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MINOR PROJECT REPORT
ON
Good and Services Tax
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD
OF
B-Tech
IN
Computer Science & Engineering
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
DAV Institute OF Engineering & Technology Kabir Nagar Jalandhar
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
Ms.Harpreet Kaur Bajaj Natasha
Head Of Department (1604718)
CSE B-Tech(CSE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
No
Contents
Page No
1 Project Introduction 1-2
2 Project Objectives & Purpose 3-5
3 Methodology Used 6
4 Requirement Specification 7-8
5 Testing Process 9-10
6 Hardware & Software Requirement Details 11
7 Software Used 12-16
8 Database Details 17
9 Project Details 18-29
10 Conclusion 30
11 Bibliography 31
Acknowledgement
It is great pleasure to present this report on the project named “GST” undertaken by us as part of
our B. Tech (IT) curriculum.
We are thankful to our university and college i.e. I.K Gujral PTU and DAV Institute Of
Engineering and Technology for offering us such a wonderful challenging opportunity and I
express my deepest thanks to all coordinators, for providing all the possible help and assistance
and their constant encouragement.
It is a pleasure that we find ourselves penning down these lines to express our sincere thanks to
the people who helped me along the way in completing our project. We find inadequate words to
express our sincere gratitude towards them.
First and foremost we would like to express our gratitude towards Mr.Gaurav Verma (Training
guide of O7 Services) for placing complete faith and confidence in our ability to carry out this
project and for providing us his time, inspiration, encouragement, help, valuable guidance,
constructive criticism and constant interest.
Natasha
ABSTRACT
This is a project report on “GST”. During the development of this project we explored new ideas
and functionalities behind the working of Software.
This project is the output of our planning, schedule, programming skill and the hard work and this
report reflects our steps taken at various levels of programming skill, planning and schedule.
We have learnt a lot during this project and liked the improvement in our testing skills and deep
Concept related to these kinds of projects.
The idea of developing “Good and Service Tax “project is come in our mind when GST was
launched in India. Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give
the knowledge about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST. It
tells about history of GST, the various taxes which were finished after GST is coming. We also
make GST calculator
Company Profile
O7SERVICES has the expertise to provide information Technology and Communication based
Solutions. We design, develop and deploy Systems, Networking, Security and Communication
Solutions. We constantly stay ahead in the Technologies and provide to our Customers solutions
for sustainable competitive advent
Mission:
O7services mission is to provide to Customers with a complete Solution to all their current and
future Information Technology needs.
O7SERVICES has established a reputation for quality work and plans to continue to enhance its
image in the Information Technology Industry. The Company seeks to become a well-known and
respected provider of Information Technology Solutions by:-
 Increasing service offerings.
 Increasing availability and accessibility to current and future Customers.
 Creating innovative, unique, and cost effective solutions to problems currently faced by
Customers.
Services:-
O7SERVICES combines best of breed products and technologies with global market industry
knowledge and expertise and successfully addresses its Customers strategic business challenges
and opportunities. With a strong base of dedicated employees, our team works closely with
Customers to better understand their challenges and provide cost-saving solutions. The most
important part of our Business Process is SUPPORT. O7SERVICES strongly realizes the need to
be fully and readily equipped to support all their Customers who believe in them and trust them to
serve and provide the right solution to their IT needs. We provide following services:-
I.T Infrastructure
 Network
 Storage
 System
 Security
 Backup
Chapter-1
(Introduction)
Project Introduction
The Project titled as “Good and Service tax “was developed in core java. We all know that India’s
tax regime relied heavily on indirect taxes.Revenue from indirect taxes was the major source
of tax revenue till tax reforms were undertaken during nineties. The major case put forth
for important dependence on indirect taxes was that the India’s majority of population was
poor and thus widening base of direct taxes had inherent limitations. GST is one of the biggest
tax reforms in India aiming to integrate State economies and boost overall growth by creating a
single, unified Indian market to make the economy stronger. GST is a comprehensive destination
based indirect tax levy of goods as well as services at the national level. Its main objective is to
consolidate multiple indirect tax levies into a single tax thus subsuming an array of tax levies,
overcoming the limitations of existing indirect tax structure, and creating efficiencies in tax
administration.
GST is consumption or destination based tax levied on the basis of the “Destination principle.” It
is a comprehensive tax regime covering both goods and services, and be collected on value-added
at each stage of the supply chain. Further, GST paid on the procurement of goods and services can
be set off against that payable on the supply of goods or services. Simply put, Goods and Services
Tax is a tax levied on goods and services imposed at each point of supply. Such GST is on entire
goods and services, except some exempted class of goods or services or a negative list of goods
and services on which GST is not levied. GST is a national level tax based on value added principle
just like State level VAT which was levied as tax on sale of intra-state goods.
Figure.01 GST
Goods and Service Tax (GST) is a comprehensive value added Tax on the supply of Goods and
services. GST will replace all the indirect taxes (like Excise duty, VAT, CST etc.) levied on goods
and services by Government once it is implemented. The main motive of GST is to reduce the
cascading effect of tax on the cost of goods and services and create a common, cooperative and
undivided Indian market to make economy stronger and powerful. So the GST system will
combine Central excise duty, additional excise duty, service tax, State VAT entertainment tax etc.
under one banner. It will impact tax structure, tax incidence, tax computation, credit utilization
and reporting, leading to a complete overhaul of the current indirect tax system. This is one of the
biggest taxation reforms that will take place in India once it is officially passed by Government.
Many countries across the world have single unified GST system but due to non-consensus
between central and state government of India, India shall adopt a Dual GST model, meaning that
the GST would be administered both by the Central and the State Governments. A Dual GST will
be levied on the taxable value of every transaction of supply of goods and services.
 State Goods and Services Tax (SGST), collected by the state government
 Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST), collected by the central government
 Integrated Goods and Service Tax (IGST), collected by the central government on
inter-State supply of goods and services.
Project Plan
The idea of developing “Good and Service Tax “project is come in our mind when GST was
launched in India. Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give
the knowledge about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST It
tells about history of GST , the various tax which was finished after GST is coming. We also make
GST Calculator. GST calculator to calculate how much your product or service would cost after
the application of GST. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a common comprehensive
nationwide tax based on the VAT (Value Added Tax) principle which replaces several taxes levied
by the Central and State governments upon the products and services. The rate of tax of GST in
India is yet to be finalized. As for now, the tax rate is predicted to be from 5% to 28 %. The
proposed system is very fast, easily and efficient system. The whole software is work automatic.
The entire software is full of photographs of all topics categorized under different groups.
Chapter-2
(Project Objectives & Purpose)
Objective of the project
The Goods and Services Tax which is being implemented from 1st July, 2017 is proposed to be a
unified tax for the entire nation. The intended objective of GST 2017 is to replace a lot of other
indirect and direct taxes like the VAT, service tax, luxury tax etc. GST is aimed at being
comprehensive with most of the goods and services included in the GST bill but alcohol and petrol
exempted. GST rate is proposed to be 27% which is far higher than the global standard of 16.4%
for similar taxes. Our finance minister, Mr. Arun Jaitley on several occasions has mentioned that
the rate is way too high, whereas some of the states want the rate to be still higher. In this article,
we will look at the primary objectives of GST 2017 bill.
GST objectives
 Ensuring that the cascading effect of tax on tax will be eliminated.
 Improving the competitiveness of the original goods and services, thereby improving the
GDP rate too.
 Ensuring the availability of input credit across the value chain.
 Reducing the complications in tax administration and compliance.
 Making a unified law involving all the tax bases, laws and administration procedures across
the country.
 Decreasing the unhealthy competition among the states due to taxes and revenues.
 Reducing the tax slab rates to avoid further clarification issues.
With all of these being very significant objectives of GST, it is still facing a lot of implementation
issues. Some of them are:
1. Complete lack of adaptation mechanisms and trained staff.
2. In some cases, the double registration might annoy people. Also, these registrations
result in increased compliances and cost.
3. Unclear estimate of the exact impact of GST.
4. No clear mechanisms to control tax evasion.
Overall Description
1.) Product Perspective:
 User interface: The application that will be developing will have a user friendly and
Menu based interface.
 Following screens will be provided:
There will be no screen for entering the username and password it is a user friendly
project this project is based on basic knowledge regarding GST.
2.) Hardware Interface:
 Processor : Dual Core or Higher
 RAM : 512 MB or higher
 Other Peripheral Devices : CD-Drive, QWERTY Layout Keyboard
3.) Software Interface:
 Operating system: Window XP,Vista,7,8,8.1 and higher
 Platform: .Java
 Database: SQL server
 Language: Core java (Notepad++)
4.) Communication Interface:
The communication between the different parts of the system is important they depend on each
other.
5.) Memory Constraints:
At least 512MB RAM and 4GB of the Hard disk space will be required for running the application.
6.) Operations:
The system will have the user-friendly interfaces. The system will maintain the information related
to GST Only the admin can perform the operations on the databases. User can only see their details
or information’s. There will be additional backup for any kind damages or data lost.
7.) Site Adaptation Requirements:
The centralized database is used so that the system can communicate to retrieve the information.
8.) Software will perform the following functions:
 Only the admin can modify the data.
 User can only read the information.
9) Constraints:
 There is a backup for system.
 GUI feature available.
Purpose
Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give the knowledge
about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST. It tells about
history of GST, the various tax which was finished after GST is coming .We also make GST
calculator. GST calculator to calculate how much your product or service would cost after the
application of GST. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a common comprehensive Nationwide
tax based on the VAT (Value Added Tax) principle which replaces several taxes levied by the
Central and State governments upon the products and services. The rate of tax of GST in India is
yet to be finalized. As for now, the tax rate is predicted to be from 5% to 28 %. The proposed
system is very fast, easily and efficient system. The whole software is work automatic. The entire
software is full of photographs of all topics categorized under different groups.
GST Software has many advantages which are given below:-
• Effective use of time
• Cost effective
• Total computerized system
• Calculate product final price after applying GST on it
• Anywhere, anytime Availability with Automatic Synchronization
• Highly customizable according to your requirements.
Chapter-3
(Methodology Used)
Methodology
• We will use SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) approach to make project as it is the
easiest and most commonly method of making project. We will try to make a project which
will provide a convenient and interesting way for studying any subject. The main objective of
the system design is to make the system user friendly.
• The problem was analyzed and then design was prepared. Then we implemented this
design through coding and then testing is done. If any errors were found then we have tried
our best to remove them and then again testing was done so that we can remove all the errors
of our project. This project will be maintained and upgraded time to time so that we can
provide proper and latest notes to all the users of this tutorial.
Figure: 1 (SDLC Cycle)
• Stages of Waterfall Model: -
• The SDLC is a process used by a systems analyst to develop an information system,
including requirements, validation, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership. Any SDLC
should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches
completion within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the current and
planned Technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to
enhance . SDLC is a methodology used to describe the process for building information
systems, intended to develop information systems in a very deliberate, structured and
methodical way, reiterating each stage of the life cycle.
Chapter-4
(Requirement Specification)
REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
Prior to the software development efforts in any type of system it is very essential to understand
the requirements of the system and users. A complete specification of the software is the 1st step
in the analysis of system. Requirements analysis provides the designer with the representation of
function and procedures that can be translated into data, architecture and procedural design. The
goal of requirement analysis is to find out how current system is working and of there are any
areas where improvement is necessary and possible.
INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS: -
1.) User Interface The packet must be user friendly and robust. It must prompt the user with
proper message boxes to help them perform various actions and how to precede further the
system must respond normally under any input conditions and display proper message
instead of turning up faults and errors
2.) Software Specification Software is a set of program, documents, and procedure, routines
associated with computer system. Software is an essential complement to hardware. It is the
computer programs, when executed operates the hardware.
SYSTEM DESIGN: -
System design is the process of developing specifications for a candidate system that meet the
criteria established in the system analysis. Major step in system design is the preparation of the
input forms and the output reports in a form applicable to the user. The main objective of the
system design is to make the system user friendly.
System design involves various stages as:
• Entry
• Data Correction
• Data Deletion
• Data Processing
• Sorting and Indexing
• Report Generation
System design is the creative act of invention, developing new inputs, a database, offline files,
procedures and output for processing business to meet an organization objective. System design
builds information gathered during the system analysis.
DATABASE DESIGN: -
The overall objective in the development of the database technology has been to treat data as an
organizational resource and as an integrated whole. Database management system allows data to
be protected and organize separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of
data. The most significant of data as seen by the programs and data as stored on the direct
storage access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
The organization of data in the database aims to achieve three major objectives:
• Data Integration
• Data Integrity
• Data Independence
Chapter-5
(Testing Process)
TESTING PROCESS
Software Testing is the process of identifying the correctness and quality of software program.
The purpose is to check whether the software satisfies the specific requirements, needs and
expectations of the customer. In other words, testing is executing a system or application in order
to find software bugs, defects or errors. The job of testing is to find out the reasons of application
failures so that they can be corrected according to requirements. There can be many reasons for
defects in the software. The developer can also make an error which may result in a defect or bug
in the software source code. Any defect or bug in the software will produce wrong results causing
a failure. When a bug or defect causes in software application, testing is done to find out the cause
of defect and to remove the bug. Following are the basic levels of testing: -
Unit Testing
During this first round of testing, the program is submitted to assessments that focus on specific
units or components of the software to determine whether each one is fully functional. The main
aim of this endeavor is to determine whether the application functions as designed. In this phase, a
unit can refer to a function, individual program or even a procedure, and a White-box
Testing method is usually used to get the job done.
Integration Testing
Integration testing allows individuals the opportunity to combine all of the units within a program
and test them as a group. This testing level is designed to find interface defects between the
modules/functions. This is particularly beneficial because it determines how efficiently the units
are running together. Keep in mind that no matter how efficiently each unit is running, if they
aren’t properly integrated, it will affect the functionality of the software program.
System Testing
System testing is the first level in which the complete application is testedas a whole. The goal
at this level is to evaluate whether the system has complied with all of the outlined requirements
and to see that it meets Quality Standards. Testing is very important because it verifies that the
application meets the technical, functional, and business requirements that were set by the
customer.
Acceptance Testing
The final level, Acceptance testing (or User Acceptance Testing), is conducted to determine
whether the systemis ready for release. During this final phase, the user will test the system to
find out whether the application meets their business’ needs. Once this process has been completed
and the software has passed, the program will then be delivered to production.
As you can see, the extensiveness of these tests is just another reason why bringing your software
testers in early is important. When a program is more thoroughly tested, a greater number of bugs
will be detected; this ultimately results in higher quality software.
OBJECTIVES OF TESTING
First of all objectives should be clear.
 Finding defects which may get created by the programmer while developing the software.
 Gaining confidence in and providing information about the level of quality.
 To prevent defects.
 To make sure that the end result meets the business and user requirements.
 To ensure that it satisfies the BRS that is Business Requirement Specification and SRS that
is System Requirement Specifications.
 To gain the confidence of the customers by providing them a quality product.
The above objective implies a dramatic change in viewpoint .The move counter to the commonly
held view than a successful test is one in which no errors are found. In fact, our objective is to
design tests that a systematically uncover different classes of errors and do so with a minimum
amount of time and effort.
BASIC METHODS OF TESTING
1. White box testing: -
White-box testing is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code. White-
box testing is also called glass testing or open-box testing. In order to perform white-box string
on an application, a tester needs to know the internal workings of the code. The tester needs to
have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the code is behaving
inappropriately.
2. Black Box Testing: -
The technique of testing without having any knowledge of the interior workings of the application
is called black-box testing. The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have
access to the source code. Typically, while performing a black-box test, a tester will interact with
the system's user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and
where the inputs are worked upon.
3. Grey-BoxTesting:-
Grey-box testing is a technique to test the application with having a limited knowledge of the
internal workings of an application. In software testing, the phrase the more you know, the better
carries a lot of weight while testing an application.
Chapter-6
(Hardware & Software Requirement Details)
Hardware & Software Requirements
For this project minimum hardware and software requirement are listed below:
Hardware Requirement:
Software Requirement:
PC PC (Windows), Apple, Linux
Processor Intel Pentium Processor, 233 MHz or equivalent.
RAM 512 MB RAM
HDD 2GB of free HDD space for Internet Cache
Operating System Windows
Other software MS SQL Server 2008 or higher,
JDK1.6 or higher
Notepad or Net Beans IDE 7.3 or higher
Chapter-7
(Software Used)
Technologies used in Project
 Notepad++:-
Figure.02 Notepad
Notepad++ is a free (as in "free speech" and also as in "free beer") source code editor and Notepad
replacement that supports several languages. Running in the MS Windows environment, its use is
governed by GPL License.
Based on the powerful editing component Scintilla, Notepad++ is written in C++ and uses pure
Win32 API and STL which ensures a higher execution speed and smaller program size. By
optimizing as many routines as possible without losing user friendliness, Notepad++ is trying to
reduce the world carbon dioxide emissions. When using less CPU power, the PC can throttle down
and reduce power consumption, resulting in a greener environment.
Microsoft SQL Server 2008
Figure.05 My SQL
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is a family of products that meet the data storage requirements of the
largest data processing systems and commercial Web sites, yet at the same time can provide easy-
to-use data storage services to an individual or small business.
The data storage needs of a modern corporation or government organization are very complex.
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) systems must be capable of handling thousands of orders
placed at the same time. Increasing numbers of corporations are implementing large Web sites as
a mechanism for their customers to enter orders, contact the service department, get information
about products, and for many other tasks that previously required contact with employees. These
sites require data storage that is secure, yet tightly integrated with the Web. Organizations are
implementing off-the-shelf software packages for critical services such as human resources
planning, manufacturing resources planning, and inventory control. These systems require
databases capable of storing large amounts of data and supporting large numbers of users.
Java
Figure.03 Java
Introduction to Java:-
The entire component has been developed using Java technology. Java has been chosen as the
platform because of its feature rich nature. The Java Platform provides robust end-to-end solutions
for networked applications as well as a trusted standard for embedded applications. So Java was a
natural choice for development process.
Java versions:
1.) 1.0—250 classes
2.) 1.1—500 classes
3.) 1.2—1800 classes
4.) 1.3—2300 classes
5.) 1.4—2300 classes
6.) 1.5—3000 classes
7.) 1.6—3500 classes
8.) 1.7—3890 classes
9.) 1.8—4000 classes
Characteristics of Java: The characteristics of java are given below:
 Object Oriented:
Java is object oriented to the truest sense of the word. Everything in Java is represented as objects.
Variables and methods both are encapsulated in objects. Java is the object-oriented language.
 Robust:
• Java is a very robust language owing to the following features.
• Excellent exception handling facilities.
• Strict compile-time and runtime checks for data types.
 Portable and Architecture-neutral (Platform Independent):
Java is portable and platform independent so much that they satisfy “write once; run anywhere,
anytime, forever”. This feature is implemented in the following ways:
• Compiler generates machine independent byte-code instructions which can be run on any
machine supporting Java Virtual Machine.
• Size of primitive data type is machine independent.
 Distributed:
• Open access to remote objects by the use of RMI (Remote Method Invocation).
• Brings a level of abstraction to client/server programming.
 Secure:
• Security is achieved by confining a java program to the java execution environment and not
allowing access to other parts of user’s computer
• Absence of pointers provides memory related security as encroachment of memory is avoided.
Proper measure for prevention of viral infection and malicious intent.
 High Performance:
Just-In-Time (JIT) compilers are used to convert byte-code into native machine code resulting in
very high performance. These JIT compilers can be used on a real time, piece by piece demand
basis to perform on-the-fly compilation of byte-code into native-code.
 Compilation and Interpretation:
Java programs are implemented as a two-stage system.
Compilation: Source code to byte-code and not machine instructions.
Interpretation: Byte-code to machine code (for any system that supports using JVM)
Thus cross-platform programs can be written.
Why is JAVA better?
• Architecture Independent.
• OOP based language, relation to the real world.
• Built in API’s.
• More Secured.
• Available for all the platforms and devices like: Desktops, Web, Micro Devices.
• Uses threads (multi tasking) to execute the programs.
• Lighter Language as compared to others.
The Java Platform
A platform is the hardware3 or software environment in which a program runs. We've already
mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000, Linux, Solaris, and Mac-OS.
Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java
platform differs from most other platforms in that it's a software-only platform that runs on top of
other hardware-based platforms. The Java platform has two components:
• The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM)
• The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API)
Java VM is the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms.
The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful
capabilities, such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java API is grouped into libraries
of related classes and interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The next section highlights
what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide.
The following figure depicts a program that's running on the Java platform. As the figure shows,
the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware.
Figure.04 Java Platform
Native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code runs on a specific hardware
platform. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native
code. However, smart compilers, well-tuned interpreters, and just-in-time byte code compilers can
bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability.
Other Software used for Designing
Figure.06 Adobe Photoshop
An image editing software developed and manufactured by Adobe Systems Inc. Photoshop is
considered one of the leaders in photo editing software. The software allows users to manipulate,
crop, resize, and correct color on digital photos. The software is particularly popular amongst
professional photographers and graphic designers.
Photoshop 7.0 key features:
• Healing brush
• Vector Text
• New painting engine
• Photoshop file browser
Professional-level digital cameras were now supporting raw formats, and Adobe Camera Raw 1.0
was introduced as an optional plug-in, in February of 2003. Camera Raw enabled Photoshop users
to directly manipulate unprocessed data captured by a digital camera sensor, the digital equivalent
of developing a film negative
New Features of Adobe Photoshop 7.0
• Organize images—Locate, organize, rank, and sort images using the File Browser window.
• Correct color — The healing brush and patch tools let you correct, refine, and perfect image
areas in new ways.
• Automate color correction—The Auto Color feature automatically removes color casts
throughout an image.
• Generate patterns— The Pattern Maker lets you create abstract or realistic-looking tiled
and seamless patterns and easily apply them to selections or entire images.
Chapter-8
(Database Details)
DATABASE DESIGN
Figure.07 Data table
Figure.08 RESULTS / OUTPUTS
Chapter-9
(Project Details)
Figure.09 Loading Frame
Figure.10 Home Frame
Figure.11 Introduction of GST
Figure.12 GST
Figure.13 Types of GST
Figure.14 CGST
Figure.15 IGST
Figure.16 SGST
Figure.17 History of GST
Figure.18 Launch of GST
Figure.19 Helps for Common Man
Figure.20 Merits of GST
Figure.21 Demerits of GST
Figure.22 28% Tax on items
Figure.23 Tax & Calculator
Figure.24 Taxes
Figure.25 Types of Taxes
Figure.26 Interstate Calculation
Figure.27 Result of Calculation
Figure.28 Same State Calculation
Figure.29 Result of Same State
Figure.30 Bills & Rates
Figure. 31 Bill
Figure.32 Rates
Chapter-10
(Conclusion)
Conclusion
Project Planning is part of project management which relates to the use of schedules such as a
Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. Initially, the
project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined.
Following this step, the durations for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed
and grouped into a work breakdown structure. Project planning is often used to organize different
areas of a project, including project plans, workloads and the management of teams and
individuals. The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram
that enables identification of theoretical. Project planning is inherently uncertain as it must be done
before the project is actually started. Therefore the duration of the tasks is often estimated through
a weighted average of optimistic, normal, and pessimistic cases. The critical chain method adds
"buffers" in the planning to anticipate potential delays in project for an execution. Float or slack
time in the schedule can be calculated using project management software. Then the necessary
resources can be estimated and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving to
the total project cost. At this stage, the project schedule may be optimized to achieve the
appropriate balance between resource usage and project duration to comply with the project
objectives. Once established and agreed, the project schedule becomes what is known as the
baseline schedule. Progress will be measured against the baseline schedule throughout the life of
the project.
Chapter-11
(Bibliography)
Bibliography
 Java2, Complete Reference, Herbert Scheld
 SQL Server 2008 Bible by Paul Nielsen.
 www.google.com
 www.javatpoint.com
 http://www.livemint.com/Money/0R0BVGHhrmZGEWon0UhHoO/Impact-of-GST-on-
homebuyers.html
 http://moneyexcel.com/701/20-types-of-taxes-in-india
 https://www.businessalligators.com/gst-impact-rates-type-conclusion/
 http://www.cbec.gov.in/htdocs-cbec/gst/index
 https://cleartax.in/s/gst-law-goods-and-services-tax

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Gst

  • 1. MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON Good and Services Tax SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF B-Tech IN Computer Science & Engineering Department of Computer Science & Engineering DAV Institute OF Engineering & Technology Kabir Nagar Jalandhar SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Ms.Harpreet Kaur Bajaj Natasha Head Of Department (1604718) CSE B-Tech(CSE)
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter No Contents Page No 1 Project Introduction 1-2 2 Project Objectives & Purpose 3-5 3 Methodology Used 6 4 Requirement Specification 7-8 5 Testing Process 9-10 6 Hardware & Software Requirement Details 11 7 Software Used 12-16 8 Database Details 17 9 Project Details 18-29 10 Conclusion 30 11 Bibliography 31
  • 3. Acknowledgement It is great pleasure to present this report on the project named “GST” undertaken by us as part of our B. Tech (IT) curriculum. We are thankful to our university and college i.e. I.K Gujral PTU and DAV Institute Of Engineering and Technology for offering us such a wonderful challenging opportunity and I express my deepest thanks to all coordinators, for providing all the possible help and assistance and their constant encouragement. It is a pleasure that we find ourselves penning down these lines to express our sincere thanks to the people who helped me along the way in completing our project. We find inadequate words to express our sincere gratitude towards them. First and foremost we would like to express our gratitude towards Mr.Gaurav Verma (Training guide of O7 Services) for placing complete faith and confidence in our ability to carry out this project and for providing us his time, inspiration, encouragement, help, valuable guidance, constructive criticism and constant interest. Natasha
  • 4. ABSTRACT This is a project report on “GST”. During the development of this project we explored new ideas and functionalities behind the working of Software. This project is the output of our planning, schedule, programming skill and the hard work and this report reflects our steps taken at various levels of programming skill, planning and schedule. We have learnt a lot during this project and liked the improvement in our testing skills and deep Concept related to these kinds of projects. The idea of developing “Good and Service Tax “project is come in our mind when GST was launched in India. Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give the knowledge about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST. It tells about history of GST, the various taxes which were finished after GST is coming. We also make GST calculator
  • 5. Company Profile O7SERVICES has the expertise to provide information Technology and Communication based Solutions. We design, develop and deploy Systems, Networking, Security and Communication Solutions. We constantly stay ahead in the Technologies and provide to our Customers solutions for sustainable competitive advent Mission: O7services mission is to provide to Customers with a complete Solution to all their current and future Information Technology needs. O7SERVICES has established a reputation for quality work and plans to continue to enhance its image in the Information Technology Industry. The Company seeks to become a well-known and respected provider of Information Technology Solutions by:-  Increasing service offerings.  Increasing availability and accessibility to current and future Customers.  Creating innovative, unique, and cost effective solutions to problems currently faced by Customers.
  • 6. Services:- O7SERVICES combines best of breed products and technologies with global market industry knowledge and expertise and successfully addresses its Customers strategic business challenges and opportunities. With a strong base of dedicated employees, our team works closely with Customers to better understand their challenges and provide cost-saving solutions. The most important part of our Business Process is SUPPORT. O7SERVICES strongly realizes the need to be fully and readily equipped to support all their Customers who believe in them and trust them to serve and provide the right solution to their IT needs. We provide following services:- I.T Infrastructure  Network  Storage  System  Security  Backup
  • 7. Chapter-1 (Introduction) Project Introduction The Project titled as “Good and Service tax “was developed in core java. We all know that India’s tax regime relied heavily on indirect taxes.Revenue from indirect taxes was the major source of tax revenue till tax reforms were undertaken during nineties. The major case put forth for important dependence on indirect taxes was that the India’s majority of population was poor and thus widening base of direct taxes had inherent limitations. GST is one of the biggest tax reforms in India aiming to integrate State economies and boost overall growth by creating a single, unified Indian market to make the economy stronger. GST is a comprehensive destination based indirect tax levy of goods as well as services at the national level. Its main objective is to consolidate multiple indirect tax levies into a single tax thus subsuming an array of tax levies, overcoming the limitations of existing indirect tax structure, and creating efficiencies in tax administration. GST is consumption or destination based tax levied on the basis of the “Destination principle.” It is a comprehensive tax regime covering both goods and services, and be collected on value-added at each stage of the supply chain. Further, GST paid on the procurement of goods and services can be set off against that payable on the supply of goods or services. Simply put, Goods and Services Tax is a tax levied on goods and services imposed at each point of supply. Such GST is on entire goods and services, except some exempted class of goods or services or a negative list of goods and services on which GST is not levied. GST is a national level tax based on value added principle just like State level VAT which was levied as tax on sale of intra-state goods. Figure.01 GST Goods and Service Tax (GST) is a comprehensive value added Tax on the supply of Goods and services. GST will replace all the indirect taxes (like Excise duty, VAT, CST etc.) levied on goods and services by Government once it is implemented. The main motive of GST is to reduce the cascading effect of tax on the cost of goods and services and create a common, cooperative and
  • 8. undivided Indian market to make economy stronger and powerful. So the GST system will combine Central excise duty, additional excise duty, service tax, State VAT entertainment tax etc. under one banner. It will impact tax structure, tax incidence, tax computation, credit utilization and reporting, leading to a complete overhaul of the current indirect tax system. This is one of the biggest taxation reforms that will take place in India once it is officially passed by Government. Many countries across the world have single unified GST system but due to non-consensus between central and state government of India, India shall adopt a Dual GST model, meaning that the GST would be administered both by the Central and the State Governments. A Dual GST will be levied on the taxable value of every transaction of supply of goods and services.  State Goods and Services Tax (SGST), collected by the state government  Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST), collected by the central government  Integrated Goods and Service Tax (IGST), collected by the central government on inter-State supply of goods and services. Project Plan The idea of developing “Good and Service Tax “project is come in our mind when GST was launched in India. Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give the knowledge about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST It tells about history of GST , the various tax which was finished after GST is coming. We also make GST Calculator. GST calculator to calculate how much your product or service would cost after the application of GST. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a common comprehensive nationwide tax based on the VAT (Value Added Tax) principle which replaces several taxes levied by the Central and State governments upon the products and services. The rate of tax of GST in India is yet to be finalized. As for now, the tax rate is predicted to be from 5% to 28 %. The proposed system is very fast, easily and efficient system. The whole software is work automatic. The entire software is full of photographs of all topics categorized under different groups.
  • 9. Chapter-2 (Project Objectives & Purpose) Objective of the project The Goods and Services Tax which is being implemented from 1st July, 2017 is proposed to be a unified tax for the entire nation. The intended objective of GST 2017 is to replace a lot of other indirect and direct taxes like the VAT, service tax, luxury tax etc. GST is aimed at being comprehensive with most of the goods and services included in the GST bill but alcohol and petrol exempted. GST rate is proposed to be 27% which is far higher than the global standard of 16.4% for similar taxes. Our finance minister, Mr. Arun Jaitley on several occasions has mentioned that the rate is way too high, whereas some of the states want the rate to be still higher. In this article, we will look at the primary objectives of GST 2017 bill. GST objectives  Ensuring that the cascading effect of tax on tax will be eliminated.  Improving the competitiveness of the original goods and services, thereby improving the GDP rate too.  Ensuring the availability of input credit across the value chain.  Reducing the complications in tax administration and compliance.  Making a unified law involving all the tax bases, laws and administration procedures across the country.  Decreasing the unhealthy competition among the states due to taxes and revenues.  Reducing the tax slab rates to avoid further clarification issues. With all of these being very significant objectives of GST, it is still facing a lot of implementation issues. Some of them are: 1. Complete lack of adaptation mechanisms and trained staff. 2. In some cases, the double registration might annoy people. Also, these registrations result in increased compliances and cost. 3. Unclear estimate of the exact impact of GST. 4. No clear mechanisms to control tax evasion. Overall Description 1.) Product Perspective:  User interface: The application that will be developing will have a user friendly and Menu based interface.  Following screens will be provided: There will be no screen for entering the username and password it is a user friendly project this project is based on basic knowledge regarding GST.
  • 10. 2.) Hardware Interface:  Processor : Dual Core or Higher  RAM : 512 MB or higher  Other Peripheral Devices : CD-Drive, QWERTY Layout Keyboard 3.) Software Interface:  Operating system: Window XP,Vista,7,8,8.1 and higher  Platform: .Java  Database: SQL server  Language: Core java (Notepad++) 4.) Communication Interface: The communication between the different parts of the system is important they depend on each other. 5.) Memory Constraints: At least 512MB RAM and 4GB of the Hard disk space will be required for running the application. 6.) Operations: The system will have the user-friendly interfaces. The system will maintain the information related to GST Only the admin can perform the operations on the databases. User can only see their details or information’s. There will be additional backup for any kind damages or data lost. 7.) Site Adaptation Requirements: The centralized database is used so that the system can communicate to retrieve the information. 8.) Software will perform the following functions:  Only the admin can modify the data.  User can only read the information. 9) Constraints:  There is a backup for system.  GUI feature available. Purpose Many of people don’t know what is GST how it is beneficial for them. To give the knowledge about GST we are making project which gives all the knowledge related to GST. It tells about history of GST, the various tax which was finished after GST is coming .We also make GST calculator. GST calculator to calculate how much your product or service would cost after the application of GST. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a common comprehensive Nationwide tax based on the VAT (Value Added Tax) principle which replaces several taxes levied by the Central and State governments upon the products and services. The rate of tax of GST in India is yet to be finalized. As for now, the tax rate is predicted to be from 5% to 28 %. The proposed system is very fast, easily and efficient system. The whole software is work automatic. The entire software is full of photographs of all topics categorized under different groups. GST Software has many advantages which are given below:- • Effective use of time • Cost effective • Total computerized system • Calculate product final price after applying GST on it • Anywhere, anytime Availability with Automatic Synchronization
  • 11. • Highly customizable according to your requirements.
  • 12. Chapter-3 (Methodology Used) Methodology • We will use SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) approach to make project as it is the easiest and most commonly method of making project. We will try to make a project which will provide a convenient and interesting way for studying any subject. The main objective of the system design is to make the system user friendly. • The problem was analyzed and then design was prepared. Then we implemented this design through coding and then testing is done. If any errors were found then we have tried our best to remove them and then again testing was done so that we can remove all the errors of our project. This project will be maintained and upgraded time to time so that we can provide proper and latest notes to all the users of this tutorial. Figure: 1 (SDLC Cycle) • Stages of Waterfall Model: - • The SDLC is a process used by a systems analyst to develop an information system, including requirements, validation, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership. Any SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned Technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance . SDLC is a methodology used to describe the process for building information systems, intended to develop information systems in a very deliberate, structured and methodical way, reiterating each stage of the life cycle.
  • 13. Chapter-4 (Requirement Specification) REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Prior to the software development efforts in any type of system it is very essential to understand the requirements of the system and users. A complete specification of the software is the 1st step in the analysis of system. Requirements analysis provides the designer with the representation of function and procedures that can be translated into data, architecture and procedural design. The goal of requirement analysis is to find out how current system is working and of there are any areas where improvement is necessary and possible. INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS: - 1.) User Interface The packet must be user friendly and robust. It must prompt the user with proper message boxes to help them perform various actions and how to precede further the system must respond normally under any input conditions and display proper message instead of turning up faults and errors 2.) Software Specification Software is a set of program, documents, and procedure, routines associated with computer system. Software is an essential complement to hardware. It is the computer programs, when executed operates the hardware. SYSTEM DESIGN: - System design is the process of developing specifications for a candidate system that meet the criteria established in the system analysis. Major step in system design is the preparation of the input forms and the output reports in a form applicable to the user. The main objective of the system design is to make the system user friendly. System design involves various stages as: • Entry • Data Correction • Data Deletion • Data Processing • Sorting and Indexing • Report Generation System design is the creative act of invention, developing new inputs, a database, offline files, procedures and output for processing business to meet an organization objective. System design builds information gathered during the system analysis. DATABASE DESIGN: - The overall objective in the development of the database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. Database management system allows data to be protected and organize separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of data. The most significant of data as seen by the programs and data as stored on the direct storage access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
  • 14. The organization of data in the database aims to achieve three major objectives: • Data Integration • Data Integrity • Data Independence
  • 15. Chapter-5 (Testing Process) TESTING PROCESS Software Testing is the process of identifying the correctness and quality of software program. The purpose is to check whether the software satisfies the specific requirements, needs and expectations of the customer. In other words, testing is executing a system or application in order to find software bugs, defects or errors. The job of testing is to find out the reasons of application failures so that they can be corrected according to requirements. There can be many reasons for defects in the software. The developer can also make an error which may result in a defect or bug in the software source code. Any defect or bug in the software will produce wrong results causing a failure. When a bug or defect causes in software application, testing is done to find out the cause of defect and to remove the bug. Following are the basic levels of testing: - Unit Testing During this first round of testing, the program is submitted to assessments that focus on specific units or components of the software to determine whether each one is fully functional. The main aim of this endeavor is to determine whether the application functions as designed. In this phase, a unit can refer to a function, individual program or even a procedure, and a White-box Testing method is usually used to get the job done. Integration Testing Integration testing allows individuals the opportunity to combine all of the units within a program and test them as a group. This testing level is designed to find interface defects between the modules/functions. This is particularly beneficial because it determines how efficiently the units are running together. Keep in mind that no matter how efficiently each unit is running, if they aren’t properly integrated, it will affect the functionality of the software program. System Testing System testing is the first level in which the complete application is testedas a whole. The goal at this level is to evaluate whether the system has complied with all of the outlined requirements and to see that it meets Quality Standards. Testing is very important because it verifies that the application meets the technical, functional, and business requirements that were set by the customer. Acceptance Testing The final level, Acceptance testing (or User Acceptance Testing), is conducted to determine whether the systemis ready for release. During this final phase, the user will test the system to find out whether the application meets their business’ needs. Once this process has been completed and the software has passed, the program will then be delivered to production. As you can see, the extensiveness of these tests is just another reason why bringing your software testers in early is important. When a program is more thoroughly tested, a greater number of bugs will be detected; this ultimately results in higher quality software.
  • 16. OBJECTIVES OF TESTING First of all objectives should be clear.  Finding defects which may get created by the programmer while developing the software.  Gaining confidence in and providing information about the level of quality.  To prevent defects.  To make sure that the end result meets the business and user requirements.  To ensure that it satisfies the BRS that is Business Requirement Specification and SRS that is System Requirement Specifications.  To gain the confidence of the customers by providing them a quality product. The above objective implies a dramatic change in viewpoint .The move counter to the commonly held view than a successful test is one in which no errors are found. In fact, our objective is to design tests that a systematically uncover different classes of errors and do so with a minimum amount of time and effort. BASIC METHODS OF TESTING 1. White box testing: - White-box testing is the detailed investigation of internal logic and structure of the code. White- box testing is also called glass testing or open-box testing. In order to perform white-box string on an application, a tester needs to know the internal workings of the code. The tester needs to have a look inside the source code and find out which unit/chunk of the code is behaving inappropriately. 2. Black Box Testing: - The technique of testing without having any knowledge of the interior workings of the application is called black-box testing. The tester is oblivious to the system architecture and does not have access to the source code. Typically, while performing a black-box test, a tester will interact with the system's user interface by providing inputs and examining outputs without knowing how and where the inputs are worked upon. 3. Grey-BoxTesting:- Grey-box testing is a technique to test the application with having a limited knowledge of the internal workings of an application. In software testing, the phrase the more you know, the better carries a lot of weight while testing an application.
  • 17. Chapter-6 (Hardware & Software Requirement Details) Hardware & Software Requirements For this project minimum hardware and software requirement are listed below: Hardware Requirement: Software Requirement: PC PC (Windows), Apple, Linux Processor Intel Pentium Processor, 233 MHz or equivalent. RAM 512 MB RAM HDD 2GB of free HDD space for Internet Cache Operating System Windows Other software MS SQL Server 2008 or higher, JDK1.6 or higher Notepad or Net Beans IDE 7.3 or higher
  • 18. Chapter-7 (Software Used) Technologies used in Project  Notepad++:- Figure.02 Notepad Notepad++ is a free (as in "free speech" and also as in "free beer") source code editor and Notepad replacement that supports several languages. Running in the MS Windows environment, its use is governed by GPL License. Based on the powerful editing component Scintilla, Notepad++ is written in C++ and uses pure Win32 API and STL which ensures a higher execution speed and smaller program size. By optimizing as many routines as possible without losing user friendliness, Notepad++ is trying to reduce the world carbon dioxide emissions. When using less CPU power, the PC can throttle down and reduce power consumption, resulting in a greener environment. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Figure.05 My SQL Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is a family of products that meet the data storage requirements of the largest data processing systems and commercial Web sites, yet at the same time can provide easy- to-use data storage services to an individual or small business. The data storage needs of a modern corporation or government organization are very complex. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) systems must be capable of handling thousands of orders placed at the same time. Increasing numbers of corporations are implementing large Web sites as a mechanism for their customers to enter orders, contact the service department, get information about products, and for many other tasks that previously required contact with employees. These sites require data storage that is secure, yet tightly integrated with the Web. Organizations are implementing off-the-shelf software packages for critical services such as human resources planning, manufacturing resources planning, and inventory control. These systems require databases capable of storing large amounts of data and supporting large numbers of users.
  • 19. Java Figure.03 Java Introduction to Java:- The entire component has been developed using Java technology. Java has been chosen as the platform because of its feature rich nature. The Java Platform provides robust end-to-end solutions for networked applications as well as a trusted standard for embedded applications. So Java was a natural choice for development process. Java versions: 1.) 1.0—250 classes 2.) 1.1—500 classes 3.) 1.2—1800 classes 4.) 1.3—2300 classes 5.) 1.4—2300 classes 6.) 1.5—3000 classes 7.) 1.6—3500 classes 8.) 1.7—3890 classes 9.) 1.8—4000 classes Characteristics of Java: The characteristics of java are given below:  Object Oriented: Java is object oriented to the truest sense of the word. Everything in Java is represented as objects. Variables and methods both are encapsulated in objects. Java is the object-oriented language.  Robust: • Java is a very robust language owing to the following features. • Excellent exception handling facilities. • Strict compile-time and runtime checks for data types.  Portable and Architecture-neutral (Platform Independent):
  • 20. Java is portable and platform independent so much that they satisfy “write once; run anywhere, anytime, forever”. This feature is implemented in the following ways: • Compiler generates machine independent byte-code instructions which can be run on any machine supporting Java Virtual Machine. • Size of primitive data type is machine independent.  Distributed: • Open access to remote objects by the use of RMI (Remote Method Invocation). • Brings a level of abstraction to client/server programming.  Secure: • Security is achieved by confining a java program to the java execution environment and not allowing access to other parts of user’s computer • Absence of pointers provides memory related security as encroachment of memory is avoided. Proper measure for prevention of viral infection and malicious intent.  High Performance: Just-In-Time (JIT) compilers are used to convert byte-code into native machine code resulting in very high performance. These JIT compilers can be used on a real time, piece by piece demand basis to perform on-the-fly compilation of byte-code into native-code.  Compilation and Interpretation: Java programs are implemented as a two-stage system. Compilation: Source code to byte-code and not machine instructions. Interpretation: Byte-code to machine code (for any system that supports using JVM) Thus cross-platform programs can be written. Why is JAVA better? • Architecture Independent. • OOP based language, relation to the real world. • Built in API’s. • More Secured. • Available for all the platforms and devices like: Desktops, Web, Micro Devices. • Uses threads (multi tasking) to execute the programs. • Lighter Language as compared to others. The Java Platform A platform is the hardware3 or software environment in which a program runs. We've already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000, Linux, Solaris, and Mac-OS. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it's a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. The Java platform has two components:
  • 21. • The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) • The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) Java VM is the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms. The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities, such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The next section highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide. The following figure depicts a program that's running on the Java platform. As the figure shows, the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware. Figure.04 Java Platform Native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. However, smart compilers, well-tuned interpreters, and just-in-time byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability.
  • 22. Other Software used for Designing Figure.06 Adobe Photoshop An image editing software developed and manufactured by Adobe Systems Inc. Photoshop is considered one of the leaders in photo editing software. The software allows users to manipulate, crop, resize, and correct color on digital photos. The software is particularly popular amongst professional photographers and graphic designers. Photoshop 7.0 key features: • Healing brush • Vector Text • New painting engine • Photoshop file browser Professional-level digital cameras were now supporting raw formats, and Adobe Camera Raw 1.0 was introduced as an optional plug-in, in February of 2003. Camera Raw enabled Photoshop users to directly manipulate unprocessed data captured by a digital camera sensor, the digital equivalent of developing a film negative New Features of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 • Organize images—Locate, organize, rank, and sort images using the File Browser window. • Correct color — The healing brush and patch tools let you correct, refine, and perfect image areas in new ways. • Automate color correction—The Auto Color feature automatically removes color casts throughout an image. • Generate patterns— The Pattern Maker lets you create abstract or realistic-looking tiled and seamless patterns and easily apply them to selections or entire images.
  • 23. Chapter-8 (Database Details) DATABASE DESIGN Figure.07 Data table Figure.08 RESULTS / OUTPUTS Chapter-9
  • 24. (Project Details) Figure.09 Loading Frame Figure.10 Home Frame
  • 25. Figure.11 Introduction of GST Figure.12 GST
  • 26. Figure.13 Types of GST Figure.14 CGST
  • 28. Figure.17 History of GST Figure.18 Launch of GST
  • 29. Figure.19 Helps for Common Man Figure.20 Merits of GST
  • 30. Figure.21 Demerits of GST Figure.22 28% Tax on items
  • 31. Figure.23 Tax & Calculator Figure.24 Taxes
  • 32. Figure.25 Types of Taxes Figure.26 Interstate Calculation
  • 33. Figure.27 Result of Calculation Figure.28 Same State Calculation
  • 34. Figure.29 Result of Same State Figure.30 Bills & Rates
  • 36. Chapter-10 (Conclusion) Conclusion Project Planning is part of project management which relates to the use of schedules such as a Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. Initially, the project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined. Following this step, the durations for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a work breakdown structure. Project planning is often used to organize different areas of a project, including project plans, workloads and the management of teams and individuals. The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of theoretical. Project planning is inherently uncertain as it must be done before the project is actually started. Therefore the duration of the tasks is often estimated through a weighted average of optimistic, normal, and pessimistic cases. The critical chain method adds "buffers" in the planning to anticipate potential delays in project for an execution. Float or slack time in the schedule can be calculated using project management software. Then the necessary resources can be estimated and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving to the total project cost. At this stage, the project schedule may be optimized to achieve the appropriate balance between resource usage and project duration to comply with the project objectives. Once established and agreed, the project schedule becomes what is known as the baseline schedule. Progress will be measured against the baseline schedule throughout the life of the project.
  • 37. Chapter-11 (Bibliography) Bibliography  Java2, Complete Reference, Herbert Scheld  SQL Server 2008 Bible by Paul Nielsen.  www.google.com  www.javatpoint.com  http://www.livemint.com/Money/0R0BVGHhrmZGEWon0UhHoO/Impact-of-GST-on- homebuyers.html  http://moneyexcel.com/701/20-types-of-taxes-in-india  https://www.businessalligators.com/gst-impact-rates-type-conclusion/  http://www.cbec.gov.in/htdocs-cbec/gst/index  https://cleartax.in/s/gst-law-goods-and-services-tax