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Matn (text), isnad (chain of reporters), and taraf (the part, or the beginning sentence, of the text which refers to the sayings, actions or characteristics of the Prophet(P), or his concurrence with others action). The authenticity of the hadith depends on the reliability of its reporters, and the linkage among them
1.Qudsi - Divine; a revelation from Allah(SWT); relayed with the words of the Prophet(P).Marfu` - elevated; a narration from the Prophet(P), e.g., I heard the Prophet(P) saying ...Mauquf- stopped: a narration from a companion only, e.g., we were commanded to ...Maqtu` - severed: a narration from a successor.2.Musnad - supported: a hadith which is reported by a traditionalist, based on what he learned from his teacher at a time of life suitable for learning; similarly - in turn - for each teacher until the isnad reaches a well known companion, who in turn, reports from the Prophet(P).Muttasil - continuous: a hadith with an uninterrupted isnad which goes back only to a companion or successor.Mursal - hurried: if the link between the successor and the Prophet(P) is missing, e.g., when a successor says "The Prophet said...".Munqati` - broken: is a hadith whose link anywhere before the successor (i.e., closer to the traditionalist recording the hadith) is missing.Mu`adal - perplexing: is a hadith whose reporter omits two or more consecutive reporters in the isnad.Mu`allaq - hanging: is a hadith whose reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes the Prophet(P) directly (i.e., the link is missing at the beginning).3.Mutawatir - Consecutive: is a hadith which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together.Ahad - isolated: is a hadith which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir.It is further classified into:Mash'hur - famous: hadith reported by more than two reporters.`Aziz - rare, strong: at any stage in the isnad, only two reporters are found to narrate the hadith.Gharib - strange: At some stage of the isnad, only one reporter is found relating it.4.Munkar - denounced: is a hadith which is reported by a weak narrator, and whose narration goes against another authentic hadith.Mudraj - interpolated: an addition by a reporter to the text of the hadith being narrated.5.Sahih - sound. Imam al-Shafi`i states the following requiremetts for a hadith, which is not Mutawatir, to be acceptable "each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion; he should be known to be truthtul in his narrating, to understand what he narrates, to know how a different expression can alter the meaning, and to report the wording of the hadith verbatim, not only its meaning".Hasan - good: is the one where its source is known and its reporters are unambiguous.Da`if - weak: a hadith which fails to reach the status of Hasan. Usually, the weakness is: a) one of discontinuity in the isnad, in which case thehadith could be - according to the nature of the discontinuity - Munqati (broken), Mu`allaq (hanging), Mu`adal (perplexing), or Mursal(hurried), or b) one of the reporters having a disparaged character, such as due to his telling lies, excessive mistakes, opposition to the narration of more reliable sources, involvement in innovation, or ambiguity surrounding his person.Maudu` - fabricated or forged: is a hadith whose text goes against the established norms of the Prophet's sayings, or its reporters include a liar. Fabricated hadith are also recognized by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident.
1.Traditions of the life of Muhammad (S.A.W) and the early history of Islam were passed down mostly orally for more than a hundred years after Muhammad(S.A.W) death in AD 632.2.Third Caliph HazratUsman (R.A) is generally believed to urge muslims to record the ahadith just as Muhammad (s.a.w.w) suggested to some of his followers to write down his words or actions.3.After the assasination of HazratUsman (R.A) in 656 AD, No sources survive directly from this period so we are dependent on what later writers tell us about this period. 4.By the 9th century, the number of ahadith had grown exponentially. Islamic scholars of Abbasid period were faced with huge number of different traditions, in which some of them flatly contradicted each other. So scholars had to decide that which has to be trusted and which to be not, for this reason they introduced number of techniques for the verification of the hadith and these techniques are known as science of hadith.
Now before I discuss importance of hadith, I must clarify that there is a great difference b/w sunnah and hadith. Most people consider it synonym of each other or two names one thing but in reality they are different from each other. Hadith is as the definition was discussed above, that hadith is the narrative of the words,deeds or tacit approved or disapproved by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w). It does not add anything to the the contents of Islam that are stated in Quran and Sunnah which are two independent sources.Muslims scholars employ the term hadith as “khabar”. Because in khabar, there might be a possibility of being right or wrong.On the other hand Sunnah literally means paths names, as a term it means the practices of Abraham (sws) to which Prophet Muhammad (sws) gave religious sanction among his followers after retrieving reforming and making certain additions or deductions from them.Quranic Verse, Then We revealed to you to follow the ways of Abraham, who was true in faith and was not among the polytheists. (16:123)
Point: example of bicycle, that if your grandfather buys one bicycle and u keep it till ages and to generations after generations and then someone ask you that sell it, then you will say that I won’t, it’s my fathers symbol, similarly how won’t u believe the Prophet (S.A.W.W)
). Expounder/Explainer/Practical demonstrater of the Quran: The Prophet peace be upon him is the expounder of the Quran appointed by Allah. Allah mentions this in the Quran “We have revealed unto you the Remembrance that you may explain to mankind that which has been revealed for them” (16: 44). For example the Quran tells us to pray, but the details for the method of praying are not prescribed in the Quran. It was the Prophet’s task to demonstrate the forms of prayer.b). Legislator: Allah says about the Prophet peace be upon him in Chapter 7 verse 157 “He will make lawful for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul…” c). Model behavior for the Muslim Society: Allah says in chapter 33 verse 21 “Indeed a noble model you have in Allah’s Messenger...” If we consider the Prophet peace be upon him as the model for the community, then Muslims have to follow his example in every way. Allah did not leave this open to debate and ordered complete obedience to the Prophet peace be upon him. For this reason the Muslim community accepted the authority of the Prophet peace be upon him from the very day his mission began. (1)) Establishment of schools: The Prophet peace be upon him established a school in Mecca soon after he became a Prophet. Schools were also established by the Prophet peace be upon him in Medina soon after his arrival. His general policy was to send teachers to areas outside of Medina.2) His Directions about Diffusion of Knowledge: The Prophet peace be upon him said “Pass on knowledge from me even if it is only one verse” He also said something similar during his farewell pilgrimage “Those who are present should convey the message to those who are absent” It was a common practice of the companions to tell absentees about the Prophets deeds and sayings.3) Creation of incentive for teachers and students: The Prophet peace be upon him mentioned great rewards for teachers and students.a) Reward for students: The Prophet peace be upon him said: “If anyone pursues a path in search of knowledge Allah will thereby make easy for him a path to paradise, and the angels spread their wings from good pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, and all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, even the fish in the depths of the water ask forgiveness for him”b) Rewards for teachers: In this regard the Prophet peace be upon him mentioned that after death all deeds come to an end except three, one of them being knowledge that people still reap benefit from. (1)Most beloved person of his communitysome companions likeZaydsaid they would rather die, than have the Prophet peace be upon him even pricked with a thorn. Abu Sufyana one time enemy of Islam said “I have never seen a man who was so loved by his companions as Mohammad was”. Thus the Prophet peace be upon him was the most beloved in his community. The community’s involvement in worldly pursuits was minimal and this made the opportunity for learning greater. The Arabs were known to have had excellent memories and used remember many verses of their tribal poets by heart. (1)
Importance of hadith
The importance of AHADITH
IntroductionParts of hadithClassification of hadithHistoryDifference between Sunnah and hadithImportance of ahadithHow ahadith were preservedCriticism on preservation of hadithConclusions
What is a hadith ?Components of hadithClassification of hadith.
A hadith is a saying or narration of a Prophet(S.A.W.W) speech ,deed, or approval or disapproval-whether spoken or tacit- about something.
Hadith e qudsi (sacred) Hadith e marfu (elevated) Hadith e mauquf (stopped) Hadith e muqtu (severed)
HistoryPassed down mostly by Oral meansCaliph Usman ibn Affan(the third khalifa (caliph).No source directly survivesIslamic scholars of Abbasid period faced withhuge number of contradictions about Hadith.
Great difference b/w Sunnah and Hadith Hadith doesn’t add anything to the contents of Islam Word meaning of Hadith according to Islamic scholars Sunnah literally means “busy path", "trodden path", "beaten Path” Hadith can be inauthentic Sunnah is purely related to practical aspects of Islam and is Independent Source of Islam
Compulsory for us to follow Prophet(S.A.W.W) and his AhadithFew Quranic versesFew stories/event’s happened to imambukhari
The prophet (s.a.w.w)and his position according to theQuran.Teaching of ahadith by the Prophet(s.a.w.w)Measures taken by the Prophet (s.a.w.w) for the diffusion ofSunnahSunnah received by the companionsCompanions learning of ahadithRecording of ahadith in the life of the Prophet (s.a.w.w)Some misunderstandings about recording of ahadith
Beginning of criticismMethodology/system of criticism1. Comparison of hadith b/w different students of one scholar2. Comparison b/w the statements of a single scholar at different time3. Comparison b/w oral recitation and written documents4. Comparison b/w hadith and related verses of Quran
Chain of narration must be unbroken Every narrator in the chain must be of acceptable righteousness and character Moral characteristics are not sufficient Chain and text must not contradict No chances of mistakes upon inspection
Must follow Sunnah and Hadith Must consult and look for all the possible solutions of problems faced in life in Sunnah and Hadith. May Allah (SWT) change our mind and give us taufeeq to learn our Deen and practice upon the Sunnah and Hadith of His beloved Nabi (S.A.W.W). (AMEEN)