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Outline of the Presentation► What is Knowledge ?► Knowledge Management► Learning Organization
What is Knowledge ?“To represent reality in thought or experience the way it really is on the basis of adequate grounds.”
Data, Information & Knowledge DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGEDefinition Raw facts, figures Data placed into Information in and records a form that is context to make contained in a accessible, timely it insightful and system. and accurate. relevant for human action.Reason Processing Storing / Insight, Accessing. innovation, improvement.
Two Kinds of KnowledgeKnowledge is intangible, dynamic, and difficult tomeasure, but without it no organization cansurvive. Tacit: or unarticulated knowledge is morepersonal, experiential, context specific, and hardto formalize; is difficult to communicate or sharewith others; and is generally in the heads ofindividuals and teams. Explicit: explicit knowledge can easily bewritten down and codified.
Sources of knowledge1. People2. Books3. Experience4. Experimentation and observation5. Thinking and pondering
Cont…Common sense: Every one knows that it is soIntuition: I just know itBeliefs: it is based on personal convictionTenacity: verification over the yearsTradition: practice through generationsPersonal Experience: personal testing and experienceAuthority: the word of expertsDivine and supernatural powers: the revelations of God and of other powersReason and logic: the intellect can capture truth and knowledge directlyScientific methods: knowledge is derived through empirical procedures
Documentation► Documentation is a general term for a multiplicity of documents in a chosen mix of media and with a certain collection. Purpose of documentation is the use to support a tool or a process.► Classical documentation is a set of documents printed on paper. Documentation (to document) also refers to the process of providing evidence.
Documentation composureDocumentation may include:► written information for any read, projection or technical performing,► data media of any format and for any reproduction,► other content.► Common types of documentation include user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is less common to see hard-copy (paper) documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications
Knowledge Management► Defined in a variety of ways.► KM in education: a strategy to enable people to develop a set of practices to create, capture, share & use knowledge to advance.► KM focuses on: people who create and use knowledge. processes and technologies by which knowledge is created, maintained and accessed. artifacts in which knowledge is stored (manuals, databases, intranets, books, heads).
Definition “knowledge management is the art of creating value from an organization‟s intangible assets.” ( Saviby 2000)“KM is a newly emerging , interdisciplinary business model dealing with all aspects of knowledge within the context of the firm, including knowledge creation , codification, sharing and how these activities promote learning and innovation.” (Berkeley 2001) “The systematic process of creating, maintaining and nurturing an organization to make the best use of knowledge to create business value and generate competitive advantage” (Nancy C. Shaw 2004) “KM is the process of capturing and making use of a firm‟s collective expertise anywhere in the business – on paper, in documents, in database (called Explicit knowledge), or in people‟s heads ( called tacit knowledge)”
Roots of Knowledge Management Business Transformation Learning (BPR, TQM, culture) Organization Innovation Knowledge Management Intellectual Information Assets/Capital Management Knowledge-based Systems
Components of Knowledge Management Collaboration is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals. Content Management is the set of processes and technologies that support the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. Search To make a careful examination or investigation of problem, search ones conscience for the right solution to the problem. Taxonomy management is the science which deals with the study of identifying, grouping, and naming organisms according to their established natural relationship. Business Process Management is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. Business Intelligence refers to computer-based techniques used in identifying, extracting, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes.
Functions of Knowledge Management 1. Intermediation:-The act of intervening for the purpose of bringing about a settlement 2. Externalization:- Attributing to outside causes 3. Internalization:- Learning (of values or attitudes etc.) that is incorporated within yourself 4. Cognition:- The psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning 5. Measurement:- "the measurements were carefully done"
Knowledge Work ActivitiesA cq u i r e A n a l yz e Or g a n i z e Co d i f y Co m m u n i ca tte l i z e U i Result
Shared Problem SolvingBuy or Rent Creating (R&D) KNOWLEDGE GENERATION Communities of Adaptation Practice Figure 12.5 Knowledge Generation Strategies
KM strategies in Organization► Rewards (as a means of motivating for knowledge sharing)► Storytelling (as a means of transferring tacit knowledge)► Cross-project learning► After action reviews► Knowledge mapping (a map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all)► Expert directories (to enable knowledge seeker to reach to the experts)► specific subject
In Successful KM Programs► Information is widely disseminated throughout the organization. Wherever it is needed, it is accessible.► Accessible at a fast rate of speed.► Virtual communities of practice share what is known in a global fashion, independent of time zones and other geographic limitations.► Business boundaries are broad, and often virtual in nature.► Collaboration to support continuous innovation and new knowledge creation.
Symptoms of KM Diffusion Challenges► No internal learning communities► Lack of psychological safety► Lack of workplace trust► Arrogance of people who believe they know everything, so why try?► Lack of communication within an organization made evident by continually reinventing the same wheel► Negativity and unrealistic expectations
Learning Organization“Over the long run, superior performance depends on superior learning.” -- Peter Senge, leader of the learning organization movement
► PhD graduate from MIT in Systems Management► Founding chair of SoL (Society for Organizational Learning)► 1990 wrote The Fifth Discipline
What is a Learning Organisation?► "The essence of organisational learning is the organisations ability to use the amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes that will improve its own" Nancy Dixon, 1994► "Organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to learn together“
Five Components of Learning Organisation Systems Personal Thinking Mastery Team MentalLearning Models Shared Vision
Systems Thinking interdependency and change focus on whole not individual parts long-term goals vs. short-term benefits better appreciation of systems leads to more appropriate action mind shift & understanding change processes. „feedback‟ to reinforce/counteract action. recognize recurring structures remove root causes/problems
Personal Mastery personal competence and vision developing patience to look at reality objectively organizations learn only through individuals who learn never “arrive”; in continual learning mode strive to clarify and deepen personal vision deeply aware of growth areas and tension between vision and reality
Mental Models changing ingrained assumptions about influencing factors. deeply ingrained assumptions and generalizations honest and critical analysis of deep- rooted mental models transcend mental models in order for change to take place
Shared Vision use instincts, intuition by sharing personal vision pictures of the future A genuine vision leads to people wanting to excel and learn Leaders must translate personal visions into shared visions Unearthing shared „pictures of the future‟ that foster genuine commitment rather than compliance Leaders learn the counter-productiveness of trying to dictate a vision, no matter how heartfelt.(Senge 1990: 9)
Team Learning dialogue, discussion, group relationships accelerate org. learning through Team learning starts with „dialogue‟= the capacity of members of a team to suspend assumptions and enter genuine „thinking together‟ Allows the group to discover insights not attainable individually Shows group how to recognize the patterns of interaction that undermine learning(Senge 1990: 10)
A Learning Organization Is...► Where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire► Where new patterns of thinking are nurtured► Where collective aspiration is set free► Where people are continually learning to see the whole together► “When you ask people about what it is like being part of a great team, what is most striking is the meaningfulness of the experience. People talk about being part of something larger than themselves, of being connected, of being generative.”(Senge 1990: 13)
Value to Organization Active KnowledgeRepositories Transfer Expert KnowledgeBest Practices Organizational BaseReports Learning Contact LinksDocuments Expert Assistance as NeededPresentation Slides Decision Making Communities ofTips Tools Practice Index Profiles for Customization Pushed Reports & News Collaboration Tools