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A Rhetorical Approach to
Gameful Design
Paul Coulton
Changing behaviour
through design
Banksy
PIXELS
by Patrick Jean
1 Billion
“To play a game is to engage in
activity directed towards bringing
about a specific state of affairs,
using only means permi...
The Magic Circle
‘the place dedicated to the
performance of an act apart’
Huizinga
The Magic Circle Myth
game play
ludic activities
being playfulAgon Alea Mimicry Illinx
Paida
Ludus
Salen and ZimmermannRog...
Phillip
Toledano
Gamification
Serious 

Games
Games for 

Change
Persuasive

Games
Paths
generally break down problems into simple
personal goals often expressed through self
interest arguments
High
Ability
Low
Ability
High
Motivation
Low
Motivation
Target
Behaviour
D
esired
Trajectory
ofU
sers
FACILITATOR
SPARK
SI...
persuasion example
Accuracy 83% 50 Points
3rd Time Tonight Bonus 10 Points
!
Poppinsification
in every job that
can be done
there is an
element of fun…
OMG!
twig collecting is
just not letting
me grow as a
Robin
“Games aren't the monosodium
glutamate of fun that you can
simply add to an activity to make
motivating and engaging”
Will...
Masochism
Expression
Discovery
Fellowship
Challenge
Narrative
Fantasy
Sensation
Mark LeBlanc
Fiero
Wonder
Thrill
Surprise
...
Designing games through which players can
rehearse possible/ plausible futures
Rhetor Audience
Speech
Intent
Expectations
Rhetoric
Visual
Rhetoric
Rhetor Audience
Image
Intent
Expectations
Rhetorical
Design
Designer Users
Product
Intent
Expectations
“design is rhetoric”
Richard
Buchanan
Procedural
Rhetoric
“a games basic
representational mode is
procedurality (rule-based
representations and
interactions)”
I...
Rhetorical
Design
Tools
Aristotle
Pathos
(empathy)
Ethos
(credibility)
Logos
(logic)
CONTEXT
Climate Change
Weather
Flow
Storage
Scale
Charles and Ray Eames
Powers of 10
BARTER
Currency Value
Watermark
Transparent
Register
Ultra Violet
Marker
Metallic
Thread
Raised
Lettering
Motion
Thread
Micro
Let...
Gameful Design
Game Designer Player
Game
Rules
Interaction
High
Ability
Low
Ability
High
Motivation
Low
Motivation
Target
...
choose wisely!
QUESTIONS
Banksy
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
A rhetorical approach to gameful design
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A rhetorical approach to gameful design

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Using a rhetoric approach to behavioural design

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A rhetorical approach to gameful design

  1. 1. A Rhetorical Approach to Gameful Design Paul Coulton
  2. 2. Changing behaviour through design Banksy
  3. 3. PIXELS by Patrick Jean 1 Billion
  4. 4. “To play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by rules, where the rules prohibit more efficient in favour of less efficient means, and where such rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity…playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles.” Bernard Suits
  5. 5. The Magic Circle ‘the place dedicated to the performance of an act apart’ Huizinga
  6. 6. The Magic Circle Myth game play ludic activities being playfulAgon Alea Mimicry Illinx Paida Ludus Salen and ZimmermannRoger Callois
  7. 7. Phillip Toledano Gamification Serious Games Games for Change Persuasive Games
  8. 8. Paths
  9. 9. generally break down problems into simple personal goals often expressed through self interest arguments
  10. 10. High Ability Low Ability High Motivation Low Motivation Target Behaviour D esired Trajectory ofU sers FACILITATOR SPARK SIGNAL SIGNAL Fogg Model The Facilitator is a trigger that also makes the desired behaviour easier to perform. The Signal is a trigger that identifies an appropriate time to perform a particular behaviour for those already motivated to perform that behaviour. The Spark is a trigger that provides the initial inspiration to change behaviour.
  11. 11. persuasion example Accuracy 83% 50 Points 3rd Time Tonight Bonus 10 Points
  12. 12. ! Poppinsification in every job that can be done there is an element of fun…
  13. 13. OMG! twig collecting is just not letting me grow as a Robin
  14. 14. “Games aren't the monosodium glutamate of fun that you can simply add to an activity to make motivating and engaging” Will Wright
  15. 15. Masochism Expression Discovery Fellowship Challenge Narrative Fantasy Sensation Mark LeBlanc Fiero Wonder Thrill Surprise Purification Naches Possibilty Humour Gifting Schadenfreude Anticipation Nurturing Destruction Jesse Schell
  16. 16. Designing games through which players can rehearse possible/ plausible futures
  17. 17. Rhetor Audience Speech Intent Expectations Rhetoric
  18. 18. Visual Rhetoric Rhetor Audience Image Intent Expectations
  19. 19. Rhetorical Design Designer Users Product Intent Expectations “design is rhetoric” Richard Buchanan
  20. 20. Procedural Rhetoric “a games basic representational mode is procedurality (rule-based representations and interactions)” Ian Bogost Game Designer Player Game Rules Interaction
  21. 21. Rhetorical Design Tools Aristotle Pathos (empathy) Ethos (credibility) Logos (logic) CONTEXT
  22. 22. Climate Change
  23. 23. Weather
  24. 24. Flow
  25. 25. Storage
  26. 26. Scale Charles and Ray Eames Powers of 10
  27. 27. BARTER
  28. 28. Currency Value Watermark Transparent Register Ultra Violet Marker Metallic Thread Raised Lettering Motion Thread Micro Lettering Information Protection PhysicalCurrencyIDataSymbol Flow Time Location DigitalInformation Digital/PhysicalCurrencyDataSymbol
  29. 29. Gameful Design Game Designer Player Game Rules Interaction High Ability Low Ability High Motivation Low Motivation Target Behaviour D esired Trajectory ofU sers FACILITATOR SPARK SIGNAL SIGNAL OR Extrinsic motivation rewards the results of an activity Intrinsic motivation is the joy of the activity itself
  30. 30. choose wisely!
  31. 31. QUESTIONS Banksy

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