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Protected cultivation

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Protected Cultivation
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Protected cultivation

  1. 1. Protected Cultivation DR. B. L. SINHA Scientist/ Assistant Professor (Soil Water Engineering) DKS College of Agriculture and Research Station Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalay (Chhattisgarh) Bhatapara
  2. 2. Protected cultivation is the technique of providing favourable environmental or growth conditions to the plants. In greenhouses, the growing environment is altered to suit the specific requirements of plants. plants. It is rather used to protect plants from the adverse climatic conditions by providing optimum conditions of light, temperature, humidity, CO2and air circulation for the best growth of plants to achieve maximum yield and best quality.
  3. 3. Greenhouse A greenhouse is a covered structure which protects plants from vagaries of weather or environment i.e. wind, precipitation, excess precipitation, excess solar radiation, temperature extremes and considerable attack of pests and diseases.
  4. 4. Principle of Green House Cultivation The greenhouse is covered with a transparent material such as plastic, PVC sheet or glass. Based upon its transparency the greenhouse cover transmits most of the sunlight. The crop, floor and other objects inside the greenhouse absorb the sunlight admitted greenhouse absorb the sunlight admitted inside the greenhouse. These objects in turn emit long wave thermal radiations for which the greenhouse covering material has lower transparency and as a result of this the solar energy is trapped thus leading to increased temperature inside the greenhouse. This is known as greenhouse effect.
  5. 5. Why green house cultivation Ensures the production of any plant at any place and throughout the year Blemish-free high quality product Easy to control insect-pests and diseases Water requirement reduces Water requirement reduces Labour requirement is less Earliness as it reduces crop duration
  6. 6. Basic consideration Feasibility study Type of greenhouse structures Planting material Growing system Plant protection Post harvest handling Post harvest handling Supporting facilities for analyzing quality of water and growing media Management and coordination
  7. 7. Factor affecting the construction of green house type Location Climate Design of greenhouse Greenhouse orientation Crops to be grown Crops to be grown Cost of production Economic returns
  8. 8. Protected cultivation of ornamentals in India Indo-American Hybrid Seeds Company has made greenhouses for cultivation of ornamental plants before 1970. M/s FerozMasaniand Sons of Nasik started growing carnations in greenhouses during 1980. 1980. M/s Pune flowers stared growing roses on rock wool in 1/4th acre greenhouse in late eighties for export at Pune. Presently about 250 private companies have started producing flowers in greenhouses in India. Total area under greenhouses in India is over 700 ha.
  9. 9. Advantage of growing ornamentals in green house under Indian context Abundant sunshine throughout the year especially in autumn and winter The average radiation received at QuitoEquator and Nairobi is 434 and 462 cal/cm2/day, respectively at 1800m AMSL the cal/cm/day, respectively at 1800m AMSL the best centres in the world producing quality cut flowers, which is at par with radiation received at Bangalore (450 cal/cm2/day at 1000m AMSL) Ideal temperature Shorter production cycle Good production during the main international events when demand for flowers is high in Europe and USA.
  10. 10. Ideal location of greenhouse in plains and hills In plains: North-south direction so that longer sides avoid sun scorching. In hills: South/ South-west/ South-east direction in hills for maximum use of sunlight
  11. 11. Different type of green houses Ground to ground Gable Quonset Modified Quonset Tunnels (Fixed or portable) Tunnels (Fixed or portable) Lath house/ Seran house Lean to greenhouse
  12. 12. Different type of cladding materials Glass Fiber glass FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastic) Polythene (Thermo anti drip) PVC (Poly Venyl Chloride) PVC (Poly Venyl Chloride) Polycarbonates sheets Silpauline sheets
  13. 13. Saw tooth type Greenhouse
  14. 14. Growing conditions Temperature (Cooling, heating and shading) Relative humidity (Misting, fogging and watering) Light (Photoperiod and intensity) Air circulation (ventilation) Air circulation (ventilation) Carbon dioxide Sanitation
  15. 15. Growing system in green house Ground beds Raised beds Benches Pots
  16. 16. Growing Media Characters Provide adequate nutrients to the crop Support or anchorage the plants grown Good moisture holding capacity Sufficiently porous Not saline Not saline Withstand pasteurization with steam or solarization Free from weed seeds, nematodes
  17. 17.  Dis-infection of growing media Chemical drenching/ fumigation: formaldehyde, chloropicrin, captan and vapam Steaming Pasteurization Pasteurization Solarisation
  18. 18. Irrigation In greenhouses mostly micro-irrigation technique is followed, which requires pressure and energy to work properly. The different ways to irrigate in greenhouses are given below: are given below: Drip irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Jet irrigation, and Spray irrigation
  19. 19. Advantages of Micro irrigation Saving water up to 75% Increasing flower yield Saving fertilizers up to 30% Suitable for undulating terrains Suitable for undulating terrains Improves quality of the flower produce Saving energy and labour
  20. 20. Fertigation It refers to the simultaneous application of water and fertilizers to the root zone of the plants and it refers only to the drip irrigation system under the micro-irrigation technology.
  21. 21. Important of ornamentals crops Cut flowers(Rose, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Anthurium, Orchids, Tulip, Lilium, Alstroemeria, Gypsophila, Licianthus, Statice, etc.) Cut greens(Asparagus, Ferns, etc.) Cut greens(Asparagus, Ferns, etc.) Foliage pot plants(Aglaonema, Aspidistra, Dracaena, Ficus, Hedera, etc.) Flowering pot plants(Poinsettia, Begonia, Saintpaulia, Gloxinia, Geranium, Fuchsia, etc.)
  22. 22. Ground to ground
  23. 23. Gable
  24. 24. Quonset
  25. 25. Modified Quonset Tunnels
  26. 26. Tunnels
  27. 27. Lath house
  28. 28. Lean to greenhouse
  29. 29. Low cast greenhouse
  30. 30. Medium cast greenhouse
  31. 31. High cast greenhouse
  32. 32. Even span type greenhouse
  33. 33. uneven span type greenhouse
  34. 34. Ridge and furrow type greenhouse
  35. 35. Ground to ground
  36. 36. Gable
  37. 37. Quonset
  38. 38. Modified Quonset Tunnels
  39. 39. Tunnels
  40. 40. Lath house
  41. 41. Lean to greenhouse
  42. 42. Low cast greenhouse
  43. 43. Medium cast greenhouse
  44. 44. High cast greenhouse
  45. 45. Even span type greenhouse
  46. 46. uneven span type greenhouse
  47. 47. Ridge and furrow type greenhouse