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Qualitative data analysis

  1. Prepared by: Preeti Sharma Ph.D. Scholar
  2. Theoretical Background Definition & examples of Q.D. Qualitative Data Collection Methods Qualitative Data Analysis Methods Software's of Qualitative Data Analysis Thesis Analysis A study of school education from a human rights perspectives CHILDREN AND SCHOOL IN A SOCIETY IN TRANSITION: A STUDY OF NEPAL Politics of institutional knowledge and exclusion an inquiry into experiences of children from dalit community
  3. Ex: The cake is orange, blue and black in color Ex: There are 800 girls and 1700 boys in the school Qualitative data  It can be observed and recorded. This data type is non-numerical in nature  also known as categorical data. As it can be arranged categorically based on the attributes and properties of a thing or a phenomenon Quantitative Data  any quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical calculation or statistical analysis.  It is used to answer questions like how many? how often? how much? This data can be validated and verified.
  4. For a market researcher, collecting qualitative data helps in answering questions like, who their customers are, what issues or problems they are facing and where do they need to focus their attention so problems or issues are resolved. Types of Qualitative Data
  5. Qualitative Data Collection Methods
  6. Questions for Qualitative Interviews Focus of Qualitative Questions: Experience, Opinion, Feelings, Knowledge and Input
  7. Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes and procedures whereby we move from the qualitative data that have been collected, into some form of explanation, understanding or interpretation of the people and situations we are investigating. Approaches to data analysis: (1) Deductive (2)Inductive Types of Qualitative Analysis Content analysis Narrative analysis Discourse Analysis Framework analysis Grounded Theory
  8. 1) Content Analysis: Content analysis is the procedure for the categorization of verbal or behavioral data for the purpose of classification, summarization and tabulation. Content analysis can be done on two levels: Descriptive: What is the data? Interpretative: what was meant by the data? 2) Narrative Analysis: Narratives are transcribed experiences. Every interview/observation has narrative aspect. The researcher has to sort-out and reflect up on them, enhance them and present them in a revised shape to the reader. The core activity in narrative analysis is to reformulate stories presented by people in different contexts and based on their different experiences. 3) Discourse Analysis This is a method of analyzing a naturally occurring talk (spoken interaction) and all types of written texts. It focuses on how people express themselves verbally in their everyday social life i.e. how language is used in everyday situations? a) Sometimes people express themselves in a simple and straightforward way b) Sometimes people express themselves vaguely and indirectly c) Analyst must refer to the context when interpreting the message because the same phenomenon can be described in a number of different ways depending on context .
  9. 4) Framework Analysis Familiarization: Transcribing & reading the data Identifying a thematic framework: Initial coding framework which is developed both from a priori issues and from emergent issues Coding: Using numerical or textual codes to identify specific piece of data which correspond to different themes Charting: Charts created using headings from thematic framework. Mapping and interpretation: Searching for patterns, associations, concepts and explanations in the data. 5) Grounded Theory: This theory starts with an examination of a single case from a ‘pre-defined’ population in order to formulate a general statement (concept or a hypothesis) about a population. Afterwards the analyst examines another case to see whether the hypothesis fits the statement. If it does, a further case is selected but if it doesn’t fit there are two options: Either the statement is changed to fit both cases or the definition of the population is changed in such a way that the case is no longer a member of the newly defined population. Then another case is selected and the process continues. In such a way one should be able to arrive at a statement that fits all cases of a population-as-defined. This method is only for limited set of analytic problems: those that can be solved with some general overall statement .
  10. Principles of Qualitative Data Analysis  People differ in their experience and understanding of reality (constructivist-many meanings).  A social phenomenon can’t be understood outside its own context (Context-bound).  Qualitative research can be used to describe phenomenon or generate theory grounded on data.  Understanding human behavior emerges slowly and non-linearly. Exceptional cases may yield insights into a problem or new idea for further inquiry. Strategies for Analyzing Observation: Chronology, key events, various settings, People, Process, Issues. Qualitative Analysis with Software: 1.Atlas ti 6.0 ( 2.The Ethnography 5.08 3.HyperRESEARCH 2.8 ( 4.Max QDA ( 5.QSR N6 (
  11. The nature of the research: qualitative and analytical. Regulationist approach and hermeneutics approach has also been used Research objectives : The present study aims to understand school education comprehensively, with reference to a human rights perspective  To analyze the education polices, with reference to their understanding, acceptability and applicability of a human rights perspective.  To deconstruct the underlying assumptions of the National Curriculum Frameworks.  To review the content of NCERT social science text books.  To identify the pedagogical concerns of classroom practices in social science.  To know and analyze the nature of co-curricular activities and their practices in school.
  12. Tools for data collection: observations and unstuctured interviews.
  13. Methods and the Process of Analysis: Content Analysis, Hermeneutical Analysis, Researching Policy & Theme Based Analysis The conceptual framework of the research has been developed from four different but associated fields, where, concept, development and concerns in human rights and a human rights perspective in the curriculum helped the analysis of different polices, commissions, National Curriculum Frameworks and textbooks. A human rights perspective in pedagogy & Co-curricular Activities facilitated the observation and analysis of classroom practice and CCA. The teachers’ interviews strengthened the analysis, particularly of classroom practices A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of clear, definable standards of what all the student should know and be able to do. The curriculum is, then, aligned to the standards, and students are assessed against the standards.
  14. Human rights perspective in pedagogy help learners feel the importance of human rights, internalize human rights and values, and integrate them into the way they live.  This requires a participative and dialogic approach Some Guidelines for Facilitators/Teachers needs to be clear in his/her role and try to make them feel relaxed. good to elicit the related experience of the participants on the subject of each exercise. The teacher needs to be aware of his/her approach to the pupils in the group.
  15. I. Analysis of Education Policies from a Human Rights Perspective: This analysis is supported by the conceptual framework of the research which is developed in chapter two. As per NPE 1986 • Universal access and enrollment. Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age. A substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve essential level of learning. These new policies were intended to raise educational standards and increase access to education. At the same time, it would safeguard the values of secularism, socialism and equality (which had been promoted since Independence,) which give these policies a human rights perspective II. Analysis of the National Curriculum Frameworks from a Human Rights Perspective The NCF, provides a broad overview of the school curriculum, including general objectives, subject-wise objectives, suggested scheme of study and guidelines for the transaction of the curriculum and the evaluation of pupil outcomes The NCF2000, emphasized’ Learning without burden’ This document rejected the idea of rote learning and provided a reorientation of the learner and learning and discussed a holistic approach in the treatment of the learner’s development and learning. Creation of an inclusive environment, Learner engagement in terms of observing, exploring, discovering, analyzing, critical reflection , Active learning, Adequate room for voicing children’s thought, curiosity, and question, Connecting knowledge
  16. Analysis of the Social Science Textbooks from Classes VI to X, developed by NCERT, based on the understanding of NCF, 2005. I. A summary of a class wise descriptive analysis and thematic analysis of textbooks II. Analysis of interviews of school teachers III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective Social and Political Life- I- Class VI(Descriptive analysis ) The book has been divided into four sections: Diversity, Government, Local Government and Administration, and Livelihood. Each section comprises of, at least, two chapters: Appendix of thesis analyzes texts, pictures, examples, activities, treatment given to various concepts. Thematic Analysis: Diversity vs. Unity(more focus on differences and diversities, than equality and unity), Dealing with Prejudices(between poor-rich, rural –urban people), Equality vs. Inequality(need to include some positive examples), The Perspective and Function of the Government(Only democratic government has been discussed, need to strengthen content with actual situation of elections in India), Rural and Urban Administration(the election process of the Panchayat, rural and urban administration smissing) II. Analysis of the Interviews of School Teachers: The Teachers’ Perceptions about Textbooks, Sensitive Issues (only raising issues did not talk about how to solve), What would a Teacher Like to Change in Textbooks?(questions are vague, application based), Functional Knowledge(lacks. E.g. FIR and RTI), Less Political Knowledge(more social perspective), Activities and Time (contradiction, teacher should be free to decide), The Role of Teachers(workload, fixed role of teacher) Examples in the Textbooks(appreciated, only negative e.g.), Overemphasis(women’s & caste discrimination)
  17. III. Overview of Social Science Textbooks: A Human Rights Perspective(Thematic Analysis) Pessimistic Examples(some optimistic examples could have been included to make the books more human rights perspective-based), Political Science Vs. Sociology(more social issues, examples given, social system blamed for all problems ) Activities and the Role of Teachers, One Sided Perspective, Equality(pessimistic examples), Democracy(limited only to election, rights associated problems have rarely been highlighted), Biasness(missed relation of media with EWS), Government(only democratic govt. discussed, rights without ex.) Rights and Duties, Rationality of the Arguments, Promotion of Critical and Reflective thinking(do not provide opportunities), The Right to Food(no discussion) Analysis of Classroom Practices and Co-Curricular Activities The Students’ Role in the Classroom Processes: hardly any role except of listening How does a Teacher Deal with Sensitive Issues, such as Caste, Class, Gender and so on?(not adequately, insensitive behavior, Lack of Knowledge, Misconceptions and Biased Views Pedagogy and Activity(only reading the book, sometime Q. asked not answered) Context-based Teaching-learning, with Examples(unable to state any examples to develop the context, when given explanation of these examples, with reference to the concept, was a blunder) The Types of Questions Asked(only knowledge based, Q asked by pupils not dealt properly)
  18. Teacher-centered and Teacher-fronted Classes(no help in HRP development) The Teachers’ Engagement with the Class:(just to complete the chapter, very little time and lots of syllabus ) The Students’ Perspective towards the Teachers(“uff jaan bachi”, “is teacher kokuch nahi aata” ) The Students’ Status or Dignity in the Class The Teachers’ Faith and the Attitude towards the Students’ Potentialities and Capabilities(“ sab fail ho jaoge” (you all will get fail), “ tumhe kuch nahi aata” (you do not know anything), “mujhe tumse puchna hi nahi chahiye tha”( I should not have asked you), “tumhe kuch pata toh hota nahi hai bas prashan karte ho, shaant raho”(you do not know anything and just ask questions, keep quiet) and so on. The Meaning of Discipline and Respect in Class( to stand up & remain quiet) Analysis of Interviews of Teachers, with reference to Classroom Practices Themes 1) Understanding of Human Rights and a human rights perspective Themes 2) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices Human Rights for Self-development: One of the teachers said,“keval Social Science mein ek chapter daalne se kuch nahi hoga. Zarurat to badestar par adhikaro ki baat karne ki hai or iske liye agar Human Rights Education ek subject laya bhi jaye to koi galat nahi hoga.” Equality with Dignity: The notion of equality was favored by most teachers for egalitarian society(gareeb child maid at home) A Human Rights Perspective in Classroom Practices (not much awareness) Dealing with Critical and Sensitive Issues: kitaabo mein to pata nahi kya kya likh diya gaya hai, jinhone likha hai vo aakar padaayen to unko pata chale ki in muddo ko kaise padhana hai
  19. The Research Problem: Nepal has been in transition for more than two decades, and this study is an effort to understand the role played by education and the status of education, during this long phase of political transition Nature of study: qualitative research approach Research design: exploratory and narrative nature of inquiry Objectives of the Study • To understand the background of political conflict in Nepal. • To document the experiences of school children and teachers during the conflict. • To explore the educational provisions, dynamics and relationships among the stakeholders in Nepal • To identify the emerging trends in education system during the transition in Nepal. • To document alternative model/s of education, if any, explored by the community during the conflict in Nepal
  20. Methods of data collection: Interview , Observation(5), Visual Data, Discourse and Spoken Action, Case-Study, Focus Group Discussion(10) Sample: 123 people (30 children, 2 former child soldiers, 25 teachers, 20 community members/parents, 10 political activists, 6 Nepali scholars, 5 journalists, 3 NGO workers,16 displaced/migrant people, 4 government officials, 2 Nepal Watchers) were interviewed from villages of districts Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk, Kathmandu city & Delhi Secondary data: government policy documents, government orders, UN documents, press clippings, studies, text books, journals, research papers, literature produced by political parties, reports prepared by INGO/NGOs and resources available in electronic form. Two documentary films- Between Two Stones and Schools in the Crossfire were very helpful to understand the field reality Profile of the District Rupandehi, Sindhupolchowk followed by The Social Context of Field Work
  21. Questionnaire for the Community Members, teachers, students & Political Activists, School/Classroom Observation Tool has been used for data collection.
  22. School/Classroom Observation Tool • Name of the School- • Name of the Head Master- • Number of Students Enrolled- Boys- Girls- • Number of Teachers in School- Male- Female 1. Physical environment of the School/Classroom • Building • Outdoor Space • Classroom-Light, Cleanliness, Blackboard • Teaching Learning Materials/Library • Furniture • Toilets • Drinking Water • Slogan on the Wall(In Side of the Classroom-On School Wall) • List of Community Contributors (if any) 2 Access, Quality and Use of Teaching Learning Materials by Children and Teachers 3. Teaching-Learning Process-Method, Seating Arrangement , Language used, Interaction, Participation, Curriculum Transaction, Communication, Classroom Management 4. Observation of HM’s Room (Records, Academic Calendar etc.) 5. Observation of Assembly (Prayer, National Anthem, Instruction etc.
  23. Analysis of gathered data from various sources is interwoven. An attempt has been made to present data in terms of the objectives of the study. Objective-1: To understand the background of the political conflict in Nepal Factors Responsible for the Conflict, Education for the Classes and not for the Masses, Sanskrit and Nepali – Tools of Hegemony, Reality of Free Education in Nepal, Teacher management: Complexity and Chaos, Text Books, National Anthem, Poor Education and Health Services, Demand for the End of the Panchayat System and Political Freedom , Expansion of Media and Awareness on Common Issues, Youth Groups and Exposure to the Wider World, Cycle of Socio-Political Exclusion and Injustice, Bureaucracy and Slow Decision Making Processes, Expansion of Education and Awareness of People
  24. Objective-2: Experiences of School Children and Teachers during the Political Transition Political Movement and Children, Political Movements and Teachers, Political Disagreement means Displacement for Teachers, Private Schools, Children in War Zones Objective-3: Educational Provisions, Dynamics and Relationships among the Stakeholders School: Strategic Place for Everyone , Out of School Children, Over Crowded Classrooms, Socio-Political Affiliation and Power Dynamics in School , Defunct Government Machinery Suspension of Fund, Recruitment of Children,
  25. Women and War Zone, Strike, Bandhs and Closure of Schools: Actors are the Sufferers, Caught between the Security Forces and the Maoist Objective- 4: Emerging Trends in the Education System in Transition Irregular Supplies of Text Books, State Funded School and Private School , Non-Nepali Teachers: Termination of Services Objective- 5: Alternative Model(s) of Education, explored by the Community Model School initiated by Maoists, Curriculum for Political Induction, Schools as Zones of Peace Campaign: A Civil Society Initiative , Community Contribution to Ensuring Free Primary Schooling Slogan used: “Ek Ghar, Ek Jana” (One Youth from Every Household) “Raj sahi murdabad”, “Hamro jeet bhav pacchi desh ma bikash auncche”
  26. Chapter 6 : POST TRANSITION: EMERGING TRENDS AND CHALLENGES No More ‘Shri 5 ko Sarkar’, it is ‘Nepal Sarkar, National Anthem, Towards Fulfilling the Promises made under the 40 Point Charter of Demand, Politics of Photographs, New Provisions for School Management Committee, Education Provision in the Interim Constitution, 2007, Integrated School System, Recruitment of Teachers, Addressing the Issues of Language, Framework for Schools as Zones of Peace , Provisions of Scholarships for Children of Martyrs, Ray of Hope
  27. Nature of study: Qualitative Research Research ‘design/approach to the inquiry: an ethnographic frame Research Questions: How is a State school situated in an urban slum context? How do the people living there perceive schooling and school? How is the everyday school practice shaped in the interactions between the teachers, children and community? What roles does a teacher play in this context? How are the children positioned in the school and how do they make sense of social reality? How does the school as a social and pedagogic institution shape the aspirations and worldviews of the children in the margins of an urban setting?
  28. Tools/Informants : Conversations, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, Participant observation, Listening, Story- completion/construction Selecting the field: Urban-slums(M-Block, Shiv Puri and K-Block of Rabindra Garden )and MCD school, E-5 MBlock, Ward number 22. between the pragmatic and the philosophical that the method of this study evolved The fieldwork of the study involved engaging with children at a primary school, those at work and/or ‘out-of-school’, their parents and other adults in the setting, schoolteachers and the local NGOs’ staff, SSA personnel, and some other informants (like employees at the local election office, post-office and police station) Analysis and Descriptions: The descriptions that were generated during the course of research have been organized into eight chapters, including an introduction and a concluding chapter (or an epilogue). The chapters trace the Research Questions in particular relation to the social group in focus (Dalit children in the urban slum)
  29. Chapter Four: Understanding the Field Eight informants – two residents for the past10-15 years (Anjum and Teekam), two schoolteachers (Sarita and Shivali), two NGO workers (Jagwati and Neetu , a local police official & Mrs. Aggarwal Description of the field and life of the people, and certain contextual ‘meanings’. A picture of the setting, Initial development of the site, Present context, Prominent features of the settlements, Orientations : Inside and outside, Describing the Other, Culture of Poverty: Constructing ‘otherness’ , A view from inside Describe the field from two perspectives – that of an outsider and an insider A view from Outside: The descriptor: Gandagi, Poor and deviant, Unwilling to ‘change’ , A ‘community’: Labour class/servant class, Touch: Framing social distance, Caste: “Doesn’t exist” A view from inside: Memory and time; Government, nation, state; Begging as livelihood
  30. Chapter Five: Idea of School: Negotiations, Experiences and Hopes State’s perception: Functionaries’ belief, Locating the school in the community , Image of school and its functions, Reviewing ‘worth’ ,Cost of schooling, The janampatri , Schooling as a ritual, Traditions and experience: Exploring certain ideas, ‘Kitab’, On rote and performance, Perceiving pedagogy
  31. Chapter Six: The Teachers and School Space: Work, Relations and Lives Meeting teachers: Negotiating entry ‘The usual’, Shivali: A different teacher, ‘Checkpoint’ and gatekeepers, Perceptions and feelings: The teachers’ Self, the children and the community, Predicaments about work, Duty orders, The narrative of workload and holidays, Gender and conjugality , Eligible and ineligibles
  32. Chapter Seven: Experiences of the Children: Meanings and Worldviews Social Distance: Silence, punishment and the body, Punishment, Body in political realm , Intertwined meanings and identity , Stories as a medium of relating , Children’s conception of caste, class and experience at school, Experience of humiliation at school, Class, caste and structure of schooling: Experiences of solidarity , Work, childhood and experience, Class conflict: Fraternity, collective experience and expression , Stories and children, Children at work: A worldview , Nature of the work, Experiences with ‘others’: Contested terrains , Making sense: Nature of expression
  33. Experiencing humiliation, Punishing the teacher, The hero and the victim, A grown-up victim
  34. Chapter Eight: Concluding Thoughts Perceptions from the field: Urban slum, anonymity and identity, Purposes that school serves, Experiencing school in the margins: Children’s aspirations, Teachers, Conflicting agenda, Culture(s) of children and school-space