop estimation of pressure drop for adiabatic flow in equation for pressure change in a flowing fluid sonic flow incompressible flow in pipes of constant cross-se static and stagnation pressures estimation of pressure drop in pipe systems designing non-flooded pipelines designing for flooded flow overflows and gravity drainage systems residence time distribution velocity profile from rheological model velocity profile from experimental flow-curve effect of wall slip velocity profiles bends contraction losses losses in pipe fittings tubular viscometer data expansion effects entrances losses use of shear stress – shear rate data rheological models experimental characterization rheological behavior of purely viscous non-newton laminar flow of non-newtonian fluids pipe roughness pipe fittings pressure drop in the absence of wall slip and dra drag reduction in polymeric materials design procedure for pressure drop in turbulent p transition delay by polymeric materials wall slip delay by polymeric materials drag reduction in suspensions description of anomalous effects turbulent flow of non-newtonian fluids oscillatory shear measurements normal force measurement stress relaxation elongational viscosity measurement rheological models involving temperature dependenc bingham plastic power law direct use of numerical data cone and plate viscometers checks for consistency of data and interpretation tube or capillary viscometer parallel plate viscometer estimate of process shear rate concentric cylinder viscometers viscometer measurements for time-independent flui classification of non-newtonian fluids non-newtonian fluid behavior interpretation and correlation of viscometric data forces on pipe supports calculation of peak pressures sudden changes in flowrate rigid liquid column theory moderately rapid changes in flowrate reflections and attenuations complex piping systems vapor cavity formation pipeline period estimation of the sonic velocity consequences of pressure surges pressure surge in liquid systems data sources for calculating chemical reaction equ scaling biological growth deposition comparison of cooling systems closed recirculating systems open evaporative recirculating systems ‘once through' cooling systems choice of cooling system water treatment for cooling water non oxidizing biocides microbiological fouling combined inhibitors cathodic inhibitors yellow metal inhibitors anodic inhibitors oxidizing biocides crystallization scaling particulate fouling chemical treatment for cooling water gas mixing: backmixed initial zone gas mixing: plug flow gas mixing solids circulation spouted bed plenum chamber design mechanisms of mixing and segregation particle segregation rate of mixing mixing in fluidized beds gas-solid fluidized bed gas solid mixing gas-solid-liquid mixing systems mixing free-flowing powders powder mobility mixing cohesive powders solids mixing standard tank configuration reynolds number ranges hold-up in continuous vessels design for mass transfer prediction of phase inversion design for complete dispersion density interfacial tension 'high shear' mixers flow mixers agitated tanks mixing of immiscible liquids jet mixing for solid liquid agitation floating solids agitator speed correlation dispersion suspension of heavier-than-liquid solids agitated vessels mixing of solid-liquid systems vessel geometry agitators multi-pipe gas sparger jet ejectors dough mixer in-line dynamic mixer thin film jet-mixed vessel bubble column design of gas-liquid static mixers stirred vessel design of gas-liquid stirred vessels mixing patterns mass transfer and voidage fluid interface and reaction effects design of bubble columns mixing of gas liquid systems turbulent diffusion bulk movement shear and elongation molecular diffusion mixing mechanisms phase separation mixing time mixing and agitation manual mixing guides microstructure of dried particles product collection temperature sensitive products safety aspects feedstock preparation feedstock atomization hybrid dryers spray drying desorption isotherms dynamic method : equilibrium moisture content rig equilibrium moisture content ignition thermal stability methods of protection flammability of dust clouds explosion protection explosion prevention fire and explosion hazards in dryers microwaves drying systems microwaves drying microwaves general microwaves generation microwaves heating microwaves transmission microwaves hazards microwave and radio frequency drying grosvenor chart psychrometric charts psychrometry graphical design using ternary diagrams ternary systems with immiscible liquids composition diagrams graphical representation of liquid-liquid phase eq chromatography foam fractionation gas permeation fractional crystallization supercritical fluid extraction clathration dissociation extraction ultrafiltration liquid membranes fractional distillation azeotropic distillation extractive distillatio fluid separation column control system improper operating conditions effect of other units on column performance auxiliary equipment efficiency problems capacity problems troubleshooting in distillation columns distillation sequences complex columns and heat integration mccabe - thiele method liquid holdup batch size choice of batch rectification or stripping column operating pressure total reflux operation and heating-up time initial estimate of cut policy occupation fractional batch distillation simple batch distillation boiling point curve and cut policy scope of calculations required for design method of design choice of batch/continuous operation batch distillation electrolysis salt splitting gas separation and vapor permeation microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane types and polymers used use and applications of membranes composition control design of feedback control systems mass balance control pressure and condensation control reboiler control control of continuous distillation columns high pressure systems special models liquid phase non-idealities ideal behavior in both phases diagrammatic representation of ideal and non-idea vle data - selection and use shut down procedure experimental equipment start up procedure oldershaw columns laboratory distillation sloppy separations sharp separations design and simulation of continuous distillation c scale effects two liquid phases flow regimes on trays mass transfer efficiency hydraulic capacity deep vacuum two-stage liquid distributor distillation trays bubble cap trays sieve trays valve trays dualflow baffle trays bubble cap detail dualflow trays effect of heat transfer on liquid film stability selection of internals for distillation columns non-ideal equilibrium curve sizing of main plant items prediction of overall plate efficiency estimationof plateage and reflux requirements shortcut methods of distillation design oscillation frequencies analysis of tray vibration and action to be taken unstable flow tray vibration vapor feeds liquid feeds two phase or flashing feeds liquid drawoffs reboiler circuits vapor drawoffs reboiler returns design and rating of trayed distillation columns packing vapor draw-offs reboil return pipe reflux or feed pipe support grid packing hold-down grid liquid draw-offs liquid distributor or redistributor liquid collector peripheral irrigation - the wall zone pour point density maximum bed height and liquid redistribution distributor levelness liquid distribution and redistribution design and rating of packed distillation columns choice of solvent liquid-liquid extraction equipment principles of extraction liquid liquid extraction tube-to-baffle clearance bundle-to-shell clearance minimum 'u' bend clearance tube pitch baffle-to-shell clearance pass partition lane widths mechanical constraints on thermal design of shell heat transfer coefficients for non-newtonian and the eddy viscosity for non-newtonian and drag red the integration of the energy equation turbulent heat transfer to non newtonian fluids in estimation of thermal performance flooding non-condensing gases estimation of pressure drop refluxing condensation systems (dephlegmators) laminar heat transfer to non newtonian fluids in c fouling resistance heating medium temperature design and layout of vertical thermosyphon reboile materials of construction dimensions and weight repairs design methods safety and reliability type of duty temperatures and pressures selection of heat exchanger types non-chromate systems chromate systems cooling water fouling fouling resistances for cooling water baffle spacing impingement plates removable bundles sludge blowdown horizontal or vertical shell orientation baffle cut orientation shell and tube heat exchangers using cooling water economic factors in design mechanical design constraints air side fouling design ambient conditions thermal duty and design margins process pressure drop process physical properties air cooled heat exchanger design heating and cooling of batch processes cylindrical graphite block exchangers cubic block exchangers shell and tube carbon impregnation phenolic resin impregnation ptfe impregnation furane resin impregnation graphite heat exchangers heat transfer and pressure drop heat transfer and pressure drop in wavy passages hot block heaters types of process electric heaters pipeline immersion heaters induction heaters radiant furnaces indirect (fluid bath) heaters tank heaters and boilers environment cross contamination low temperature applications location of equipment control electric process heaters plate-fin heat exchangers plate heat exchangers internal condensers spiral plate heat exchangers air cooled heat exchangers shell and tube exchangers direct contact condensers refrigerant condensers water cooled condensers distillation columns selection and design of condensers distillation column condensers estimation of pressure drop for adiabatic figure bayonet tube vaporizer compressible flow in pipes of constant cross-sect internal boiler forced circulation boiler suppressed vaporization boiler external generation of vapor thermosyphon reboilers separation efficiency direct vapor injection reboilers for distillation columns immiscible condensates physical properties for heat exchanger design thermal design margins for heat exchangers ultrasonic homogenizers in-line mixers unshrouded agitators turbine mixers the shrouded turbine high shear' mixers compressibility chart hydrogen from electrolytic cells hydrogen compressors mixed lubrication boundary lubrication hydrodynamic fluid film lubrication hydrostatic fluid film lubrication lubrication basics mechanical engineering engineering of seals shaft seals flammability hazards pure hydrocarbons velocity of sound cavitation associated compounds toxicology pumps for hydrocarbon service acceleration head frictional head pressure pulsation pump flowrate and capacity pumping pressure reciprocating metering pumps multiple spring or bellows breakages mechanical breakdown bearings centrifugal pump operation and maintenance construction features soft-packed glands choice of seal duty calculations need for continuous flow choice of driver pump reliability boiler water circulation pumps steam turbines drivers dual drivers electric motors inlet booster pumps multistage centrifugal type peripheral type barske type boiler feedwater pumps regeneration procedure psa applications psa special precautions process start-up loading of top support material loading of bottom support material loading of sieve vessel inspection adsorption units adsorbents adsorbent bed profile pressure drop characteristics adsorbent selection criteria bed sizing based upon adsorbent loading bed sizing adjustment based upon pressure drop cri bed sizing adjustment based upon reaction kinetics supported catalysts surface oxidation reducibility of metal oxides dissociative adsorption of methane catalytic partial oxidation fischer-tropsch synthesis dissociative adsorption of carbon monoxide metal oxides of lower valency determining pressure drop active surface area catalyst design production of heterogeneous catalysts catalyst mechanical strength size of catalyst catalyst design production of heterogeneous catalysts catalyst mechanical strength es determining pressure drop active surface area s size of catalyst electricity or direct reduction gas (dri)mdea sng vulcan catalytic absorbents solid fixed-bed absorbents rectisol selexol gensorb sulfinol amdea reformer troubleshooting pressure drop measurement unidense loading sock loading reformer best practices potassium common poisons halides organo-metalics alkali metals phosphates vanadium carbon cracking boudouard carbon formation co reduction chemical technologies production of biofuels via gasification thermochemical conversion biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass conversion in biorefineries useful tools calculating atm effect of exit temperature spread reaction path and equilibrium effect operating parameters pressure increase steam to carbon feed rate effect of temperature on methane slip relationship of wgs kp to temperature relationship of kp to temperature methane steam tube failures tunnel port effect air leaks tunnel problems flue gas mal-distribution manufacturing technology comparison of alloys alloy developments microalloy: 25 cr / 35 ni + nb + ti hk40: 25 cr / 20 ni effect of temperature on tube life design temperature hp modified: 25 cr / 35 ni + nb max allowable temperature tube life material types design margins stress data larsen miller plot tube manufacture inspection techniques tube design principles tube design modelling and analysis outputs case studies results observation twt survey onsite data collection preparation heat and mass balance aspen hysys v8 stefan-bolzman equation optical pyrometer emissivity ir pyrometer optimization of primary reformer operation reformer survey inputs background radiation temperature measurement larson - miller curve inspection methods non destructive testing reformer tube metallurgy ndt design considerations metallurgy biodiesel feedstock biodiesel fractionation processes biofuels: production methods foundational technology biofuels production biofuels reaction mechanism canola and mustard oil seed crops conventional biodiesel fractionation technologies base catalyzed esterification of oils process flowsheet transesterification reaction biodiesel raw materials air needs of biodiesel industry pollutants foundational technology: distillation schematic of petroleum refining petroleum industry petroleum diesel engines jp-8 jp-5 ft synthetic fuels environmental benefits global biofuels mandates lifecycle emissions from biofuels lifecycle emissions from fossil fuels key advantages of second-generation biofuels for a public policy-driven demand for biofuels second-generation biofuels for aviation methane air steam regeneration on shut down air steam regeneration on start-up methane steam ref nickel oxide to nickel activating (reducing) initial catalyst reduction methan reduction procedure methanation catal polymeric carbon hydrocarbon cracking products of catalytic cracking thermodynamics potash in steam reforming carbon deposition ft liquids conventional combustion power substitute natural gas (sng) sour gas shift catalyst sasol partial oxidation biomass-to-urea biomass-to-ammonia biomass to-aromatics biomass-to-pvc biofuels;integrated solutions mtp propylene mto biomass-to-olefins integrated bio-refining green petrochemicals biomass-to-methanol biomass-to-chemicals biomass gasification carbon capture production of chemicals syn gas production gasifier designs fertilizers methanol formation kinetic model alternative schemes for improving heat recovery effect of low steam ratio on net efficiency effect of low steam ratio on gross efficiency effect of low steam ratio on the steam reformer effect of low steam ratio on h t shift & psa sustainability environment responsibility corporate social responsibility free-lance tools generation of supplier positioning model portfolio analysis buyers tactics and strategies sellers worldwide gasification database copper oxide sulfiding mechanisms reduced metals nickel sulfur guard manganese sulfur guard thiophenes liquid phase active metal gas phase isomerization catalysts reactions in catalytic reforming sulfur related problems effects of sulfur in catalytic reforming exit screen composition high surface area dust collectors meshes over exit collector hold-down screens hold-down balls synthesis gas support balls refinery hydrogen high purity alumina pall rings super saddles cross- partition rings alumina balls structured packings honeycombs raschig rings saddles berl saddles technical service mdea teg aromatichydrogenation benzene diolefins cracked hydrocarbons steam-cracker effluents biodiese entrained-flow reactors fluidized-bed reactors fixed-bed reactors sulfur extraction pyrolysis gasoiline purification technology metallocene ziegler natta polyolefins catalyst carbon footprint ultra-deep oil gas-to-liquids bitumen oil sands oil shale tight shale oil heavy oil condensate natural gas liquids capital projects assessment potash doping carbon laydown ghr pigtail nippers approach hydrodesulfurization catalysts hydrogenation catalyst sulfiding startup of pre-reforming catalysts reduction of pre-reforming catalysts benzothiophene sulfur in feed ultrapurification mechanisms for dbt desulfurization hds reactions relative reactivities fixed bed processes acetylenes alkylation reaction chemistry alkenes catalyst morphology olefin feedstocks alky unit pre-treatment fme - biodiesel fatty ester hydrogenolysis slurry phase hydrogenolysis fatty oh polishing fixed bed hydrogenolysis splitting ni catalyst for fa hydrogenation organic functional groups fatty alcohols glycerine fatty methyl esters oleochemicals brush hydrogenation dynamic state dynamic state of dissolved nickel soaps formation of nickel soaps nickel dissolution in the presence of hydrogen ni soap decomposition hydrogenation process dissolved nickel fatty amines reaction pathways fatty amines processes supported ni powders fatty amines production catalyst choice raney ni reaction conditions nh3 pressure selectivity fatty amines uses fatty amine types amine distribution amines conversion directional influence of h2o quaternary amine salts directional influence of nh3 hetero-alkyl amines tertiary amines reaction pathways of fatty amines directional influence of h2 elimination of ignition sources proper maintenance and inspection leak prevention & detection flammability selectivity effects of changing temperature hydrogen concentration triglycerides fats edible oils oils loop reactors hydrogenation reactors other reactor types operation of low temperature shift catalysts high temperature shift catalysts operation of high temperature shift catalysts reduction and start-up of high temperature shift c low temperature shift catalysts reduction and start-up of low temperature shift ca discharging condensation of gums and diolefins polymeric materials things to consider trying things to look at material issues discharge issues operational issues pipe work wider process issues vessel designs vessel loading feed issues catalytic reactor process - prompt list operational problems temperature excursions in hydrogenation reactors liquid re-distributor catalyst separation screens void space outlet collector catalyst un-loading connections catalyst bed supports collector design inert balls fixed bed reactor internals inlet distributor design debris critical variables for catalytic reforming minimum critical variables best practice caustic injection chloride guard bed water wash prevention remove nitrogen from the feed remove chloride from stabilizer feed design to mitigate salt formation operating practices problems with water injection mitigating system fouling what causes nh4cl salts? stabilizer chloride management problems regeneration section reactor options typical c5+ yield at decreasing pressure typical flow scheme fired heaters revamp revamp options revamp philosophy typical benefits of full conversion. revamping of changes required for full conversion continuous reforming unit semi-regenerative reforming unit revamp to hybrid operation revamp objectives nht response to reformer upsets design instrumentation of nht stripper purpose of nht stripper reformer problems carbon deposits carbon burning in air feedstock composition effects carbon deposits formed on catalysts heavy metals foulants silica cadmium poisons in hydrocarbon processing temporary poisons permanent poisons boiler feed water impurities carbon iron oxide lead reactor configuration c4 fractions steam cracker processes front end systems flow sheet absorbents cracking furnaces chemistry of cracking cracker feeds feedstock impurities feedstock sources bender history lead health hazard information process objectives bender catalyst replacement kerosene sweetening chemistry principal applications vulcan series xc 300 catalyst properties process benefits catalyst benefits dioxin waste disposal dioxin waste handling dioxin contamination dioxin emissions abatement dioxin control processes dioxin monitoring & analysis vent gas abatement manganese chemistry chloride remova magnaforming foulant removal voida fraction key operational and design considerations r-cl formation mechanism chemisorption vs chemical reaction surface chemistry of aluminas organic chloride formation green oil formation chloride related problems caused by alumina hcl removal mechanisms friedel-crafts alkylation undesirable side reactions activated aluminas chloride guard options scholl reaction chloride related problems arsine fccu offgas nitriles cos removal nitrogen oxides h2s absorption phosphine process objectives oxygen converter cyanides rsh removal impurities removal impurities effect off gas processing performance guarantees fixed beds loading unloading wgs reduction pre-reformer installation catalyst heating pre-reformer startup pre reformer loading catalyst drying high temperature operation impact of sulfur pre-reforming problems services for pre-reforming primary reformer efficiency effect of pre-reformer inlet temp process benefits of pre-reforming process effects of pre-reforming benefits of a pre-reformer catalyst handling flow-schemes feed-stocks reactor temperature profile electrochemical reduction method condensation of metal vapor method ligand displacement method thermal photochemical and sonochemical reduction method chemical reduction method homogeneous nanocatalyst preparation methods petrochemicals nanotechnology petroleum refining green oil effect of co thermocouple placement h/d ratio reasons for acetylene removal acetylene reactor feeds reacting components and conditions selectivity vs. temperature and ethane formation reacting components reactor operation product variability cracker feedstock placement of acetylene hydrogenation reactor ethylene plant flowsheets acetylene hydrogenation inert carrier poisons use of hydrogen use of cracked ammonia shut down methanol loop start up distillation control topping column details refining column details distillation problems refining column operation topping column operation distillation theory principles of distillation flowsheet description methanol reformer designs byproducts methanol synthesis chemistry flowsheets methanol synthesis quench converter adiabatic beds tube cooled methanol converter types arc converter toyo mrf-z steam/carbon ratio hydrogen plant speckling giraffe necking catalyst settling. hot bands steam condensation carbon formation/removal catalyst breakage reformer tubes shut-down mechanical troubleshooting guide methane steam reformer troubleshooting hydrogen plant monitoring effects of water synthesis catalyst primary reformers pre-reformers hydrocarbon purification ammonia formation hydrogen fires safe systems methanation methanol fire reliability plant safety modern hydrogen plants ageing hydrogen plants ageing ammonia plants ageing methanol plants hydrogen purification laboratory reactor data key performance criteria catalyst selectoin catalyst characterization plant data steam reformer modelling steam reforming reactions pre-and post-reforming equilibrium considerations secondary reformer flowsheets secondary reformers methanol plants derect reduction iron bed and system design catalyst parameters ammonia synthesis catalyst start-up of steam reforming catalyst reduction of steam reforming catalyst acci site safety catalyst reduction catalyst design criteria carbon formation and prevention reformer configurations monitoring reforming catalysts steaming reforming catalysts practical operations controlled variables prediction of remaining catalyst life steam reformer kbr. linde (lac) topsoe ammonia casale. uhde (uhde/jm partnership) naphtha characterization methanation operations towns gas hyco midrex type processes direct reduction iron (dri) hyl type processes syngas midrex type flowsheets hyl type flowsheets dri processes combined tubesheet assembly fabrication fired-box reformer conventional reforming purification system shut-down purification system start-up ammonia synthesis loop secondary reformer braun purifier process accident prevention confined spaces control entry catalyst shape catalyst chemistry chemical reactions reforming plant outages plant mal-operation basic flowsheet elements modern ammonia plant's
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