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Smart City: Mission of India
Naman Markan (2018MBA-10)
INTRODUCTION
Cities are a driving force in generating world’s economic growth.All aroundthe world,urbanizationis a
growingtrend.Challengesrise asmore and more people concentratedinthe limitedurbanspaces,with
outdatedinfrastructure,leadingtoarapidincrease inresource consumptionandemissions.The principal
challengesforcities,aroundthe globe,are todeliverbetterserviceswhilebeinggloballycompetitive,and
meeting climate targets.
Limitedresourcesneedtobe managedinan efficientway.At the same time,societal developmentmust
be addressedandthe focus put on people’swellbeing.Pressure isgrowingtoreduce our environmental
impact,and there isa parallel compellingneedforbusinesstoremaingloballycompetitive.Expenditures
on improving energy efficiency, modernizing infrastructure and on creating high quality living, and
working environments, are enormous. At the same time, cities have limited financial resources for
governance and services.
The sustainable transformation of cities is only possible when it is done in a smart way. Smart systems
and theirintegrationneedtobe developed,notonlytoprovide the servicesthatpeople needbutalsoto
do so efficiently with minimum impact on the environment Regarding the urban spaces as living
ecosystems, the smart city design and planning, operation and management, needs to be done at the
systemlevel.Sub-optimizationof individual citycomponentswill notleadtooptimal performance of the
all system. Multi-target optimization is not an easy task, but it becomes necessary as different
components and systems are interlinkedand interconnected – irrespective of where theyare physically
located.
Innovationinthe formof 'smart city solutions'candelivertechnologies,productsandservicesthatmeet
the dual challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and delivering more efficient services. Cities
worldwide are modernizing and becoming poles of competitive strength.
The rapid development, and globalization, of information and communication technologies (ICT) can
support the deployment of these solutions and their integration at system level.Applications as local
small-scale energy production, as well as the transport solutions, for example, are the key enablers for
citiesbecomingmore resourceefficientwhilebettermeetingtheusers’needs.Itcanbe saidthatefficient
ICT, where the Internet of Things has a central role, is a common dominator: tying together services,
residency, mobility, infrastructure and energy.
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The international smart city initiative City Protocol
has developed a City Anatomy, an analogy to the
human anatomy and its dynamic physiology, which
serves as a framework for different parts of a smart
city.Itprovidesahierarchicallysounddescriptionand
classification of all city systems, subsystems and
interactions, thus analyzing and mapping the
interconnections between city systems.
It describes the city ecosystem as three key system
elements: a set of physical structures (“Structure”);
the living entities that make up a city’s society
(“Society”); and the flow of interactions between
them(“Interactions”).The Structure consistsof three
layers – “environment”,“infrastructures” and “built
domain” – and society is composed of “civil society”
and“government”.The interactionsbetweenthetwo
are characterized by “functions”, “economy”,
“culture” and “information.
MISSION FOR SMART CITIES
The SmartCitiesCouncilisanadvisorandmarketaccelerator.We promotethe movetosmart,sustainable
cities. We contribute to our Partners' business success through advocacy and action.
 ReadinessGuides:High-levelmodelsandmetricsagainstwhichcitiescanmeasure theirprogress.
Our ReadinessGuidesanswerthe questions"Where doesourcityrank now?"and "What should
we work on first?"
 Financing templates and case studies: Guidance for new financing models now emerging, some
of which combine public, private, and philanthropic.
 Policy frameworks and case studies: Examples of policies that promote economic development
while also safeguarding citizens.
 Visibilitycampaigns:Coordinated,joined-voicesinitiativestohelpcitizensunderstandthatsmart
citiesrepresentapathtoabetterfuture.Thesecampaignsincludeawards,events,publishingand
research.
 Regional networkingevents:High-level,invitation-onlyeventswhere citiesandtheircitizenscan
learndirectlyfromsomeof the world'stopexpertsinthe manydisciplinesthatcombinetocreate
a smart city.
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In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core
infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and
applicationof ‘Smart’Solutions.The focusisonsustainable andinclusive developmentandthe ideaisto
lookat compact areas,create a replicablemodel,which will actlike alighthouse toother aspiring cities.
The SmartCitiesMissionof the Governmentisabold,new initiative.Itismeanttoset examplesthatcan
be replicated both within and outside the Smart City, catalyzing the creation of similar Smart Cities in
various regions and parts of the country.
The core infrastructure elements in a smart city would include:
 Adequate Water Supply,
 Assured Electricity Supply,
 Sanitation, Including Solid Waste Management,
 Efficient Urban Mobility and Public Transport,
 Affordable Housing, especially for the Poor,
 Robust it Connectivity and Digitalization,
 Good Governance, especially E-Governance and Citizen Participation,
 Sustainable Environment,
 Safety and Security Of Citizens, particularly Women, Children and the Elderly, and
 Health and Education.
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PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE SMART CITY ROADMAP
The priority areas for the smart city roadmap were identified in the first workshop in February 2014 in
Helsinki.The participantslistedanddiscussedinthree groupsaboutchoosingthe priorityareas.The main
themes identified from the prioritization of topics were structured into following groups:
 Energy: increasing the use of renewable energy, optimization of the energy system and the
management and balancing of energy supply and demand.
 Buildings: new solutions for renovation, living comfort and replication of building services and
solutions.
 Land use, infrastructure and asset management: adaptive use and integration to existing
systems.
 Transport and mobility: Easy and fast mobility, smart management systems,reducing the need
and time for travelling.
 Communities and users: people participation, on-demand services, increasing awareness, trust
and security, and good wellbeing.
Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 1.
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Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 2.
Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 3.
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WHAT MAKES CITIES SMART?
Smart citiesare the infrastructuresbuiltthrough information,communicationtechnologies(ICT) made to
be more intelligentandefficientinthe use of resources,resultingincost, and energysavings,improved
service delivery and quality of life,and reduced environmental footprint-- all supporting innovation and
the low-carbon economy. Smart City via state of art (Boyd Cohen)
(Source: A report prepared by Boyd Cohen, Ph.D., LEED AP, is a climatestrategisthelpingto lead communities,cities
and companies on the journey towards the low carbon economy. Dr. Cohen is the co-author of ClimateCapitalism:
Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change January 13, 2014 Smart city by Dr. Palla vi Badry)
PURPOSE
The purpose isto drive economicgrowthand improve the qualityof life of people byenablinglocal area
development and harnessing technology, especially technology that leads to Smart outcomes.
Area- based development will transform existing areas (retrofit and redevelop); including slums, into
betterplannedones,therebyimprovinglivabilityof thewhole City.New areas(Greenfield)willbe develop
around cities in order to accommodate the expanding population in urban areas. Application of Smart
Solutionswillenablecitiestousetechnology,informationanddatatoimprove infrastructure andservices.
Comprehensive development in this way will improve quality of life, create employment and enhance
incomes for all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged, leading to inclusive Cities.
TYPES OF SMART CITY
1 Digital city: The main purpose isto create an environmentinwhichcitizensare interconnected
and easily share information anywhere in the city.
o It combines service oriented infrastructure and communications infrastructure and
industry with the innovations.
o More robotic
2 Information city: It collects local information and delivered them to the public portal.
o Element able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every
information through IT infrastructures.
o Linking of economic and social aspects of city. E.g. People interactions and government
institutions
3 Virtual city: In these kinds of cities, functions are implemented in a cyberspace.
o It includes the notion of hybrid city, which consists of a reality with real citizens and
entities and a parallel virtual city of real entities and people.
o Have a smart city that is virtual means that in some cities it is possible the coexistence
betweenthesetworeality,howeverthe issue of physicaldistance andlocationisstill not
easyto manage.The visionof the worldwithout distance remainsunmetinmany ways.
In practice, thisideais holdup through physical IT infrastructure of cables,datacenters,
and exchanges.
4 Intelligent city:It involvesfunctionasresearchor technological innovationtosupportlearning
and innovation procedure.
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o The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process and
creativityhave greatimportance and the humancapital isconsideredthe mostprecious
resource within this type of technological city.
o In particular, one of the most significant feature of an intelligent city is that every
infrastructure is up to date, that means have the latest technology in
telecommunications, electronic and mechanical technology.
5 Ubiquitous city: It creates an environment that connect citizens to any services through any
device.
o U-city is a further extension of digital city concept because of the facility in terms of
accessibility to every infrastructure.
o Thismakeseasiertothe citizenthe use of anyavailable devicestointerconnectthem.Its
goal is to create a city where any citizen can get any services anywhere and anytime
through any kind of devices.
o U-city is given by the computer chips inserted to those urban elements.
FEATURES OF SMART CITY
Some typical features of comprehensive development in Smart Cities are described below.
1. Promotingmixedlanduseinareabaseddevelopments–planningfor‘unplannedareas’containing
a range of compatible activities and land uses close to one another in order to make land use
more efficient. The States will enable some flexibility in land use and building bye-laws to adapt
to change;
2. Housing and inclusiveness - expand housing opportunities for all;
3. Creatingwalkable localities –reduce congestion,airpollutionandresource depletion, boostlocal
economy,promote interactionsandensure security.The roadnetworkiscreated or refurbished
not only for vehicles and public transport, but also for pedestrians and cyclists, and necessary
administrative services are offered within walking or cycling distance;
4. Preservinganddevelopingopenspaces - parks, playgrounds,andrecreational spacesinorderto
enhance the quality of life of citizens, reduce the urban heat effects in Areas and generally
promote eco-balance;
5. Promotinga varietyof transport options - Transit OrientedDevelopment(TOD),publictransport
and last mile para-transport connectivity;
6. Makinggovernance citizen-friendlyandcosteffective - increasinglyrelyononline servicestobring
about accountability and transparency, especially using mobiles to reduce cost of services and
providingserviceswithouthavingtogoto municipal offices.Forminge-groupstolistentopeople
and obtain feedback and use online monitoring of programs and activities with the aid of cyber
tour of worksites;
7. Giving an identity to the city - based on its main economic activity,such as local cuisine, health,
education, arts and craft, culture, sports goods, furniture, hosiery, textile, dairy, etc.;
8. Applying Smart Solutions to infrastructure and services in area-based development in order to
make thembetter.Forexample,makingAreaslessvulnerabletodisasters,usingfewerresources,
and providing cheaper services.
SMART CITIES: 6 ESSENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES
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There are key technologies that make a smart city work
1. Smart energy:Both residential andcommercial buildingsinsmartcitiesare more efficient,using
less energy, and the energy used is analyzed and data collected. Smart grids are part of the
developmentof a smart city,and smart streetlightsare an easyentrypointformany cities,since
LED lights save money and pay for themselves within a few years.
2. Smart transportation: A smart city supports multi-modal transportation,smart traffic lights and
smart parking.
3. Smart data: The massive amounts of data collected by a smart city must be analyzed quickly in
order to make it useful.Opendataportals are one optionthat some citieshave chosenin order
to publish city data online, so that anyone can access it and use predictive analytics to assess
future patterns.
4. Smart infrastructure: Having a smart infrastructure means that a city can move forward with
othertechnologiesanduse the datacollectedto make meaningful changes in future city plans.
5. Smart mobility: "Mobility refers to both the technology and the data which travels across the
technology. The ability to seamlessly move in and out of many different municipal and private
systems is essential if we are to realize the promise of smart cities.
6. Smart IoT devices:Andfinally,one of thekeycomponentsthattieseverythingtogetherinasmart
city is IoT devices
 Sensors.
 Beacons.
NEED FOR SMART CITY
 Smarter construction.
 Energy Efficient.
 Environment Friendly.
 Effective Transportation.
 Easy Healthcare.
 Quality Education.
 Strengthening IT & Communications.
 Structural Planning.
FACETS OF SMART CITY
1. E- city
2. Quality of life
3. Clean and sustainable environment.
4. Industrial city with export orientation.
5. Future ready.
6. High living standards at an affordable
cost
1. E- CITY: More than half of the World's population now lives in urban areas.
 Cities, megacities, generate new kinds of problems.
 Difficulty in waste management, scarcity of resources, air pollution, human health
concerns,trafficcongestions,andinadequate,deterioratingandaginginfrastructuresare
amongthe more basictechnical,physical,andmaterial problems. E.g., Banloreisthe first
to get the status of e-City in India.
2. QUALITYOFLIFE: Qualityof life,acognitivejudgmental process,isdefinedas‘aglobal assessment
of a person’s life satisfaction.
 Although many people see wealth, health, employment,leisure, personal life, and fame
as desirable, different individuals may place different values on them.
 Two constructshave beenusedto explainthe determinantsof life satisfactionorquality
of life Subjective: is influenced by personality.
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 Objective: by environmental or situational factors: family, job, leisure, neighborhood,
community, and satisfaction with standard of living.
 The impact of the ICTs on society as a whole has been debated continuously since its
widespread use in the 1990s. Obviously, ICTs affect our day-to-day life.
 Most of the studiesinICTs’impacton qualityof life focuson televisionandthe Internet.
 While some studies found negative impact of television on heavy viewers, while some
mixed effects of television on family life.
3. CLEAN AND SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT: Man cannot live and survive amidst waste.
 A clean environment that includes clean air, water, land and energy, is essential for
human existence, conducting business and creating wealth.
 Cleaning also is a systematic, science-based process.
4. INDUSTRIAL CITY WITH EXPORT ORIENTATION: Making industry ready for export is termed as
Export- led growth.
 Export-ledgrowthimpliesopeningdomesticmarketstoforeigncompetitioninexchange
for market access in other.
 Export-ledgrowthisaneconomicstrategyusedbysome developingcountries.Countries
seeks to find a niche in the world economy for a certain type of export.
 By implementing this strategy, countries hope to gain enough hard currency to import
commodities manufactured more cheaply somewhere else.
5. FUTUREREADY: Personal andacademicskillsnecessaryforsuccessinfutureindividualendeavors
is called as the making ready for future with acquiring the correct skillet.
 It is characterized as Collaborative culture, Creative thinking, Critical thinking, Problem
solving, Integration of technology into learning, Global competence,Global interaction,
Financial, economic, business literacy, Entrepreneurial and civic literacy, technologically
able etc.
 It can be observed in smart education as if Teachers consistently embed creativityand
innovation, critical thinking and problemsolving, and communication and collaboration
in learning experiences.
 Where Students’ work reflect the use of project-based learning.
 Regarding the skillet development in the industry the Staff discussions and meeting
minutesemphasizeteachingthatpromotes,flexibilityandadaptability,initiativeandself-
direction, social and cross-cultural skills,productivityand accountability,and leadership
and responsibility.
 Studentsuse researchanddetermine the validityof sourcestoaddmeaningtosolutions
to problems.
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6. HIGH LIVING STANDARDS AT AN AFFORDABLE COST: Standard of living refers to the level of
wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a
certain geographic area, usually a country.
The standard of living includes factors:
 Income
 Quality
 Availability of employment
 Class disparity
 Poverty rate
 Quality and affordability of
housing
 The standard of living is closely
related to quality of life.
PILLARS OF THE SMART CITY
Physical infrastructure:Infrastructureisthe basicphysical systemsof abusinessornation; transportation,
communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. Social
infrastructure: Social Infrastructure is a subset of the infrastructure sector and typically includes assets
that accommodate social services.Assetoutin the table below,examplesof Social Infrastructure Assets
include schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and community housing.
PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
 Compactness
 Population
 Smart electricity supply.
 Smart mobility
 Smart housing
 Assured water.
 Smart sanitation.
 Solid waste management.
 Smart industry.
 DM
 Zero pollution.
1. COMPACTNESS
 Due to compactness, a smart city would have less CO2 footprint.
 Min average density of 135 persons per hectare.
 Estimated via Compactness factor
 Form factor
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2. OPTIMIZE THE BUILDING FORMAND LAYOUT
A low surface area to volume (S/V) ratio is optimal for a passive, low-carbon building. This is the ratio
between the external surface area and the internal volume.
Compactness C = Volume / Surface Area Small, detached buildings should have a very compact form
(square isclose tothe perfectoptimum,the circle);largerbuildingsmayhave more complex geometries;
High S/V ratios require more insulation to achieve the same U-/R-value.
3. SMART HOUSING
Assured water
 Water should be treated as a precious natural resource.
 Water supply should be metered.
 100% rainwater harvesting should be done and most of the water needs should be satisfied by
harvested rainwater.
Smart solid waste management
 Solid waste should be segregated at source into dry- wet waste.
 Wet waste should be treated as source and then convert into compost/gas/pellets.
 Dry waste should be further segregated into reusable and recycle.
Smart sanitation
 Cleanliness should be ensured
 Sewage should be treated in a properly
 The product of methane can be used as bio fertilizer.
4. SMART INDUSTRY
 Follow the guidelines of ‘ease of doing business index’ to facilitate industrial development.
 Fuel pipelinesandsufficientelectricityshould be provided for uninterrupted supply of energy.
 Role of IT: Developing Apps for industry need Digital Transformation of Industry.
5. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 Smart city should be prepared for all types of disasters (natural calamities)
 Adopting earthquake resistant buildings.
 Dedicated plans should be made for facing natural calamities like cyclones, floods etc.
6. ZERO POLLUTION
 Smart sanitation, common effluent treatment plants,
air pollution devices.
 Use of electrical buses, electrical cooking etc.
SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Social Infrastructure isasubsetof the infrastructure sectorand
typically includes assets that accommodate social services.As
set out in the table below, examples of Social Infrastructure
Assets include schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and
community housing.
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NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS
Key enabling technologies include smart energy management, demand side management and energy
matching and balancing solutions. The multi-source energy system needsto be holistically coordinated,
andthe optimal use of energysourcesmanaged.Interoperabilityandthe integrationof bothsystemsand
processes supports improving overall energy efficiency throughout the entire energychain from energy
supply to distribution, storage and demand.
STRATEGY
The strategic components of area-based development in the Smart Cities Mission are city improvement
(retrofitting),city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (Greenfield development) plusa Pan-city
initiative in which Smart Solutions are applied covering larger parts of the city. Below are given the
decisions of the three models of Area-based smart city development.
 Pan-citydevelopmentenvisagesapplicationof selectedSmartSolutionstothe existingcity-wide
infrastructure.Applicationof SmartSolutionswillinvolvethe use of technology,informationand
data to make infrastructure and services better. For example,applying Smart Solutions in the
transportsector (intelligenttrafficmanagementsystem) andreducingaverage commute timeor
cost of citizens will have positive effects on productivity and quality of life of citizens. Another
example canbe wastewaterrecyclingandsmartmeteringwhichcanmake ahuge contributionto
better water management in the city.
 Redevelopment will effect a replacement of the existing built-up environment and enable co-
creationof anewlayoutwithenhancedinfrastructureusingmixedlanduse andincreaseddensity.
Redevelopmentenvisagesanareaof more than50 acres,identifiedbyUrbanLocal Bodies(ULBs)
inconsultationwithcitizens.Forinstance,anew layoutplanof theidentifiedareawillbe prepared
withmixedland-use,higherFSIand highground coverage.Two examplesof the redevelopment
model are the SaifeeBurhaniUpliftmentProjectinMumbai (alsocalledthe BhendiBazaarProject)
and the redevelopment of East Kidwai Nagar in New Delhi being undertaken by the National
Building Construction Corporation.
The smart city proposal of each shortlisted city is expected to encapsulate either a retrofitting or
redevelopment or Greenfield development model, or a mix thereof and a Pan-city feature with Smart
Solution(s).Itisimportanttonote thatpan-cityisanadditional featuretobe provided.Since smartcityis
takinga compact area approach, itis necessarythat all the cityresidentsfeel there issomethinginitfor
themalso.Therefore,the additional requirementof some (atleastone)citywide smartsolutionhasbeen
put in the scheme to make it inclusive.
DIFFERENT ICT MODELS
 ICT in education
 ICT in Medicine
 ICT in Agriculture
 ICT in defense
 ICT in smart buildings
 ICT in smart cities
 ICT in finance
 ICT in weather services
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DIFFERENT STEPS IN THE SELECTION OF SMART CITIES ARE GIVEN BELOW.
Each aspiringcitycompetesforselectionasasmart cityin whatiscalleda ‘CityChallenge’.Thereare two
stages in the selection process.
1.1 Stage 1 of the competition: Shortlisting of cities by States.
1.2 Stage 2 of the competition
Different steps in the selection of Smart cities are given below:
1. Letter to all state governments to shortlist potential Smart Cities based on Stage-I criteria
according to numberof Smart Citiesdistributedacrossstates/UTs by the MoUD. Thisis the first
stage of Intra-State competition.
2. On the basisof response fromStates/UTs,the listof potential 100Smart Citiesisannounced.The
second stage of All India competition begins.
3. Each potential Smart City preparesits proposal assisted by a consultant (from a panel prepared
by MoUD) and a hand-holdingExternalAgency(variousoffersreceivedsuchasWorldBank,ADB,
GEF, USTDA, JICA, DFID, AFD, KfW, UN Habitat)
4. By stipulated date, Stage 2 proposals submitted. Evaluation by a panel of experts.
5. Selected cities declared – Round 1 Smart Cities
6. SelectedcitiessetupSPV andstartimplementationof theirSCP.Preparationof DPRs,tendersetc.
and Other cities prepare to improve their proposal for next round of the Challenge
THE IMPACT OF SMART CITIES ON INDIAN INFRASTRUCTURE
The missionrequiresdevelopmentthroughretrofitting,redevelopmentandGreenfieldplanningapplied
across cities, which in turn creates employment opportunities in the real estate sector.
First, the growth of a smart city project can give way to massive opportunity,particularly whenwe talk
aboutdemandforaffordablehomes.The smartcitiesprojectsare increasinglyallocatingenoughlandand
housing for low-income groups (LIGs), thereby increasing the demand for realty in the country.
Second, smart cities also offer an excellent investment options with a sustainable scope for price
appreciation, especially for a long-term investment purview.
Third,the smartcitiesprojectwill be anamalgamationof commercial andresidentialprojectsinIndia,in
close quarters.Evolutionof these smart citieswill pushthe demandof office spacesas well as hotels,in
additiontoservice apartmentsandshoppingmalls.The real estate sectorcontributesabout6percentto
India’s GDP.
The Positive Impacts
As globalizationbecomesmore prominent,itisgettingeasierforpeople to communicate withpeople of
othernationsand benefitfromthe global impactof technology.A SmartCitywill incorporate technology
throughout the city through smart technology such as Wi-Fi and modems giving people more access to
informationandtechnological use inthe city.There are some positive effectsforthe infrastructureof the
country, as there will be more redevelopment plans around India.
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The negative impacts
As indicated,therecanbe positive effectsof the SmartCityplaninIndia.However,the expansivegrowth
of IT with many engineers being consulted can be a negative consequence for planners and architects.
The government should consider the viewpoints of planners, geographers and architects, along with IT
professionalstohave aholisticapproachtowardsSmartCities.The waysinwhichpeopleare impactedin
Smart Cities and how the infrastructure can benefit humans is a core-component of urban planning.
Planners must be consultedfor Smart City growth, however, the government has vastly focused on the
InformationTechnologyaspectof the Smart Citywithoutconsideringthe cityasa structure and bottom-
upstrategiestowardscityplanning.A purelytechnical citymighthave manynegativeimplicationssuchas
lackof humancontact andlack of face-to-face interactions,which are anecessityaccordingtothe ‘happy
city’index.The happycityindex indicatesthatone of the mainreasonsfor happinessincitiesisthe need
to communicate and co-exist as a community in a city.
However, with the advent of AI technology, which is considered to be incorporated in Smart
Cities, many jobs will be performed by Artificial Intelligence replacing people’s expertise in them.
This, again, can have a negative impact on the society in the future. Smart cities should be built
by having humans in mind, rather than just technological improvement. This is why planners
should also contribute to Smart City growth, rather than engineers and technical experts.
SMART CITIES IN INDIA
The tagline of the project is "Smarter Solutions for a Better Tomorrow". There are many expectations
surrounding the project. Here are few cities in India, which comes under smart city mission.
List of First 10 Smart Cities
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BARRIERS
Barriers are mostly related to legal issues, lackingof new business modelsfor local energy services, and
matching. The energy system is operated by many actors (including both energy users and suppliers),
which makes the integration of processes and systems complex. Moreover, municipalities are often
struggling with assessing the costs, benefits and impacts of investments in the long term, but also with
the lack of investment money
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
Prime Minister Modi wisely recognizes the vital role cities can play in building a strong future for India,
especially if local innovation is encouraged and rewarded.
Globalizationhasopenednewmarketsandisrequiringmuchmore competitivenessfromindustries.The
advancedandmodernsystemsdelivernew servicesandopportunitiestogrowingwellbeing. However, at
the same, societies have become more vulnerable to human based criminality and to natural based
catastrophes. Climate change is feeding new and unexpected phenomena requiring more robust but
flexible and self-recoveringsystems. The concrete threatsto the urban system include natural disasters
and othersuddenshocks(storms,terrorism, collapseof vital technical infrastructure),vastconsequences
of climate change (decreasingbiodiversityinthe ecosystems,repeatedflooding,longperiodsof hotand
arid summer seasons, distorted population structure, escalating migratory movements, and epidemic
diseases). These challenges are very different from each other as some occur suddenly(epidemics) and
have relatively limited duration (collapsed infrastructure) while some affect the society slowlyand may
be very difficult to change or to adapt to.
This isthe firsttime;a MoUD programme isusing the ‘Challenge’orcompetitionmethodtoselectcities
for fundingandusinga strategyof area-baseddevelopment.Thiscapturesthe spiritof ‘competitiveand
cooperative federalism’.
Statesand ULBs will playa keysupportive role inthe developmentof SmartCities.Smartleadershipand
vision at this level and ability to act decisively will be important factors determining the success of the
Mission.
Understanding the concepts of retrofitting,redevelopment and Greenfield development by the policy
makers, implementers and other stakeholders at different levels will require capacity assistance.
Major investments in time and resources will have to be made during the planning phase prior to
participation in the Challenge. This is different from the conventional DPR-driven approach.
The Smart Cities Mission requires smart people who actively participate in governance and reforms.
Citizen involvement is much more than a ceremonial participation in governance. Smart people involve
themselves in the definition of the Smart City, decisions on deploying Smart Solutions, implementing
reforms, doing more withless and oversight during implementing and designing post-project structures
in order to make the Smart City developments sustainable. The participation of smart people will be
enabled by the SPV through increasing use of ICT, especially mobile-based tools.

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Smart city report

  • 1. 1 Smart City: Mission of India Naman Markan (2018MBA-10) INTRODUCTION Cities are a driving force in generating world’s economic growth.All aroundthe world,urbanizationis a growingtrend.Challengesrise asmore and more people concentratedinthe limitedurbanspaces,with outdatedinfrastructure,leadingtoarapidincrease inresource consumptionandemissions.The principal challengesforcities,aroundthe globe,are todeliverbetterserviceswhilebeinggloballycompetitive,and meeting climate targets. Limitedresourcesneedtobe managedinan efficientway.At the same time,societal developmentmust be addressedandthe focus put on people’swellbeing.Pressure isgrowingtoreduce our environmental impact,and there isa parallel compellingneedforbusinesstoremaingloballycompetitive.Expenditures on improving energy efficiency, modernizing infrastructure and on creating high quality living, and working environments, are enormous. At the same time, cities have limited financial resources for governance and services. The sustainable transformation of cities is only possible when it is done in a smart way. Smart systems and theirintegrationneedtobe developed,notonlytoprovide the servicesthatpeople needbutalsoto do so efficiently with minimum impact on the environment Regarding the urban spaces as living ecosystems, the smart city design and planning, operation and management, needs to be done at the systemlevel.Sub-optimizationof individual citycomponentswill notleadtooptimal performance of the all system. Multi-target optimization is not an easy task, but it becomes necessary as different components and systems are interlinkedand interconnected – irrespective of where theyare physically located. Innovationinthe formof 'smart city solutions'candelivertechnologies,productsandservicesthatmeet the dual challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and delivering more efficient services. Cities worldwide are modernizing and becoming poles of competitive strength. The rapid development, and globalization, of information and communication technologies (ICT) can support the deployment of these solutions and their integration at system level.Applications as local small-scale energy production, as well as the transport solutions, for example, are the key enablers for citiesbecomingmore resourceefficientwhilebettermeetingtheusers’needs.Itcanbe saidthatefficient ICT, where the Internet of Things has a central role, is a common dominator: tying together services, residency, mobility, infrastructure and energy.
  • 2. 2 The international smart city initiative City Protocol has developed a City Anatomy, an analogy to the human anatomy and its dynamic physiology, which serves as a framework for different parts of a smart city.Itprovidesahierarchicallysounddescriptionand classification of all city systems, subsystems and interactions, thus analyzing and mapping the interconnections between city systems. It describes the city ecosystem as three key system elements: a set of physical structures (“Structure”); the living entities that make up a city’s society (“Society”); and the flow of interactions between them(“Interactions”).The Structure consistsof three layers – “environment”,“infrastructures” and “built domain” – and society is composed of “civil society” and“government”.The interactionsbetweenthetwo are characterized by “functions”, “economy”, “culture” and “information. MISSION FOR SMART CITIES The SmartCitiesCouncilisanadvisorandmarketaccelerator.We promotethe movetosmart,sustainable cities. We contribute to our Partners' business success through advocacy and action.  ReadinessGuides:High-levelmodelsandmetricsagainstwhichcitiescanmeasure theirprogress. Our ReadinessGuidesanswerthe questions"Where doesourcityrank now?"and "What should we work on first?"  Financing templates and case studies: Guidance for new financing models now emerging, some of which combine public, private, and philanthropic.  Policy frameworks and case studies: Examples of policies that promote economic development while also safeguarding citizens.  Visibilitycampaigns:Coordinated,joined-voicesinitiativestohelpcitizensunderstandthatsmart citiesrepresentapathtoabetterfuture.Thesecampaignsincludeawards,events,publishingand research.  Regional networkingevents:High-level,invitation-onlyeventswhere citiesandtheircitizenscan learndirectlyfromsomeof the world'stopexpertsinthe manydisciplinesthatcombinetocreate a smart city.
  • 3. 3 In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and applicationof ‘Smart’Solutions.The focusisonsustainable andinclusive developmentandthe ideaisto lookat compact areas,create a replicablemodel,which will actlike alighthouse toother aspiring cities. The SmartCitiesMissionof the Governmentisabold,new initiative.Itismeanttoset examplesthatcan be replicated both within and outside the Smart City, catalyzing the creation of similar Smart Cities in various regions and parts of the country. The core infrastructure elements in a smart city would include:  Adequate Water Supply,  Assured Electricity Supply,  Sanitation, Including Solid Waste Management,  Efficient Urban Mobility and Public Transport,  Affordable Housing, especially for the Poor,  Robust it Connectivity and Digitalization,  Good Governance, especially E-Governance and Citizen Participation,  Sustainable Environment,  Safety and Security Of Citizens, particularly Women, Children and the Elderly, and  Health and Education.
  • 4. 4 PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE SMART CITY ROADMAP The priority areas for the smart city roadmap were identified in the first workshop in February 2014 in Helsinki.The participantslistedanddiscussedinthree groupsaboutchoosingthe priorityareas.The main themes identified from the prioritization of topics were structured into following groups:  Energy: increasing the use of renewable energy, optimization of the energy system and the management and balancing of energy supply and demand.  Buildings: new solutions for renovation, living comfort and replication of building services and solutions.  Land use, infrastructure and asset management: adaptive use and integration to existing systems.  Transport and mobility: Easy and fast mobility, smart management systems,reducing the need and time for travelling.  Communities and users: people participation, on-demand services, increasing awareness, trust and security, and good wellbeing. Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 1.
  • 5. 5 Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 2. Priority topics for the roadmap as identified by group 3.
  • 6. 6 WHAT MAKES CITIES SMART? Smart citiesare the infrastructuresbuiltthrough information,communicationtechnologies(ICT) made to be more intelligentandefficientinthe use of resources,resultingincost, and energysavings,improved service delivery and quality of life,and reduced environmental footprint-- all supporting innovation and the low-carbon economy. Smart City via state of art (Boyd Cohen) (Source: A report prepared by Boyd Cohen, Ph.D., LEED AP, is a climatestrategisthelpingto lead communities,cities and companies on the journey towards the low carbon economy. Dr. Cohen is the co-author of ClimateCapitalism: Capitalism in the Age of Climate Change January 13, 2014 Smart city by Dr. Palla vi Badry) PURPOSE The purpose isto drive economicgrowthand improve the qualityof life of people byenablinglocal area development and harnessing technology, especially technology that leads to Smart outcomes. Area- based development will transform existing areas (retrofit and redevelop); including slums, into betterplannedones,therebyimprovinglivabilityof thewhole City.New areas(Greenfield)willbe develop around cities in order to accommodate the expanding population in urban areas. Application of Smart Solutionswillenablecitiestousetechnology,informationanddatatoimprove infrastructure andservices. Comprehensive development in this way will improve quality of life, create employment and enhance incomes for all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged, leading to inclusive Cities. TYPES OF SMART CITY 1 Digital city: The main purpose isto create an environmentinwhichcitizensare interconnected and easily share information anywhere in the city. o It combines service oriented infrastructure and communications infrastructure and industry with the innovations. o More robotic 2 Information city: It collects local information and delivered them to the public portal. o Element able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every information through IT infrastructures. o Linking of economic and social aspects of city. E.g. People interactions and government institutions 3 Virtual city: In these kinds of cities, functions are implemented in a cyberspace. o It includes the notion of hybrid city, which consists of a reality with real citizens and entities and a parallel virtual city of real entities and people. o Have a smart city that is virtual means that in some cities it is possible the coexistence betweenthesetworeality,howeverthe issue of physicaldistance andlocationisstill not easyto manage.The visionof the worldwithout distance remainsunmetinmany ways. In practice, thisideais holdup through physical IT infrastructure of cables,datacenters, and exchanges. 4 Intelligent city:It involvesfunctionasresearchor technological innovationtosupportlearning and innovation procedure.
  • 7. 7 o The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process and creativityhave greatimportance and the humancapital isconsideredthe mostprecious resource within this type of technological city. o In particular, one of the most significant feature of an intelligent city is that every infrastructure is up to date, that means have the latest technology in telecommunications, electronic and mechanical technology. 5 Ubiquitous city: It creates an environment that connect citizens to any services through any device. o U-city is a further extension of digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure. o Thismakeseasiertothe citizenthe use of anyavailable devicestointerconnectthem.Its goal is to create a city where any citizen can get any services anywhere and anytime through any kind of devices. o U-city is given by the computer chips inserted to those urban elements. FEATURES OF SMART CITY Some typical features of comprehensive development in Smart Cities are described below. 1. Promotingmixedlanduseinareabaseddevelopments–planningfor‘unplannedareas’containing a range of compatible activities and land uses close to one another in order to make land use more efficient. The States will enable some flexibility in land use and building bye-laws to adapt to change; 2. Housing and inclusiveness - expand housing opportunities for all; 3. Creatingwalkable localities –reduce congestion,airpollutionandresource depletion, boostlocal economy,promote interactionsandensure security.The roadnetworkiscreated or refurbished not only for vehicles and public transport, but also for pedestrians and cyclists, and necessary administrative services are offered within walking or cycling distance; 4. Preservinganddevelopingopenspaces - parks, playgrounds,andrecreational spacesinorderto enhance the quality of life of citizens, reduce the urban heat effects in Areas and generally promote eco-balance; 5. Promotinga varietyof transport options - Transit OrientedDevelopment(TOD),publictransport and last mile para-transport connectivity; 6. Makinggovernance citizen-friendlyandcosteffective - increasinglyrelyononline servicestobring about accountability and transparency, especially using mobiles to reduce cost of services and providingserviceswithouthavingtogoto municipal offices.Forminge-groupstolistentopeople and obtain feedback and use online monitoring of programs and activities with the aid of cyber tour of worksites; 7. Giving an identity to the city - based on its main economic activity,such as local cuisine, health, education, arts and craft, culture, sports goods, furniture, hosiery, textile, dairy, etc.; 8. Applying Smart Solutions to infrastructure and services in area-based development in order to make thembetter.Forexample,makingAreaslessvulnerabletodisasters,usingfewerresources, and providing cheaper services. SMART CITIES: 6 ESSENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • 8. 8 There are key technologies that make a smart city work 1. Smart energy:Both residential andcommercial buildingsinsmartcitiesare more efficient,using less energy, and the energy used is analyzed and data collected. Smart grids are part of the developmentof a smart city,and smart streetlightsare an easyentrypointformany cities,since LED lights save money and pay for themselves within a few years. 2. Smart transportation: A smart city supports multi-modal transportation,smart traffic lights and smart parking. 3. Smart data: The massive amounts of data collected by a smart city must be analyzed quickly in order to make it useful.Opendataportals are one optionthat some citieshave chosenin order to publish city data online, so that anyone can access it and use predictive analytics to assess future patterns. 4. Smart infrastructure: Having a smart infrastructure means that a city can move forward with othertechnologiesanduse the datacollectedto make meaningful changes in future city plans. 5. Smart mobility: "Mobility refers to both the technology and the data which travels across the technology. The ability to seamlessly move in and out of many different municipal and private systems is essential if we are to realize the promise of smart cities. 6. Smart IoT devices:Andfinally,one of thekeycomponentsthattieseverythingtogetherinasmart city is IoT devices  Sensors.  Beacons. NEED FOR SMART CITY  Smarter construction.  Energy Efficient.  Environment Friendly.  Effective Transportation.  Easy Healthcare.  Quality Education.  Strengthening IT & Communications.  Structural Planning. FACETS OF SMART CITY 1. E- city 2. Quality of life 3. Clean and sustainable environment. 4. Industrial city with export orientation. 5. Future ready. 6. High living standards at an affordable cost 1. E- CITY: More than half of the World's population now lives in urban areas.  Cities, megacities, generate new kinds of problems.  Difficulty in waste management, scarcity of resources, air pollution, human health concerns,trafficcongestions,andinadequate,deterioratingandaginginfrastructuresare amongthe more basictechnical,physical,andmaterial problems. E.g., Banloreisthe first to get the status of e-City in India. 2. QUALITYOFLIFE: Qualityof life,acognitivejudgmental process,isdefinedas‘aglobal assessment of a person’s life satisfaction.  Although many people see wealth, health, employment,leisure, personal life, and fame as desirable, different individuals may place different values on them.  Two constructshave beenusedto explainthe determinantsof life satisfactionorquality of life Subjective: is influenced by personality.
  • 9. 9  Objective: by environmental or situational factors: family, job, leisure, neighborhood, community, and satisfaction with standard of living.  The impact of the ICTs on society as a whole has been debated continuously since its widespread use in the 1990s. Obviously, ICTs affect our day-to-day life.  Most of the studiesinICTs’impacton qualityof life focuson televisionandthe Internet.  While some studies found negative impact of television on heavy viewers, while some mixed effects of television on family life. 3. CLEAN AND SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT: Man cannot live and survive amidst waste.  A clean environment that includes clean air, water, land and energy, is essential for human existence, conducting business and creating wealth.  Cleaning also is a systematic, science-based process. 4. INDUSTRIAL CITY WITH EXPORT ORIENTATION: Making industry ready for export is termed as Export- led growth.  Export-ledgrowthimpliesopeningdomesticmarketstoforeigncompetitioninexchange for market access in other.  Export-ledgrowthisaneconomicstrategyusedbysome developingcountries.Countries seeks to find a niche in the world economy for a certain type of export.  By implementing this strategy, countries hope to gain enough hard currency to import commodities manufactured more cheaply somewhere else. 5. FUTUREREADY: Personal andacademicskillsnecessaryforsuccessinfutureindividualendeavors is called as the making ready for future with acquiring the correct skillet.  It is characterized as Collaborative culture, Creative thinking, Critical thinking, Problem solving, Integration of technology into learning, Global competence,Global interaction, Financial, economic, business literacy, Entrepreneurial and civic literacy, technologically able etc.  It can be observed in smart education as if Teachers consistently embed creativityand innovation, critical thinking and problemsolving, and communication and collaboration in learning experiences.  Where Students’ work reflect the use of project-based learning.  Regarding the skillet development in the industry the Staff discussions and meeting minutesemphasizeteachingthatpromotes,flexibilityandadaptability,initiativeandself- direction, social and cross-cultural skills,productivityand accountability,and leadership and responsibility.  Studentsuse researchanddetermine the validityof sourcestoaddmeaningtosolutions to problems.
  • 10. 10 6. HIGH LIVING STANDARDS AT AN AFFORDABLE COST: Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country. The standard of living includes factors:  Income  Quality  Availability of employment  Class disparity  Poverty rate  Quality and affordability of housing  The standard of living is closely related to quality of life. PILLARS OF THE SMART CITY Physical infrastructure:Infrastructureisthe basicphysical systemsof abusinessornation; transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure. Social infrastructure: Social Infrastructure is a subset of the infrastructure sector and typically includes assets that accommodate social services.Assetoutin the table below,examplesof Social Infrastructure Assets include schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and community housing. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE  Compactness  Population  Smart electricity supply.  Smart mobility  Smart housing  Assured water.  Smart sanitation.  Solid waste management.  Smart industry.  DM  Zero pollution. 1. COMPACTNESS  Due to compactness, a smart city would have less CO2 footprint.  Min average density of 135 persons per hectare.  Estimated via Compactness factor  Form factor
  • 11. 11 2. OPTIMIZE THE BUILDING FORMAND LAYOUT A low surface area to volume (S/V) ratio is optimal for a passive, low-carbon building. This is the ratio between the external surface area and the internal volume. Compactness C = Volume / Surface Area Small, detached buildings should have a very compact form (square isclose tothe perfectoptimum,the circle);largerbuildingsmayhave more complex geometries; High S/V ratios require more insulation to achieve the same U-/R-value. 3. SMART HOUSING Assured water  Water should be treated as a precious natural resource.  Water supply should be metered.  100% rainwater harvesting should be done and most of the water needs should be satisfied by harvested rainwater. Smart solid waste management  Solid waste should be segregated at source into dry- wet waste.  Wet waste should be treated as source and then convert into compost/gas/pellets.  Dry waste should be further segregated into reusable and recycle. Smart sanitation  Cleanliness should be ensured  Sewage should be treated in a properly  The product of methane can be used as bio fertilizer. 4. SMART INDUSTRY  Follow the guidelines of ‘ease of doing business index’ to facilitate industrial development.  Fuel pipelinesandsufficientelectricityshould be provided for uninterrupted supply of energy.  Role of IT: Developing Apps for industry need Digital Transformation of Industry. 5. DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Smart city should be prepared for all types of disasters (natural calamities)  Adopting earthquake resistant buildings.  Dedicated plans should be made for facing natural calamities like cyclones, floods etc. 6. ZERO POLLUTION  Smart sanitation, common effluent treatment plants, air pollution devices.  Use of electrical buses, electrical cooking etc. SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE Social Infrastructure isasubsetof the infrastructure sectorand typically includes assets that accommodate social services.As set out in the table below, examples of Social Infrastructure Assets include schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and community housing.
  • 12. 12 NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS Key enabling technologies include smart energy management, demand side management and energy matching and balancing solutions. The multi-source energy system needsto be holistically coordinated, andthe optimal use of energysourcesmanaged.Interoperabilityandthe integrationof bothsystemsand processes supports improving overall energy efficiency throughout the entire energychain from energy supply to distribution, storage and demand. STRATEGY The strategic components of area-based development in the Smart Cities Mission are city improvement (retrofitting),city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (Greenfield development) plusa Pan-city initiative in which Smart Solutions are applied covering larger parts of the city. Below are given the decisions of the three models of Area-based smart city development.  Pan-citydevelopmentenvisagesapplicationof selectedSmartSolutionstothe existingcity-wide infrastructure.Applicationof SmartSolutionswillinvolvethe use of technology,informationand data to make infrastructure and services better. For example,applying Smart Solutions in the transportsector (intelligenttrafficmanagementsystem) andreducingaverage commute timeor cost of citizens will have positive effects on productivity and quality of life of citizens. Another example canbe wastewaterrecyclingandsmartmeteringwhichcanmake ahuge contributionto better water management in the city.  Redevelopment will effect a replacement of the existing built-up environment and enable co- creationof anewlayoutwithenhancedinfrastructureusingmixedlanduse andincreaseddensity. Redevelopmentenvisagesanareaof more than50 acres,identifiedbyUrbanLocal Bodies(ULBs) inconsultationwithcitizens.Forinstance,anew layoutplanof theidentifiedareawillbe prepared withmixedland-use,higherFSIand highground coverage.Two examplesof the redevelopment model are the SaifeeBurhaniUpliftmentProjectinMumbai (alsocalledthe BhendiBazaarProject) and the redevelopment of East Kidwai Nagar in New Delhi being undertaken by the National Building Construction Corporation. The smart city proposal of each shortlisted city is expected to encapsulate either a retrofitting or redevelopment or Greenfield development model, or a mix thereof and a Pan-city feature with Smart Solution(s).Itisimportanttonote thatpan-cityisanadditional featuretobe provided.Since smartcityis takinga compact area approach, itis necessarythat all the cityresidentsfeel there issomethinginitfor themalso.Therefore,the additional requirementof some (atleastone)citywide smartsolutionhasbeen put in the scheme to make it inclusive. DIFFERENT ICT MODELS  ICT in education  ICT in Medicine  ICT in Agriculture  ICT in defense  ICT in smart buildings  ICT in smart cities  ICT in finance  ICT in weather services
  • 13. 13 DIFFERENT STEPS IN THE SELECTION OF SMART CITIES ARE GIVEN BELOW. Each aspiringcitycompetesforselectionasasmart cityin whatiscalleda ‘CityChallenge’.Thereare two stages in the selection process. 1.1 Stage 1 of the competition: Shortlisting of cities by States. 1.2 Stage 2 of the competition Different steps in the selection of Smart cities are given below: 1. Letter to all state governments to shortlist potential Smart Cities based on Stage-I criteria according to numberof Smart Citiesdistributedacrossstates/UTs by the MoUD. Thisis the first stage of Intra-State competition. 2. On the basisof response fromStates/UTs,the listof potential 100Smart Citiesisannounced.The second stage of All India competition begins. 3. Each potential Smart City preparesits proposal assisted by a consultant (from a panel prepared by MoUD) and a hand-holdingExternalAgency(variousoffersreceivedsuchasWorldBank,ADB, GEF, USTDA, JICA, DFID, AFD, KfW, UN Habitat) 4. By stipulated date, Stage 2 proposals submitted. Evaluation by a panel of experts. 5. Selected cities declared – Round 1 Smart Cities 6. SelectedcitiessetupSPV andstartimplementationof theirSCP.Preparationof DPRs,tendersetc. and Other cities prepare to improve their proposal for next round of the Challenge THE IMPACT OF SMART CITIES ON INDIAN INFRASTRUCTURE The missionrequiresdevelopmentthroughretrofitting,redevelopmentandGreenfieldplanningapplied across cities, which in turn creates employment opportunities in the real estate sector. First, the growth of a smart city project can give way to massive opportunity,particularly whenwe talk aboutdemandforaffordablehomes.The smartcitiesprojectsare increasinglyallocatingenoughlandand housing for low-income groups (LIGs), thereby increasing the demand for realty in the country. Second, smart cities also offer an excellent investment options with a sustainable scope for price appreciation, especially for a long-term investment purview. Third,the smartcitiesprojectwill be anamalgamationof commercial andresidentialprojectsinIndia,in close quarters.Evolutionof these smart citieswill pushthe demandof office spacesas well as hotels,in additiontoservice apartmentsandshoppingmalls.The real estate sectorcontributesabout6percentto India’s GDP. The Positive Impacts As globalizationbecomesmore prominent,itisgettingeasierforpeople to communicate withpeople of othernationsand benefitfromthe global impactof technology.A SmartCitywill incorporate technology throughout the city through smart technology such as Wi-Fi and modems giving people more access to informationandtechnological use inthe city.There are some positive effectsforthe infrastructureof the country, as there will be more redevelopment plans around India.
  • 14. 14 The negative impacts As indicated,therecanbe positive effectsof the SmartCityplaninIndia.However,the expansivegrowth of IT with many engineers being consulted can be a negative consequence for planners and architects. The government should consider the viewpoints of planners, geographers and architects, along with IT professionalstohave aholisticapproachtowardsSmartCities.The waysinwhichpeopleare impactedin Smart Cities and how the infrastructure can benefit humans is a core-component of urban planning. Planners must be consultedfor Smart City growth, however, the government has vastly focused on the InformationTechnologyaspectof the Smart Citywithoutconsideringthe cityasa structure and bottom- upstrategiestowardscityplanning.A purelytechnical citymighthave manynegativeimplicationssuchas lackof humancontact andlack of face-to-face interactions,which are anecessityaccordingtothe ‘happy city’index.The happycityindex indicatesthatone of the mainreasonsfor happinessincitiesisthe need to communicate and co-exist as a community in a city. However, with the advent of AI technology, which is considered to be incorporated in Smart Cities, many jobs will be performed by Artificial Intelligence replacing people’s expertise in them. This, again, can have a negative impact on the society in the future. Smart cities should be built by having humans in mind, rather than just technological improvement. This is why planners should also contribute to Smart City growth, rather than engineers and technical experts. SMART CITIES IN INDIA The tagline of the project is "Smarter Solutions for a Better Tomorrow". There are many expectations surrounding the project. Here are few cities in India, which comes under smart city mission. List of First 10 Smart Cities
  • 15. 15 BARRIERS Barriers are mostly related to legal issues, lackingof new business modelsfor local energy services, and matching. The energy system is operated by many actors (including both energy users and suppliers), which makes the integration of processes and systems complex. Moreover, municipalities are often struggling with assessing the costs, benefits and impacts of investments in the long term, but also with the lack of investment money CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Prime Minister Modi wisely recognizes the vital role cities can play in building a strong future for India, especially if local innovation is encouraged and rewarded. Globalizationhasopenednewmarketsandisrequiringmuchmore competitivenessfromindustries.The advancedandmodernsystemsdelivernew servicesandopportunitiestogrowingwellbeing. However, at the same, societies have become more vulnerable to human based criminality and to natural based catastrophes. Climate change is feeding new and unexpected phenomena requiring more robust but flexible and self-recoveringsystems. The concrete threatsto the urban system include natural disasters and othersuddenshocks(storms,terrorism, collapseof vital technical infrastructure),vastconsequences of climate change (decreasingbiodiversityinthe ecosystems,repeatedflooding,longperiodsof hotand arid summer seasons, distorted population structure, escalating migratory movements, and epidemic diseases). These challenges are very different from each other as some occur suddenly(epidemics) and have relatively limited duration (collapsed infrastructure) while some affect the society slowlyand may be very difficult to change or to adapt to. This isthe firsttime;a MoUD programme isusing the ‘Challenge’orcompetitionmethodtoselectcities for fundingandusinga strategyof area-baseddevelopment.Thiscapturesthe spiritof ‘competitiveand cooperative federalism’. Statesand ULBs will playa keysupportive role inthe developmentof SmartCities.Smartleadershipand vision at this level and ability to act decisively will be important factors determining the success of the Mission. Understanding the concepts of retrofitting,redevelopment and Greenfield development by the policy makers, implementers and other stakeholders at different levels will require capacity assistance. Major investments in time and resources will have to be made during the planning phase prior to participation in the Challenge. This is different from the conventional DPR-driven approach. The Smart Cities Mission requires smart people who actively participate in governance and reforms. Citizen involvement is much more than a ceremonial participation in governance. Smart people involve themselves in the definition of the Smart City, decisions on deploying Smart Solutions, implementing reforms, doing more withless and oversight during implementing and designing post-project structures in order to make the Smart City developments sustainable. The participation of smart people will be enabled by the SPV through increasing use of ICT, especially mobile-based tools.