Corporate agriculture or farming.
• What is corporate agriculture?
• Why we adopt corporate agriculture?
• CORPORATE FARMING ORDINANCE (CFO)-2001.
• Merits and Demerits of corporate agriculture.
Cooperative agriculture or farming.
• What is cooperative agriculture?
• Needs for cooperative farming.
• Merits and demerits of cooperative farming.
3. What is corporate agriculture?
It is a term that describes the business of agriculture OR The
practices of mega corporations involved in food production on
a very large scale.
It is a modern food industry concept include not only farm
itself but also entire chain of Agriculture related business,
including seed supply, agrochemicals, food processing,
machinery, storage, transportation, distribution, advertising &
4. Why we adopt corporate agriculture?
• As the small farmers of Pakistan are unable to
adapt new technologies and cannot afford the
costly input required to get optimum yield from
new crop varieties.
• The idea of Corporate Farming was to cultivate all
waste Lands in Pakistan by bringing foreign
corporations, which Would cultivate these lands by
modern technologies by Employing local labor, at
attractive wages, train local People, pay local taxes,
develop roads and communication net-works, and
bring prosperity at nominal profits to themselves
5. CORPORATE FARMING ORDINANCE (CFO)-2001
Corporate Farming Ordinance (CFO) was passed in 2001 Under
which listed corporations could lease land in the Country for 99
years, broken into two periods of 50 years And 49 years.
Besides, the then government had identified6.764 million acres
of State lands for leasing to different corporations.
6. CORPORATE FARMING MERITS
• New Technology Use
• High Employment
• Increase in Production and economic activity
• Reduce Fragmentation
• Increases Export Performance
• Handsome Share of Taxes to the Government
7. CORPORATE FARMING DEMERITS .
• Non-sustainable Production
• Makes farmers landless
• Undermines local production
• Undermines local farm machinery
• Rural migration to urban areas
• Corporate farming is good and it will help to increase the
productivity of the farms as observed in various regions
because it is backed & financed by big corporations.
• It will enhance the use of highly advanced technology and will
also develop our farm-market infrastructure and will also
increase agricultural products export.
• It will also provide employment opportunities to agriculture
graduates and farmers.
• The present condition of Pakistan’s agriculture indicates that
the prospects of corporate farming in Pakistan is bright
subject to the managerial skills of the companies and their
relationship with the local community/small farmers.
9. Cooperative agriculture or farming.
It is working together towards a common end OR
cooperative agriculture is a system of organized
Agriculture established under an association owned and
operated by the farmers of a locality to have mutual
benefits regarding cultivation & harvest of their farm
products, purchase of farm equipments, machinery etc.
supply of inputs at lowest possible rates, processing &
marketing of produce to earn maximum possible returns.
10. Need for co-operative Farming:
• Motivation for the co-operative farming is sometimes
described as “overcoming the curse of smallness”.
• Co-operative, being an association of a large number of small
farmers, act as a large business entity in the market reaping
the significant advantages of economies of the scale that are
not available to its members individually. Three typical
examples are a machinery pool, marketing cooperative and a
• A family farm may be too small to justify the purchase of a
tractor or any other required farm machinery/equipment for
its own use, machinery pool purchases the necessary
equipment for joint use of all members as needed.
• It provides the means of transportation for delivery of farm
produce to market. Small farms may not have means,
cooperative act as integrator, collecting out put of small
farmers (members) deliver it in large quantities through
• Finance facilities by co-operative banks/commercial banks to
individual farmers, bank may refuse or charge high interest
11. Merits of cooperative farming:
• Members pool their land into a single unit.
• They also pool their man-power and other resources.
• Ownership of land continues to be with the individual
• The society is formed voluntarily and is run on co-
• Members receive remuneration according to the work
done and the land contributed for joint cultivation.
• Society lays down the program for farm operations and
each member does his assigned work according to the
• Management of resources is conducted jointly.
• Members have the option to leave the organization.
12. Demerits of cooperative farming:
• No increase in production: It has been argued that in big
farms productivity per man increases but not per acre so in
cooperative farming production not increased.
• Lack of initiative and responsibility: Co-operative farming
involving the entire productive activity of all their members
will leave hardly any scope for personal initiative and sense
• Lack of trained personnel: Scheme of co-operative farming
can succeed only if the same are being implemented by
trained and efficient personnel and hence there is a little
chance of co-operative farming being successful.
• Failure in other parts of the world
Co-operative farming has not succeeded in 'most parts of
the world. If they have achieved good results in countries
like Israel, it was because of special religious sentiments.
• Corporate Agriculture though can serve as a means of
high tech agriculture enterprise, generate local & foreign
reserves, however, a strict regulatory frame work of Govt.
is a pre requisite, otherwise, it will be catastrophic
• Although, cooperative agriculture system has certain
challenges in socio-economic, cultural & politically
divided rural farming communities, if Govt. empowers &
strengthens the cooperative institutions it will offer
enormous opportunities of development in Agriculture