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Katia Karousakis - Marine protected areas and their role in ecosystem-services

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Katia Karousakis - Marine protected areas and their role in ecosystem-services

  1. 1. MARINE PROTECTED AREAS AND THEIR ROLE IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE PROVISION, SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES AND TOURISM Katia Karousakis Biodiversity Team Leader OECD Environment Directorate CBD COP13 UNCTAD UNEP and CAF side-event on Oceans Economy and Ecosystem Services Monday 5 December 2016
  2. 2. Overview • Current and projected pressures • The role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) • How MPAs contribute to sustainable fishing and tourism • The need for effective policy mixes
  3. 3. Pressures on marine ecosystem services and biodiversity  Over-fishing  Pollution  Habitat degradation  Climate change  Invasive alien species
  4. 4. The future of the Ocean Economy… Total ocean industry value-added expected to double by 2030 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 USD billion Overview of industry-specific value-added in 2010 and 2030 2010 2030 Source: OECD (2016) The Ocean Economy to 2030
  5. 5. Policy instruments for marine biodiversity conservation and sustainable use Regulatory (command-and- control) instruments Economic instruments Information and voluntary approaches Marine protected areas Taxes, charges, user fees (e.g. entrance fees to marine parks) Certification, eco-labelling (e.g. MSC) Marine spatial planning Individually Transferable Quotas (ITQ) for fishing Voluntary agreements, such as public-private partnerships (which can include e.g., voluntary biodiversity offset schemes) Spatial and temporal fishing closures; limits on number and size of vessels (input controls); other restrictions or prohibitions on use (e.g. CITES) Reform of harmful subsidies - and use of subsidies to promote marine conservation and sustainable use Catch limits or quotas (output controls) Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Standards (e.g. MARPOL for ships); bans (e.g. dynamite fishing) Marine biodiversity offsets Licenses e.g. aquaculture and offshore windfarms Non-compliance penalties Planning requirements e.g. EIA and SEA Fines on damages
  6. 6. Trends in Marine Protected Areas Source: Adapted from UNEP-WCMC (2016)
  7. 7. MPAs and sustainable fishing • MPAs, especially no-take marine reserves, have helped to address overfishing • Stocks recover, catch and catch-per-unit- effort (CPUE) increases – Meta-analysis by Starr et al. (2015), Mesnildrey et al (2013), amongst others • Responses vary depending on taxonomic groups, size of reserve, protection level, enforcement, time.
  8. 8. MPAs and sustainable tourism • MPAs also being used as tools for sustainable tourism (e.g. Galapagos marine reserve, MPA network Pacific Coast Canada) • Natural and cultural resources in MPAs attract visitors. Sustainable tourism generates revenue and supports local communities • Examples from Sweden, Tanzania, United States, Vietnam…
  9. 9. The need for effective policy mixes Ecosystem Protection (MPA) Reduced Subsidies Effective fisheries management Potential for Illegal Fishing Potential for Recruitment overfishing Potential for growth overfishing
  10. 10. Key messages for more effective MPAs • Better understanding of costs and benefits • Effective siting of MPAs to address pressures • More robust monitoring and reporting • Enhanced compliance and enforcement
  11. 11. Thank you! OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems: Biodiversity Indicators, Valuation and Assessment Economic Instruments, Incentives and Policies for Biodiversity Biodiversity Finance, Development and Distributional Issues Visit: www.oecd.org/env/biodiversity www.oecd.org/environment/resources/mainstream-biodiversity/ Selected OECD reports: • Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes (OECD, forthcoming 2017) • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Biodiversity Policy Reform (OECD, forthcoming 2017) • The Ocean Economy in 2030 (OECD, 2016) • Green Growth in Fisheries and Aquaculture (OECD, 2015) • Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators (OECD ENV WP No. 90, 2015) • Scaling Up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity (OECD, 2013)

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • 31% percent of fish stocks over-exploited; 58% fully-fished
    Pollution: Most sources of marine pollution (80%) are land based.
    Habitat degradation - 60% of the world’s major marine ecosystems degraded or used unsustainably (UNEP, 2011). An estimated 20% of global mangroves have been lost and 19% of coral reefs have disappeared since 1980s (UNDP, 2012).
  • Maritime and coastal tourism to double
    Marine aquaculture to triple
    Industrial-scale capture fisheries to more than double – hence pressures on marine ecosystems likely to rise as well.
  • An oversimplification, but allows to discuss some important aspects of effective policy mixes
     
    Three elements to an effective policy mix:
    Effective management (good regulations)
    Ecosystem protection (call this MPAs for short)
    Reduced subsidies (rational economic incentives)
    If you have all three, you are in heaven at the centre of the venn where they all overlap. In the three lobes where only two of the three are in place, you are missing something and you risk problems:
    If you have effective management and good ecosystem protection, but subsidies that increase capacity and desired effort, you have pressure for illegal fishing
    If you have ecosystem protection and reduced subsidies, but bad management then you have potential for recruitment overfishing, where the fish stock is drawn down dangerously
    If you have effective management and reduced subsidies but no ecosystem protection, you have potential for growth overfishing, where juvenile fish are harvested before they are optimal size.

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