SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 39
Prepared by: Preeti Sharma
Ph.D. Scholar
Theoretical
Background
Definition &
examples of Q.D.
Qualitative Data
Collection
Methods
Qualitative Data
Analysis Methods
Software's of
Qualitative Data
Analysis
Thesis
Analysis
A study of school education
from a human rights
perspectives
CHILDREN AND SCHOOL
IN A SOCIETY IN
TRANSITION: A STUDY
OF NEPAL
Politics of institutional
knowledge and
exclusion an inquiry
into experiences of
children from dalit
community
Ex: The cake is orange,
blue and black in color
Ex: There are 800 girls and
1700 boys in the school
Qualitative data
 It can be observed and
recorded. This data type
is non-numerical in
nature
 also known as categorical
data. As it can be
arranged categorically
based on the attributes
and properties of a thing
or a phenomenon
Quantitative Data
 any quantifiable
information that can be
used for mathematical
calculation or
statistical analysis.
 It is used to answer
questions like how
many? how often? how
much? This data can be
validated and verified.
For a market researcher, collecting qualitative data helps in answering
questions like, who their customers are, what issues or problems they
are facing and where do they need to focus their attention so
problems or issues are resolved.
Types of Qualitative Data
Qualitative Data Collection Methods
Questions for Qualitative Interviews
Focus of Qualitative Questions: Experience, Opinion, Feelings,
Knowledge and Input
Qualitative Data Analysis
(QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the
qualitative data that have been collected, into some form of explanation,
understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are
investigating. Approaches to data analysis: (1) Deductive (2)Inductive
Types of
Qualitative
Analysis
Content analysis Narrative analysis
Discourse
Analysis
Framework
analysis
Grounded Theory
1) Content Analysis: Content analysis is the procedure for the categorization
of verbal or behavioral data for the purpose of classification,
summarization and tabulation. Content analysis can be done on two levels:
Descriptive: What is the data?
Interpretative: what was meant by the data?
2) Narrative Analysis: Narratives are transcribed experiences. Every
interview/observation has narrative aspect. The researcher has to sort-out and
reflect up on them, enhance them and present them in a revised shape to the
reader. The core activity in narrative analysis is to reformulate stories
presented by people in different contexts and based on their different
experiences.
3) Discourse Analysis This is a method of analyzing a naturally occurring talk
(spoken interaction) and all types of written texts. It focuses on how people
express themselves verbally in their everyday social life i.e. how language is
used in everyday situations?
a) Sometimes people express themselves in a simple and straightforward way
b) Sometimes people express themselves vaguely and indirectly
c) Analyst must refer to the context when interpreting the message because
the same phenomenon can be described in a number of different ways
depending on context .
4) Framework Analysis
Familiarization: Transcribing & reading the data
Identifying a thematic framework: Initial coding framework which is
developed both from a priori issues and from emergent issues
Coding: Using numerical or textual codes to identify specific piece of data
which correspond to different themes
Charting: Charts created using headings from thematic framework.
Mapping and interpretation: Searching for patterns, associations, concepts
and explanations in the data.
5) Grounded Theory: This theory starts with an examination of a single case
from a ‘pre-defined’ population in order to formulate a general statement
(concept or a hypothesis) about a population. Afterwards the analyst
examines another case to see whether the hypothesis fits the statement. If it
does, a further case is selected but if it doesn’t fit there are two options:
Either the statement is changed to fit both cases or the definition of the
population is changed in such a way that the case is no longer a member of
the newly defined population. Then another case is selected and the process
continues.
In such a way one should be able to arrive at a statement that fits all cases
of a population-as-defined. This method is only for limited set of analytic
problems: those that can be solved with some general overall statement .
Principles of Qualitative Data Analysis
 People differ in their experience and understanding of reality
(constructivist-many meanings).
 A social phenomenon can’t be understood outside its own context
(Context-bound).
 Qualitative research can be used to describe phenomenon or generate
theory grounded on data.
 Understanding human behavior emerges slowly and non-linearly.
Exceptional cases may yield insights into a problem or new idea for
further inquiry.
Strategies for Analyzing Observation: Chronology, key events, various
settings, People, Process, Issues.
Qualitative Analysis with Software:
1.Atlas ti 6.0 (www.atlasti.com) 2.The Ethnography 5.08
3.HyperRESEARCH 2.8 (www.researchware.com)
4.Max QDA (www.maxqda.com) 5.QSR N6 (www.qsrinternational.com)
The nature of the research: qualitative and analytical.
Regulationist approach and hermeneutics approach has also
been used
Research objectives : The present study aims to understand
school education comprehensively, with reference to a human
rights perspective
 To analyze the education polices, with reference to their
understanding, acceptability and applicability of a human
rights perspective.
 To deconstruct the underlying assumptions of the National
Curriculum Frameworks.
 To review the content of NCERT social science text books.
 To identify the pedagogical concerns of classroom practices
in social science.
 To know and analyze the nature of co-curricular activities and
their practices in school.
Tools for data collection: observations and unstuctured interviews.
Methods and the Process of Analysis: Content Analysis, Hermeneutical
Analysis, Researching Policy & Theme Based Analysis
The conceptual framework of the research has been developed from
four different but associated fields, where, concept, development
and concerns in human rights and a human rights perspective in the
curriculum helped the analysis of different polices, commissions,
National Curriculum Frameworks and textbooks. A human rights
perspective in pedagogy & Co-curricular Activities facilitated the
observation and analysis of classroom practice and CCA. The
teachers’ interviews strengthened the analysis, particularly of
classroom practices
A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or
learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of
clear, definable standards of what all the student should know and
be able to do. The curriculum is, then, aligned to the standards, and
students are assessed against the standards.
Human rights perspective in pedagogy help learners feel the
importance of human rights, internalize human rights and values,
and integrate them into the way they live.
 This requires a participative and dialogic approach
Some Guidelines for Facilitators/Teachers needs to be clear in
his/her role and try to make them feel relaxed. good to elicit the
related experience of the participants on the subject of each
exercise. The teacher needs to be aware of his/her approach to the
pupils in the group.
I. Analysis of Education Policies from a Human Rights Perspective: This analysis is
supported by the conceptual framework of the research which is developed in
chapter two. As per NPE 1986
• Universal access and enrollment.
Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age.
A substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve
essential level of learning.
These new policies were intended to raise educational standards and increase access to
education. At the same time, it would safeguard the values of secularism, socialism and
equality (which had been promoted since Independence,) which give these policies a
human rights perspective
II. Analysis of the National Curriculum Frameworks from a Human Rights Perspective The
NCF, provides a broad overview of the school curriculum, including general objectives,
subject-wise objectives, suggested scheme of study and guidelines for the transaction
of the curriculum and the evaluation of pupil outcomes
The NCF2000, emphasized’ Learning without burden’ This document rejected the idea of
rote learning and provided a reorientation of the learner and learning and discussed a
holistic approach in the treatment of the learner’s development and learning. Creation of
an inclusive environment, Learner engagement in terms of observing, exploring,
discovering, analyzing, critical reflection , Active learning, Adequate room for voicing
children’s thought, curiosity, and question, Connecting knowledge
Analysis of the Social Science Textbooks from Classes VI to X, developed by NCERT,
based on the understanding of NCF, 2005.
I. A summary of a class wise descriptive analysis and thematic analysis of textbooks
II. Analysis of interviews of school teachers
III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective
Social and Political Life- I- Class VI(Descriptive analysis )
The book has been divided into four sections: Diversity, Government, Local Government
and Administration, and Livelihood. Each section comprises of, at least, two chapters:
Appendix of thesis analyzes texts, pictures, examples, activities, treatment given to
various concepts.
Thematic Analysis: Diversity vs. Unity(more focus on differences and diversities, than
equality and unity), Dealing with Prejudices(between poor-rich, rural –urban people),
Equality vs. Inequality(need to include some positive examples), The Perspective and
Function of the Government(Only democratic government has been discussed, need to
strengthen content with actual situation of elections in India), Rural and Urban
Administration(the election process of the Panchayat, rural and urban administration
smissing)
II. Analysis of the Interviews of School Teachers: The Teachers’ Perceptions about
Textbooks, Sensitive Issues (only raising issues did not talk about how to solve), What
would a Teacher Like to Change in Textbooks?(questions are vague, application based),
Functional Knowledge(lacks. E.g. FIR and RTI), Less Political Knowledge(more social
perspective), Activities and Time (contradiction, teacher should be free to decide), The
Role of Teachers(workload, fixed role of teacher) Examples in the
Textbooks(appreciated, only negative e.g.), Overemphasis(women’s & caste
discrimination)
III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective(Thematic Analysis)
Pessimistic Examples(some optimistic examples could have been included to make the
books more human rights perspective-based), Political Science Vs. Sociology(more social
issues, examples given, social system blamed for all problems ) Activities and the Role of
Teachers, One Sided Perspective, Equality(pessimistic examples), Democracy(limited only
to election, rights associated problems have rarely been highlighted), Biasness(missed
relation of media with EWS), Government(only democratic govt. discussed, rights without
ex.) Rights and Duties, Rationality of the Arguments, Promotion of Critical and Reflective
thinking(do not provide opportunities), The Right to Food(no discussion)
Analysis of Classroom Practices and Co-Curricular Activities
The Students’ Role in the Classroom Processes: hardly any role except of listening
How does a Teacher Deal with Sensitive Issues, such as Caste, Class, Gender and so
on?(not adequately, insensitive behavior, Lack of Knowledge, Misconceptions and Biased
Views
Pedagogy and Activity(only reading the book, sometime Q. asked not answered)
Context-based Teaching-learning, with Examples(unable to state any examples to
develop the context, when given explanation of these examples, with reference to the
concept, was a blunder)
The Types of Questions Asked(only knowledge based, Q asked by pupils not dealt
properly)
Teacher-centered and Teacher-fronted Classes(no help in HRP development)
The Teachers’ Engagement with the Class:(just to complete the chapter, very little time
and lots of syllabus )
The Students’ Perspective towards the Teachers(“uff jaan bachi”, “is teacher kokuch nahi
aata” )
The Students’ Status or Dignity in the Class
The Teachers’ Faith and the Attitude towards the Students’ Potentialities and
Capabilities(“ sab fail ho jaoge” (you all will get fail), “ tumhe kuch nahi aata” (you do not
know anything), “mujhe tumse puchna hi nahi chahiye tha”( I should not have asked you),
“tumhe kuch pata toh hota nahi hai bas prashan karte ho, shaant raho”(you do not know
anything and just ask questions, keep quiet) and so on.
The Meaning of Discipline and Respect in Class( to stand up & remain quiet)
Analysis of Interviews of Teachers, with reference to Classroom Practices
Themes 1) Understanding of Human Rights and a human rights perspective
Themes 2) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices
Human Rights for Self-development:
One of the teachers said,“keval Social Science mein ek chapter daalne se kuch nahi hoga.
Zarurat to badestar par adhikaro ki baat karne ki hai or iske liye agar Human Rights
Education ek subject laya bhi jaye to koi galat nahi hoga.”
Equality with Dignity: The notion of equality was favored by most teachers for egalitarian
society(gareeb child maid at home) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices
(not much awareness)
Dealing with Critical and Sensitive Issues: kitaabo mein to pata nahi kya kya likh diya
gaya hai, jinhone likha hai vo aakar padaayen to unko pata chale ki in muddo ko kaise
padhana hai
The Research Problem: Nepal has been in transition for more than two
decades, and this study is an effort to understand the role played by
education and the status of education, during this long phase of
political transition
Nature of study: qualitative research approach
Research design: exploratory and narrative nature of inquiry
Objectives of the Study • To understand the background of political
conflict in Nepal.
• To document the experiences of school children and teachers during
the conflict.
• To explore the educational provisions, dynamics and relationships
among the stakeholders in Nepal
• To identify the emerging trends in education system during the
transition in Nepal.
• To document alternative model/s of education, if any, explored by
the community during the conflict in Nepal
Methods of data collection: Interview , Observation(5), Visual Data,
Discourse and Spoken Action, Case-Study, Focus Group Discussion(10)
Sample: 123 people (30 children, 2 former child soldiers, 25 teachers, 20
community members/parents, 10 political activists, 6 Nepali scholars, 5
journalists, 3 NGO workers,16 displaced/migrant people, 4 government
officials, 2 Nepal Watchers) were interviewed from villages of districts
Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk, Kathmandu city & Delhi
Secondary data: government policy documents, government orders, UN
documents, press clippings, studies, text books, journals, research papers,
literature produced by political parties, reports prepared by INGO/NGOs
and resources available in electronic form. Two documentary films-
Between Two Stones and Schools in the Crossfire were very helpful to
understand the field reality
Profile of the District Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk followed by The Social
Context of Field Work
Questionnaire for the Community Members, teachers, students & Political
Activists, School/Classroom Observation Tool has been used for data
collection.
School/Classroom Observation Tool
• Name of the School-
• Name of the Head Master-
• Number of Students Enrolled- Boys- Girls- •
Number of Teachers in School- Male- Female
1. Physical environment of the School/Classroom •
Building • Outdoor Space • Classroom-Light,
Cleanliness, Blackboard • Teaching Learning
Materials/Library • Furniture • Toilets • Drinking
Water • Slogan on the Wall(In Side of the
Classroom-On School Wall) • List of Community
Contributors (if any)
2 Access, Quality and Use of Teaching Learning
Materials by Children and Teachers
3. Teaching-Learning Process-Method, Seating
Arrangement , Language used, Interaction,
Participation, Curriculum Transaction,
Communication, Classroom Management
4. Observation of HM’s Room (Records, Academic
Calendar etc.)
5. Observation of Assembly (Prayer, National
Anthem, Instruction etc.
Analysis of gathered data from various sources is interwoven. An attempt has
been made to present data in terms of the objectives of the study.
Objective-1: To understand the background of the political conflict in Nepal
Factors Responsible for the Conflict, Education for the Classes and not for the
Masses, Sanskrit and Nepali – Tools of Hegemony, Reality of Free Education in
Nepal, Teacher management: Complexity and Chaos, Text Books, National
Anthem, Poor Education and Health Services, Demand for the End of the
Panchayat System and Political Freedom , Expansion of Media and Awareness
on Common Issues, Youth Groups and Exposure to the Wider World, Cycle of
Socio-Political Exclusion and Injustice, Bureaucracy and Slow Decision Making
Processes, Expansion of Education and Awareness of People
Objective-2: Experiences of School Children and Teachers during the Political
Transition
Political Movement and Children, Political Movements and Teachers, Political
Disagreement means Displacement for Teachers, Private Schools, Children in
War Zones
Objective-3: Educational Provisions, Dynamics and Relationships among the
Stakeholders
School: Strategic Place for Everyone , Out of School Children, Over Crowded
Classrooms, Socio-Political Affiliation and Power Dynamics in School , Defunct
Government Machinery Suspension of Fund, Recruitment of Children,
Women and War Zone, Strike, Bandhs and Closure of Schools: Actors are the
Sufferers, Caught between the Security Forces and the Maoist
Objective- 4: Emerging Trends in the Education System in Transition
Irregular Supplies of Text Books, State Funded School and Private School ,
Non-Nepali Teachers: Termination of Services
Objective- 5: Alternative Model(s) of Education, explored by the Community
Model School initiated by Maoists, Curriculum for Political Induction, Schools
as Zones of Peace Campaign: A Civil Society Initiative , Community
Contribution to Ensuring Free Primary Schooling
Slogan used: “Ek Ghar, Ek Jana” (One Youth from Every Household)
“Raj sahi murdabad”, “Hamro jeet bhav pacchi desh ma bikash auncche”
Chapter 6 : POST TRANSITION: EMERGING TRENDS AND CHALLENGES
No More ‘Shri 5 ko Sarkar’, it is ‘Nepal Sarkar, National Anthem, Towards
Fulfilling the Promises made under the 40 Point Charter of Demand, Politics of
Photographs, New Provisions for School Management Committee, Education
Provision in the Interim Constitution, 2007, Integrated School System,
Recruitment of Teachers, Addressing the Issues of Language, Framework for
Schools as Zones of Peace , Provisions of Scholarships for Children of Martyrs,
Ray of Hope
Nature of study: Qualitative Research
Research ‘design/approach to the inquiry: an ethnographic frame
Research Questions: How is a State school situated in an urban slum context?
How do the people living there perceive schooling and school?
How is the everyday school practice shaped in the interactions between the
teachers, children and community?
What roles does a teacher play in this context?
How are the children positioned in the school and how do they make sense
of social reality?
How does the school as a social and pedagogic institution shape the
aspirations and worldviews of the children in the margins of an urban
setting?
Tools/Informants : Conversations, semi-structured interviews and focus
group discussions, Participant observation, Listening, Story-
completion/construction
Selecting the field: Urban-slums(M-Block, Shiv Puri and K-Block of Rabindra
Garden )and MCD school, E-5 MBlock, Ward number 22.
between the pragmatic and the philosophical that the method of this study
evolved
The fieldwork of the study involved engaging with children at a primary
school, those at work and/or ‘out-of-school’, their parents and other adults
in the setting, schoolteachers and the local NGOs’ staff, SSA personnel, and
some other informants (like employees at the local election office, post-office
and police station)
Analysis and Descriptions:
The descriptions that were generated during the course of research have been
organized into eight chapters, including an introduction and a concluding
chapter (or an epilogue). The chapters trace the Research Questions in
particular relation to the social group in focus (Dalit children in the urban
slum)
Chapter Four: Understanding the Field
Eight informants – two residents for the past10-15 years (Anjum and Teekam),
two schoolteachers (Sarita and Shivali), two NGO workers (Jagwati and Neetu , a
local police official & Mrs. Aggarwal
Description of the field and life of the people, and certain contextual
‘meanings’.
A picture of the setting, Initial development of the site, Present context,
Prominent features of the settlements, Orientations : Inside and outside,
Describing the Other, Culture of Poverty: Constructing ‘otherness’ , A view from
inside
Describe the field from two perspectives – that of an outsider and an insider
A view from Outside:
The descriptor: Gandagi, Poor and deviant, Unwilling to ‘change’ , A
‘community’: Labour class/servant class, Touch: Framing social distance, Caste:
“Doesn’t exist”
A view from inside:
Memory and time; Government, nation, state; Begging as livelihood
Chapter Five: Idea of School: Negotiations, Experiences and Hopes
State’s perception: Functionaries’ belief, Locating the school in the
community , Image of school and its functions, Reviewing ‘worth’ ,Cost of
schooling, The janampatri , Schooling as a ritual, Traditions and experience:
Exploring certain ideas, ‘Kitab’, On rote and performance, Perceiving
pedagogy
Chapter Six: The Teachers and School Space: Work, Relations and Lives
Meeting teachers: Negotiating entry ‘The usual’, Shivali: A different teacher,
‘Checkpoint’ and gatekeepers, Perceptions and feelings: The teachers’ Self, the
children and the community, Predicaments about work, Duty orders, The
narrative of workload and holidays, Gender and conjugality , Eligible and
ineligibles
Chapter Seven: Experiences of the Children: Meanings and Worldviews
Social Distance: Silence, punishment and the body, Punishment, Body in
political realm , Intertwined meanings and identity , Stories as a medium of
relating , Children’s conception of caste, class and experience at school,
Experience of humiliation at school, Class, caste and structure of schooling:
Experiences of solidarity , Work, childhood and experience, Class conflict:
Fraternity, collective experience and expression , Stories and children,
Children at work: A worldview , Nature of the work, Experiences with ‘others’:
Contested terrains , Making sense: Nature of expression
Experiencing humiliation, Punishing the teacher, The hero and the victim,
A grown-up victim
Chapter Eight: Concluding Thoughts
Perceptions from the field: Urban slum, anonymity and identity, Purposes
that school serves, Experiencing school in the margins: Children’s
aspirations, Teachers, Conflicting agenda, Culture(s) of children and
school-space

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative researchJamal Taha
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Researchjames duco
 
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)Ethnographic research methodology (ss)
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)Divya Patteri
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisjagannath Dange
 
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiri
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiriInterpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiri
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithirisykeshea
 
Techniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative methodTechniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative methodTahmina Ferdous Tanny
 
Case study Research metod
Case study Research metodCase study Research metod
Case study Research metodPrakasha SN
 
Sampling in qualitative researc
Sampling in qualitative researcSampling in qualitative researc
Sampling in qualitative researckavita yadav
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative researchAbhinav Kp
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative researchNimra zaman
 
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynatEthnographic studies by hina kaynat
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynatDr. Hina Kaynat
 
Qualitative research method
Qualitative research methodQualitative research method
Qualitative research methodmetalkid132
 
Qualitative research methods
Qualitative research methodsQualitative research methods
Qualitative research methodsAsad Omar
 
Research paradigm
Research paradigmResearch paradigm
Research paradigmAmina Tariq
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)Ethnographic research methodology (ss)
Ethnographic research methodology (ss)
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
 
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiri
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiriInterpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiri
Interpretive paradigm presentation by vicky & savithiri
 
Techniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative methodTechniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative method
 
Case study Research metod
Case study Research metodCase study Research metod
Case study Research metod
 
Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis  Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative Data Analysis
 
Research design
Research design Research design
Research design
 
Sampling in qualitative researc
Sampling in qualitative researcSampling in qualitative researc
Sampling in qualitative researc
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Research design
Research designResearch design
Research design
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynatEthnographic studies by hina kaynat
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat
 
Qualitative research method
Qualitative research methodQualitative research method
Qualitative research method
 
Qualitative research methods
Qualitative research methodsQualitative research methods
Qualitative research methods
 
Research paradigm
Research paradigmResearch paradigm
Research paradigm
 
Case Study Research
Case Study ResearchCase Study Research
Case Study Research
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Ethnography
EthnographyEthnography
Ethnography
 

Ähnlich wie Qualitative data analysis

qualitative research.pdf
qualitative research.pdfqualitative research.pdf
qualitative research.pdfCityComputers3
 
Qualitative research intro
Qualitative research introQualitative research intro
Qualitative research introMisbah Iqbal
 
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdf
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdfQualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdf
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdfstatsanjal
 
types of qualitative research
types of qualitative researchtypes of qualitative research
types of qualitative researchhamid gittan
 
Selection of content
Selection of contentSelection of content
Selection of content6172315
 
An introduction to qualitative research.pdf
An introduction to qualitative research.pdfAn introduction to qualitative research.pdf
An introduction to qualitative research.pdfDr. Mahesh Koltame
 
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from Data
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from DataStrategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from Data
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from DataNoMore2020
 
Research Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and MethodologiesResearch Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and Methodologiesbikashtaly
 
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02rechelle anasco
 
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10Bahria University, Islamabad
 
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfQualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfCityComputers3
 
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...Innocence Smith
 

Ähnlich wie Qualitative data analysis (20)

qualitative research.pdf
qualitative research.pdfqualitative research.pdf
qualitative research.pdf
 
Qualitative Research
Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research
Qualitative Research
 
Qualitative research intro
Qualitative research introQualitative research intro
Qualitative research intro
 
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdf
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdfQualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdf
Qualitative Research.12.05.2021.Final.pdf
 
Hamid
HamidHamid
Hamid
 
types of qualitative research
types of qualitative researchtypes of qualitative research
types of qualitative research
 
Selection of content
Selection of contentSelection of content
Selection of content
 
An introduction to qualitative research.pdf
An introduction to qualitative research.pdfAn introduction to qualitative research.pdf
An introduction to qualitative research.pdf
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
 
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from Data
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from DataStrategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from Data
Strategies on How to Infer & Explain Patterns and Themes from Data
 
U1 pedagogy
U1 pedagogyU1 pedagogy
U1 pedagogy
 
Research Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and MethodologiesResearch Methods and Methodologies
Research Methods and Methodologies
 
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02
Actionresearch 110301041332-phpapp02
 
43144 12
43144 1243144 12
43144 12
 
0 Employer Employee Scheme.pptx
0 Employer Employee Scheme.pptx0 Employer Employee Scheme.pptx
0 Employer Employee Scheme.pptx
 
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10
Qualitative Methods in International Relations - Chapters 5, 8, 10
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdfQualitative Research 001.pdf
Qualitative Research 001.pdf
 
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...
Delivering a Holistic Approach to Problem Solving in Education from a Multicu...
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptxmary850239
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...Postal Advocate Inc.
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17Celine George
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEaurabinda banchhor
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxTEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxruthvilladarez
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfTechSoup
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parentsnavabharathschool99
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
4.18.24 Movement Legacies, Reflection, and Review.pptx
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
How to Add Barcode on PDF Report in Odoo 17
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptxMULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
MULTIDISCIPLINRY NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pptx
 
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERPHow to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
How to do quick user assign in kanban in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSEDust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
Dust Of Snow By Robert Frost Class-X English CBSE
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docxTEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
TEACHER REFLECTION FORM (NEW SET........).docx
 
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdfInclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
Inclusivity Essentials_ Creating Accessible Websites for Nonprofits .pdf
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 3 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for ParentsChoosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
Choosing the Right CBSE School A Comprehensive Guide for Parents
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 

Qualitative data analysis

  • 1. Prepared by: Preeti Sharma Ph.D. Scholar
  • 2. Theoretical Background Definition & examples of Q.D. Qualitative Data Collection Methods Qualitative Data Analysis Methods Software's of Qualitative Data Analysis Thesis Analysis A study of school education from a human rights perspectives CHILDREN AND SCHOOL IN A SOCIETY IN TRANSITION: A STUDY OF NEPAL Politics of institutional knowledge and exclusion an inquiry into experiences of children from dalit community
  • 3.
  • 4. Ex: The cake is orange, blue and black in color Ex: There are 800 girls and 1700 boys in the school Qualitative data  It can be observed and recorded. This data type is non-numerical in nature  also known as categorical data. As it can be arranged categorically based on the attributes and properties of a thing or a phenomenon Quantitative Data  any quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical calculation or statistical analysis.  It is used to answer questions like how many? how often? how much? This data can be validated and verified.
  • 5. For a market researcher, collecting qualitative data helps in answering questions like, who their customers are, what issues or problems they are facing and where do they need to focus their attention so problems or issues are resolved. Types of Qualitative Data
  • 7. Questions for Qualitative Interviews Focus of Qualitative Questions: Experience, Opinion, Feelings, Knowledge and Input
  • 8. Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the qualitative data that have been collected, into some form of explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are investigating. Approaches to data analysis: (1) Deductive (2)Inductive Types of Qualitative Analysis Content analysis Narrative analysis Discourse Analysis Framework analysis Grounded Theory
  • 9. 1) Content Analysis: Content analysis is the procedure for the categorization of verbal or behavioral data for the purpose of classification, summarization and tabulation. Content analysis can be done on two levels: Descriptive: What is the data? Interpretative: what was meant by the data? 2) Narrative Analysis: Narratives are transcribed experiences. Every interview/observation has narrative aspect. The researcher has to sort-out and reflect up on them, enhance them and present them in a revised shape to the reader. The core activity in narrative analysis is to reformulate stories presented by people in different contexts and based on their different experiences. 3) Discourse Analysis This is a method of analyzing a naturally occurring talk (spoken interaction) and all types of written texts. It focuses on how people express themselves verbally in their everyday social life i.e. how language is used in everyday situations? a) Sometimes people express themselves in a simple and straightforward way b) Sometimes people express themselves vaguely and indirectly c) Analyst must refer to the context when interpreting the message because the same phenomenon can be described in a number of different ways depending on context .
  • 10. 4) Framework Analysis Familiarization: Transcribing & reading the data Identifying a thematic framework: Initial coding framework which is developed both from a priori issues and from emergent issues Coding: Using numerical or textual codes to identify specific piece of data which correspond to different themes Charting: Charts created using headings from thematic framework. Mapping and interpretation: Searching for patterns, associations, concepts and explanations in the data. 5) Grounded Theory: This theory starts with an examination of a single case from a ‘pre-defined’ population in order to formulate a general statement (concept or a hypothesis) about a population. Afterwards the analyst examines another case to see whether the hypothesis fits the statement. If it does, a further case is selected but if it doesn’t fit there are two options: Either the statement is changed to fit both cases or the definition of the population is changed in such a way that the case is no longer a member of the newly defined population. Then another case is selected and the process continues. In such a way one should be able to arrive at a statement that fits all cases of a population-as-defined. This method is only for limited set of analytic problems: those that can be solved with some general overall statement .
  • 11. Principles of Qualitative Data Analysis  People differ in their experience and understanding of reality (constructivist-many meanings).  A social phenomenon can’t be understood outside its own context (Context-bound).  Qualitative research can be used to describe phenomenon or generate theory grounded on data.  Understanding human behavior emerges slowly and non-linearly. Exceptional cases may yield insights into a problem or new idea for further inquiry. Strategies for Analyzing Observation: Chronology, key events, various settings, People, Process, Issues. Qualitative Analysis with Software: 1.Atlas ti 6.0 (www.atlasti.com) 2.The Ethnography 5.08 3.HyperRESEARCH 2.8 (www.researchware.com) 4.Max QDA (www.maxqda.com) 5.QSR N6 (www.qsrinternational.com)
  • 12.
  • 13. The nature of the research: qualitative and analytical. Regulationist approach and hermeneutics approach has also been used Research objectives : The present study aims to understand school education comprehensively, with reference to a human rights perspective  To analyze the education polices, with reference to their understanding, acceptability and applicability of a human rights perspective.  To deconstruct the underlying assumptions of the National Curriculum Frameworks.  To review the content of NCERT social science text books.  To identify the pedagogical concerns of classroom practices in social science.  To know and analyze the nature of co-curricular activities and their practices in school.
  • 14. Tools for data collection: observations and unstuctured interviews.
  • 15. Methods and the Process of Analysis: Content Analysis, Hermeneutical Analysis, Researching Policy & Theme Based Analysis The conceptual framework of the research has been developed from four different but associated fields, where, concept, development and concerns in human rights and a human rights perspective in the curriculum helped the analysis of different polices, commissions, National Curriculum Frameworks and textbooks. A human rights perspective in pedagogy & Co-curricular Activities facilitated the observation and analysis of classroom practice and CCA. The teachers’ interviews strengthened the analysis, particularly of classroom practices A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of clear, definable standards of what all the student should know and be able to do. The curriculum is, then, aligned to the standards, and students are assessed against the standards.
  • 16. Human rights perspective in pedagogy help learners feel the importance of human rights, internalize human rights and values, and integrate them into the way they live.  This requires a participative and dialogic approach Some Guidelines for Facilitators/Teachers needs to be clear in his/her role and try to make them feel relaxed. good to elicit the related experience of the participants on the subject of each exercise. The teacher needs to be aware of his/her approach to the pupils in the group.
  • 17. I. Analysis of Education Policies from a Human Rights Perspective: This analysis is supported by the conceptual framework of the research which is developed in chapter two. As per NPE 1986 • Universal access and enrollment. Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age. A substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve essential level of learning. These new policies were intended to raise educational standards and increase access to education. At the same time, it would safeguard the values of secularism, socialism and equality (which had been promoted since Independence,) which give these policies a human rights perspective II. Analysis of the National Curriculum Frameworks from a Human Rights Perspective The NCF, provides a broad overview of the school curriculum, including general objectives, subject-wise objectives, suggested scheme of study and guidelines for the transaction of the curriculum and the evaluation of pupil outcomes The NCF2000, emphasized’ Learning without burden’ This document rejected the idea of rote learning and provided a reorientation of the learner and learning and discussed a holistic approach in the treatment of the learner’s development and learning. Creation of an inclusive environment, Learner engagement in terms of observing, exploring, discovering, analyzing, critical reflection , Active learning, Adequate room for voicing children’s thought, curiosity, and question, Connecting knowledge
  • 18. Analysis of the Social Science Textbooks from Classes VI to X, developed by NCERT, based on the understanding of NCF, 2005. I. A summary of a class wise descriptive analysis and thematic analysis of textbooks II. Analysis of interviews of school teachers III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective Social and Political Life- I- Class VI(Descriptive analysis ) The book has been divided into four sections: Diversity, Government, Local Government and Administration, and Livelihood. Each section comprises of, at least, two chapters: Appendix of thesis analyzes texts, pictures, examples, activities, treatment given to various concepts. Thematic Analysis: Diversity vs. Unity(more focus on differences and diversities, than equality and unity), Dealing with Prejudices(between poor-rich, rural –urban people), Equality vs. Inequality(need to include some positive examples), The Perspective and Function of the Government(Only democratic government has been discussed, need to strengthen content with actual situation of elections in India), Rural and Urban Administration(the election process of the Panchayat, rural and urban administration smissing) II. Analysis of the Interviews of School Teachers: The Teachers’ Perceptions about Textbooks, Sensitive Issues (only raising issues did not talk about how to solve), What would a Teacher Like to Change in Textbooks?(questions are vague, application based), Functional Knowledge(lacks. E.g. FIR and RTI), Less Political Knowledge(more social perspective), Activities and Time (contradiction, teacher should be free to decide), The Role of Teachers(workload, fixed role of teacher) Examples in the Textbooks(appreciated, only negative e.g.), Overemphasis(women’s & caste discrimination)
  • 19. III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective(Thematic Analysis) Pessimistic Examples(some optimistic examples could have been included to make the books more human rights perspective-based), Political Science Vs. Sociology(more social issues, examples given, social system blamed for all problems ) Activities and the Role of Teachers, One Sided Perspective, Equality(pessimistic examples), Democracy(limited only to election, rights associated problems have rarely been highlighted), Biasness(missed relation of media with EWS), Government(only democratic govt. discussed, rights without ex.) Rights and Duties, Rationality of the Arguments, Promotion of Critical and Reflective thinking(do not provide opportunities), The Right to Food(no discussion) Analysis of Classroom Practices and Co-Curricular Activities The Students’ Role in the Classroom Processes: hardly any role except of listening How does a Teacher Deal with Sensitive Issues, such as Caste, Class, Gender and so on?(not adequately, insensitive behavior, Lack of Knowledge, Misconceptions and Biased Views Pedagogy and Activity(only reading the book, sometime Q. asked not answered) Context-based Teaching-learning, with Examples(unable to state any examples to develop the context, when given explanation of these examples, with reference to the concept, was a blunder) The Types of Questions Asked(only knowledge based, Q asked by pupils not dealt properly)
  • 20. Teacher-centered and Teacher-fronted Classes(no help in HRP development) The Teachers’ Engagement with the Class:(just to complete the chapter, very little time and lots of syllabus ) The Students’ Perspective towards the Teachers(“uff jaan bachi”, “is teacher kokuch nahi aata” ) The Students’ Status or Dignity in the Class The Teachers’ Faith and the Attitude towards the Students’ Potentialities and Capabilities(“ sab fail ho jaoge” (you all will get fail), “ tumhe kuch nahi aata” (you do not know anything), “mujhe tumse puchna hi nahi chahiye tha”( I should not have asked you), “tumhe kuch pata toh hota nahi hai bas prashan karte ho, shaant raho”(you do not know anything and just ask questions, keep quiet) and so on. The Meaning of Discipline and Respect in Class( to stand up & remain quiet) Analysis of Interviews of Teachers, with reference to Classroom Practices Themes 1) Understanding of Human Rights and a human rights perspective Themes 2) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices Human Rights for Self-development: One of the teachers said,“keval Social Science mein ek chapter daalne se kuch nahi hoga. Zarurat to badestar par adhikaro ki baat karne ki hai or iske liye agar Human Rights Education ek subject laya bhi jaye to koi galat nahi hoga.” Equality with Dignity: The notion of equality was favored by most teachers for egalitarian society(gareeb child maid at home) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices (not much awareness) Dealing with Critical and Sensitive Issues: kitaabo mein to pata nahi kya kya likh diya gaya hai, jinhone likha hai vo aakar padaayen to unko pata chale ki in muddo ko kaise padhana hai
  • 21. The Research Problem: Nepal has been in transition for more than two decades, and this study is an effort to understand the role played by education and the status of education, during this long phase of political transition Nature of study: qualitative research approach Research design: exploratory and narrative nature of inquiry Objectives of the Study • To understand the background of political conflict in Nepal. • To document the experiences of school children and teachers during the conflict. • To explore the educational provisions, dynamics and relationships among the stakeholders in Nepal • To identify the emerging trends in education system during the transition in Nepal. • To document alternative model/s of education, if any, explored by the community during the conflict in Nepal
  • 22. Methods of data collection: Interview , Observation(5), Visual Data, Discourse and Spoken Action, Case-Study, Focus Group Discussion(10) Sample: 123 people (30 children, 2 former child soldiers, 25 teachers, 20 community members/parents, 10 political activists, 6 Nepali scholars, 5 journalists, 3 NGO workers,16 displaced/migrant people, 4 government officials, 2 Nepal Watchers) were interviewed from villages of districts Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk, Kathmandu city & Delhi Secondary data: government policy documents, government orders, UN documents, press clippings, studies, text books, journals, research papers, literature produced by political parties, reports prepared by INGO/NGOs and resources available in electronic form. Two documentary films- Between Two Stones and Schools in the Crossfire were very helpful to understand the field reality Profile of the District Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk followed by The Social Context of Field Work
  • 23. Questionnaire for the Community Members, teachers, students & Political Activists, School/Classroom Observation Tool has been used for data collection.
  • 24. School/Classroom Observation Tool • Name of the School- • Name of the Head Master- • Number of Students Enrolled- Boys- Girls- • Number of Teachers in School- Male- Female 1. Physical environment of the School/Classroom • Building • Outdoor Space • Classroom-Light, Cleanliness, Blackboard • Teaching Learning Materials/Library • Furniture • Toilets • Drinking Water • Slogan on the Wall(In Side of the Classroom-On School Wall) • List of Community Contributors (if any) 2 Access, Quality and Use of Teaching Learning Materials by Children and Teachers 3. Teaching-Learning Process-Method, Seating Arrangement , Language used, Interaction, Participation, Curriculum Transaction, Communication, Classroom Management 4. Observation of HM’s Room (Records, Academic Calendar etc.) 5. Observation of Assembly (Prayer, National Anthem, Instruction etc.
  • 25. Analysis of gathered data from various sources is interwoven. An attempt has been made to present data in terms of the objectives of the study. Objective-1: To understand the background of the political conflict in Nepal Factors Responsible for the Conflict, Education for the Classes and not for the Masses, Sanskrit and Nepali – Tools of Hegemony, Reality of Free Education in Nepal, Teacher management: Complexity and Chaos, Text Books, National Anthem, Poor Education and Health Services, Demand for the End of the Panchayat System and Political Freedom , Expansion of Media and Awareness on Common Issues, Youth Groups and Exposure to the Wider World, Cycle of Socio-Political Exclusion and Injustice, Bureaucracy and Slow Decision Making Processes, Expansion of Education and Awareness of People
  • 26. Objective-2: Experiences of School Children and Teachers during the Political Transition Political Movement and Children, Political Movements and Teachers, Political Disagreement means Displacement for Teachers, Private Schools, Children in War Zones Objective-3: Educational Provisions, Dynamics and Relationships among the Stakeholders School: Strategic Place for Everyone , Out of School Children, Over Crowded Classrooms, Socio-Political Affiliation and Power Dynamics in School , Defunct Government Machinery Suspension of Fund, Recruitment of Children,
  • 27. Women and War Zone, Strike, Bandhs and Closure of Schools: Actors are the Sufferers, Caught between the Security Forces and the Maoist Objective- 4: Emerging Trends in the Education System in Transition Irregular Supplies of Text Books, State Funded School and Private School , Non-Nepali Teachers: Termination of Services Objective- 5: Alternative Model(s) of Education, explored by the Community Model School initiated by Maoists, Curriculum for Political Induction, Schools as Zones of Peace Campaign: A Civil Society Initiative , Community Contribution to Ensuring Free Primary Schooling Slogan used: “Ek Ghar, Ek Jana” (One Youth from Every Household) “Raj sahi murdabad”, “Hamro jeet bhav pacchi desh ma bikash auncche”
  • 28. Chapter 6 : POST TRANSITION: EMERGING TRENDS AND CHALLENGES No More ‘Shri 5 ko Sarkar’, it is ‘Nepal Sarkar, National Anthem, Towards Fulfilling the Promises made under the 40 Point Charter of Demand, Politics of Photographs, New Provisions for School Management Committee, Education Provision in the Interim Constitution, 2007, Integrated School System, Recruitment of Teachers, Addressing the Issues of Language, Framework for Schools as Zones of Peace , Provisions of Scholarships for Children of Martyrs, Ray of Hope
  • 29. Nature of study: Qualitative Research Research ‘design/approach to the inquiry: an ethnographic frame Research Questions: How is a State school situated in an urban slum context? How do the people living there perceive schooling and school? How is the everyday school practice shaped in the interactions between the teachers, children and community? What roles does a teacher play in this context? How are the children positioned in the school and how do they make sense of social reality? How does the school as a social and pedagogic institution shape the aspirations and worldviews of the children in the margins of an urban setting?
  • 30. Tools/Informants : Conversations, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, Participant observation, Listening, Story- completion/construction Selecting the field: Urban-slums(M-Block, Shiv Puri and K-Block of Rabindra Garden )and MCD school, E-5 MBlock, Ward number 22. between the pragmatic and the philosophical that the method of this study evolved The fieldwork of the study involved engaging with children at a primary school, those at work and/or ‘out-of-school’, their parents and other adults in the setting, schoolteachers and the local NGOs’ staff, SSA personnel, and some other informants (like employees at the local election office, post-office and police station) Analysis and Descriptions: The descriptions that were generated during the course of research have been organized into eight chapters, including an introduction and a concluding chapter (or an epilogue). The chapters trace the Research Questions in particular relation to the social group in focus (Dalit children in the urban slum)
  • 31.
  • 32. Chapter Four: Understanding the Field Eight informants – two residents for the past10-15 years (Anjum and Teekam), two schoolteachers (Sarita and Shivali), two NGO workers (Jagwati and Neetu , a local police official & Mrs. Aggarwal Description of the field and life of the people, and certain contextual ‘meanings’. A picture of the setting, Initial development of the site, Present context, Prominent features of the settlements, Orientations : Inside and outside, Describing the Other, Culture of Poverty: Constructing ‘otherness’ , A view from inside Describe the field from two perspectives – that of an outsider and an insider A view from Outside: The descriptor: Gandagi, Poor and deviant, Unwilling to ‘change’ , A ‘community’: Labour class/servant class, Touch: Framing social distance, Caste: “Doesn’t exist” A view from inside: Memory and time; Government, nation, state; Begging as livelihood
  • 33. Chapter Five: Idea of School: Negotiations, Experiences and Hopes State’s perception: Functionaries’ belief, Locating the school in the community , Image of school and its functions, Reviewing ‘worth’ ,Cost of schooling, The janampatri , Schooling as a ritual, Traditions and experience: Exploring certain ideas, ‘Kitab’, On rote and performance, Perceiving pedagogy
  • 34. Chapter Six: The Teachers and School Space: Work, Relations and Lives Meeting teachers: Negotiating entry ‘The usual’, Shivali: A different teacher, ‘Checkpoint’ and gatekeepers, Perceptions and feelings: The teachers’ Self, the children and the community, Predicaments about work, Duty orders, The narrative of workload and holidays, Gender and conjugality , Eligible and ineligibles
  • 35. Chapter Seven: Experiences of the Children: Meanings and Worldviews Social Distance: Silence, punishment and the body, Punishment, Body in political realm , Intertwined meanings and identity , Stories as a medium of relating , Children’s conception of caste, class and experience at school, Experience of humiliation at school, Class, caste and structure of schooling: Experiences of solidarity , Work, childhood and experience, Class conflict: Fraternity, collective experience and expression , Stories and children, Children at work: A worldview , Nature of the work, Experiences with ‘others’: Contested terrains , Making sense: Nature of expression
  • 36.
  • 37. Experiencing humiliation, Punishing the teacher, The hero and the victim, A grown-up victim
  • 38.
  • 39. Chapter Eight: Concluding Thoughts Perceptions from the field: Urban slum, anonymity and identity, Purposes that school serves, Experiencing school in the margins: Children’s aspirations, Teachers, Conflicting agenda, Culture(s) of children and school-space