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Curriculum:
Concept, Models , Curriculum design and
development
Professor Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam
Department of Anatomy and Histology
Faculty of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences
Sylhet Agricultural University
1
Learning outcomes

At the end of the presentation, the participants will be able
to know:
• the Concept of Curriculum
• what is Curriculum Development?
• the Purpose of Curriculum Development
• Basic Elements of Curriculum
• Curriculum strategies
• Key aspects of the curriculum
• Curriculum Development Process
• Curriculum Evaluation and Review
• Curriculum Format at Course and program Levels
• Standard 4: Curriculum (BAC)
• Curriculum Model
• Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum
Concept of
Curriculum
4
The Word: Curriculum
 Latin: Currere means to run or running
track
 Scotland 1603: Carriage way, road
 United States 1906: Course of study
 United States 1940: PLAN for learning
(study)
5
What is curriculum?
Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning
that requires the purposeful and proactive
organization, sequencing, and
management of the interactions among
the teacher, the students, and the content
knowledge we want students to acquire.
Curriculum
What do
stakeholders
want (need)?
What is state-
of-the-art
knowledge in
the subject?
Program
designed
around ILOs
Planned
progress
towards high-
order ILOs
Year-on-year
progress
towards
program ILOs
Can graduates
solve real-world
problems?
What can we
resource?
The curriculum must teach what the
students need to know!
What is curriculum development?
 Curriculum development is the
organized preparation of whatever is
going to be taught in the faculties at a
given time in a given year.
 They are made into official documents,
as guides for teachers.
Cont.
 Curriculum development is the
process of setting up and establishing
specific guidelines of instruction for
the curriculum.
Purpose of Curriculum
Development
To ensure learners receive integrated,
coherent learning experiences that
contribute towards their fundamental,
social, thinking, personal, academic and
professional development.
Basic Elements of Curriculum
11/12/2021
11
Objectives
Evaluation
Content Methods
Curriculum strategies
Student-centred
Problem-based
Integrated
Community-based
Electives + core
Systematic
Teacher centred
Information gathering
Discipline-based
Laboratory-based
Uniform
Apprenticeship
11/12/2021 12
11/12/2021 13
Teacher Centered vs Student Centered
Learning
11/12/2021 14
Teacher-Centered Learning
11/12/2021 15
Student -Centered Learning
11/12/2021 16
Key aspects of the curriculum
 Aims
 Learning outcomes(LO)/Objectives (knowledge, skills and
attitudes)
 Content
 Teaching and learning methods
 Assessment methods
 Supporting elements:
 Learning resources (teachers, support staff, funding,
books/journals, IT support, teaching rooms)
 Monitoring and evaluation procedures
 Clinical placement activities
 Recruitment and selection procedures, including promotional
materials
 Student support and guidance mechanisms
PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
L
E
A
R
N
E
R
Curriculum Development Process
Planning
Development
Implementation
Evaluation
Planning
20
 Formation of Curriculum Development Team
• Subject Matter Specialists (internal and External)
• Curriculum Specialists
• Dean, Head of the Department
• Student representatives/Alumni
• Employer Representatives
• UGC Representative
• Prominent Scholars
• Registered Graduate/Senate Members
• Parents/Community Representatives
Needs Assessment/Situation Analysis
Development
 Determine Aims (Vision & Mission)
 General Objectives
 Formulate the objectives in behavioral terms
(Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor domain)
 Developing learning outcomes (Cognitive,
Affective, Psychomotor domain)
 Content selection (considering the relevant
principles and Maxims)
 Content Organization (considering relevant
principles and Maxims)
 Guidelines for the Instructional Materials
Developers/ writers 21
Development (contd.)
 Selection of Instructional Strategies
 Teaching Aids/Planned Activities (Learning
experiences)
 Selection of Student Assessment Techniques
 Draft Curriculum Evaluation: Piloting/Rationale
Evaluation/ Seminar/ Online/others
 Modification of the Draft Curriculum
 Final Curriculum
22
Implementation
 Teachers’ Training
 Administrative supports
 Infrastructural facilities
 Educational Facilities
 Lab Facilities
 Internship
 Monitoring and Formative Assessment
(For Renew and Modification)
23
Elements of Curriculum Evaluation
 Context-whether or not to offer the curriculum—
focus, goals, and objectives.
 Input-what resources and strategies are used.
 Process-what effect does the curriculum have on
the students.
 Product-what effect has the curriculum had on
former students.
Curriculum Format at Program Level
1. Vision & Mission
2. Program Objectives
3. Learning Outcomes: Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor
4. Generic Skills/ Graduate Profile/Graduate Attributes/Day
One Skills
5. Curriculum Structure/Layout (Course Schedule)
6. Learning Experience/ Teaching Strategy
7. Assessment Strategy
Curriculum Format at Course Level
Course ID & Title:AGRSS-121; Seed Science &
Thech.
Credit hrs: 2
1. Rationale: Through this course students will learn about all kinds of seeds
2. Educational Objectives: 1.To identify different types of seeds
2. Have on qual. of seeds
3. Seed production
4. Preservation of seed
Intended Learning
Outcomes(ILOs) Course
Content
Teaching Strategies
Assessment Strategies to
fulfil the ILOs
1.Define & identify
different seeds.
Introduction
of seed;
Definition,
types
Lecture,
demonstration of
seeds, practical visit
Identification, Quiz, T/F,
Matching, Fill up the
Blank
2.
3.
Curriculum Format at Course Level
Course Code & Title: Credit hrs:
1. Rationale: .............................
2. Educational Objectives:
3. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
1…………………………………………………….
2…………………………………………………….
3…………………………………………………….
4. Course Content: …………………….
5. Teaching Strategies:
Lectures, Lab Practical (group size),Field practical (group size), Field visits, Industrial training,
Assignments, Tutorials, Report writing, Games, PBL, Experiential learning, Cooperative learning,
Collaborative learning, Projects, Role play, Debates, Presentations, Quizzes, Self study
6. Assessment Strategies:
Written examination, Oral examination, MCQs, Essays, Short answer questions, Quizzes, Portfolio,
Book review, Problem /Scenario / Situation, Work-based problem , Case analysis , Role Play,
Making a video
References:
Participants in Developing Curriculum
 Developing or designing a curriculum involves a large
number of persons, both institution based and
community based.
 It also involves different levels of planning: the
classroom level, the district level, the state level, the
national level, and even the international level.
11/12/2021
32
Political Arena Participants
 The politics of education is concerned with
who benefits and how those benefits are
determined.
 Curriculum participants, both educators and
non-educators
 To determine what types of curricula will
benefit what students, how to select those
curricula, who will receive the benefits of
particular curricula, and how to deliver those
benefits.
11/12/2021
33
University Arena Participants
The key players would be scholar-experts
curriculum specialists
university management & administration expert
 professional educators
 Vice-Chancellor, Dean, and Head
 teachers and
students.
Less involved but still important players would be
community members and parents.
 business people and
 politicians.
11/12/2021
34
Strategic Planning for Curriculum Review may
include:
 Identifying the mission/goals of the program
 Brainstorming on the characteristics of an ideal graduate at
each degree level
 Identifying the program strengths and opportunities for
improvement/growth
 Writing program learning outcomes (PLO)
 Mapping the achievement of learning outcomes across the
curriculum
 Mapping program learning outcomes (PLO or PO) and
learning activities (CLO from the relevant courses)
Standard 4: Curriculum (BAC)
37
As per the guideline of Bangladesh Accreditation Council
(BAC):
Curriculum must be outcome-based and consistent with
the qualifications framework (QF) of Bangladesh for higher
education.
It should be comprehensive enough to guide the faculty
and students towards systematic attainment of learning
outcomes (LOs) and fulfilment of mission and objectives of
the PoE.
Cont.
38
Criterion 4-1: The curriculum of the program is designed
and reviewed following a well-defined procedure by a
specific body or committee with representation from the
industry/employers and alumni.
Criterion 4-2: Curriculum aims at producing graduates
focusing on graduate profile/attributes, that are defined
following the identified needs of the stakeholders and
learning domains in the QF of Bangladesh for higher
education.
Cont.
39
Criterion 4-3: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) are
defined within the scope of mission and objectives of the
PoE and aligned with graduate profile/attributes.
Criterion 4-4: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) are
specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound.
Criterion 4-5: Curriculum of the program is designed in
compliance with the qualifications framework (QF) of
Bangladesh for higher education in terms of graduating
credits and credit value
Cont.
40
Criterion 4-6: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) and courses
are aligned to make the content of the curriculum appropriate
and adequate.
Criterion 4-7: In case of Bachelor degree program curriculum
of the program includes minimum 25% of total credits for
general education courses with clearly defined course learning
outcomes and mapped with PLOs and learning domains of QF.
In case of Master’s degree program curriculum of the program
includes minimum 10% of total credits for general education
courses with clearly defined course learning outcomes and
mapped with PLOs and learning domains of QF.
Cont.
41
Criterion 4-8: The PoE maintains documented course file
with course plan specifying prerequisite course(s) (if any),
credit value, teaching learning & assessment methods and
facilities/resources that are mapped out as necessary to
facilitate the attainment of course learning outcomes.
Criterion4-9: Provisions of internship/project/dissertation/field
work/work integrated learning opportunities are included in the
curriculum.
Curriculum Model
42
What is a curriculum model?
A model is a format for curriculum
design developed to meet unique
needs, contexts, and/or purposes.
In order to address these goals,
curriculum developers design,
reconfigure, or rearrange one or
more key curriculum components.
The Framework Underlying All
Curriculum Models
Content
Assessment
Intro
Teaching
Learning
Products
Resources
Grouping
Extensions
Modifications
KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
Curriculum models
Purpose:
To provide a structure for examining
the elements that go to make up
curriculum planning, and how these
elements interrelate.
OBL G. Skill
Some of the components of a comprehensive
curriculum unit
 Content
 Assessment
 Introduction/Closure
 Teaching Strategies
 Learning Activities
 Grouping and
Pacing
 Products
 Resources
 Extension Activities
 Differentiation
47
Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum
 Powerful knowledge goals, representative or generative
topics, and big ideas
 Advance organizers that clarify prior knowledge, future
activities, and expectations
 Motivating introductory experiences
 Challenging and active learning activities
 Authentic resources and products
 Aligned assessment strategies and growth criteria, feedback,
debriefing, transfer and extension opportunities, interaction,
and support
 Interest-based applications and extensions
 Modifications that attend to powerful student differences
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Curriculum: Concept, Models , Curriculum design and development

  • 1. Curriculum: Concept, Models , Curriculum design and development Professor Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam Department of Anatomy and Histology Faculty of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences Sylhet Agricultural University 1
  • 2.
  • 3. Learning outcomes  At the end of the presentation, the participants will be able to know: • the Concept of Curriculum • what is Curriculum Development? • the Purpose of Curriculum Development • Basic Elements of Curriculum • Curriculum strategies • Key aspects of the curriculum • Curriculum Development Process • Curriculum Evaluation and Review • Curriculum Format at Course and program Levels • Standard 4: Curriculum (BAC) • Curriculum Model • Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum
  • 5. The Word: Curriculum  Latin: Currere means to run or running track  Scotland 1603: Carriage way, road  United States 1906: Course of study  United States 1940: PLAN for learning (study) 5
  • 6. What is curriculum? Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge we want students to acquire.
  • 7. Curriculum What do stakeholders want (need)? What is state- of-the-art knowledge in the subject? Program designed around ILOs Planned progress towards high- order ILOs Year-on-year progress towards program ILOs Can graduates solve real-world problems? What can we resource? The curriculum must teach what the students need to know!
  • 8. What is curriculum development?  Curriculum development is the organized preparation of whatever is going to be taught in the faculties at a given time in a given year.  They are made into official documents, as guides for teachers.
  • 9. Cont.  Curriculum development is the process of setting up and establishing specific guidelines of instruction for the curriculum.
  • 10. Purpose of Curriculum Development To ensure learners receive integrated, coherent learning experiences that contribute towards their fundamental, social, thinking, personal, academic and professional development.
  • 11. Basic Elements of Curriculum 11/12/2021 11 Objectives Evaluation Content Methods
  • 12. Curriculum strategies Student-centred Problem-based Integrated Community-based Electives + core Systematic Teacher centred Information gathering Discipline-based Laboratory-based Uniform Apprenticeship 11/12/2021 12
  • 13. 11/12/2021 13 Teacher Centered vs Student Centered Learning
  • 16. 11/12/2021 16 Key aspects of the curriculum  Aims  Learning outcomes(LO)/Objectives (knowledge, skills and attitudes)  Content  Teaching and learning methods  Assessment methods  Supporting elements:  Learning resources (teachers, support staff, funding, books/journals, IT support, teaching rooms)  Monitoring and evaluation procedures  Clinical placement activities  Recruitment and selection procedures, including promotional materials  Student support and guidance mechanisms
  • 17. PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT L E A R N E R
  • 18.
  • 20. Planning 20  Formation of Curriculum Development Team • Subject Matter Specialists (internal and External) • Curriculum Specialists • Dean, Head of the Department • Student representatives/Alumni • Employer Representatives • UGC Representative • Prominent Scholars • Registered Graduate/Senate Members • Parents/Community Representatives Needs Assessment/Situation Analysis
  • 21. Development  Determine Aims (Vision & Mission)  General Objectives  Formulate the objectives in behavioral terms (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor domain)  Developing learning outcomes (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor domain)  Content selection (considering the relevant principles and Maxims)  Content Organization (considering relevant principles and Maxims)  Guidelines for the Instructional Materials Developers/ writers 21
  • 22. Development (contd.)  Selection of Instructional Strategies  Teaching Aids/Planned Activities (Learning experiences)  Selection of Student Assessment Techniques  Draft Curriculum Evaluation: Piloting/Rationale Evaluation/ Seminar/ Online/others  Modification of the Draft Curriculum  Final Curriculum 22
  • 23. Implementation  Teachers’ Training  Administrative supports  Infrastructural facilities  Educational Facilities  Lab Facilities  Internship  Monitoring and Formative Assessment (For Renew and Modification) 23
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Elements of Curriculum Evaluation  Context-whether or not to offer the curriculum— focus, goals, and objectives.  Input-what resources and strategies are used.  Process-what effect does the curriculum have on the students.  Product-what effect has the curriculum had on former students.
  • 28. Curriculum Format at Program Level 1. Vision & Mission 2. Program Objectives 3. Learning Outcomes: Cognitive, Affective & Psychomotor 4. Generic Skills/ Graduate Profile/Graduate Attributes/Day One Skills 5. Curriculum Structure/Layout (Course Schedule) 6. Learning Experience/ Teaching Strategy 7. Assessment Strategy
  • 29. Curriculum Format at Course Level Course ID & Title:AGRSS-121; Seed Science & Thech. Credit hrs: 2 1. Rationale: Through this course students will learn about all kinds of seeds 2. Educational Objectives: 1.To identify different types of seeds 2. Have on qual. of seeds 3. Seed production 4. Preservation of seed Intended Learning Outcomes(ILOs) Course Content Teaching Strategies Assessment Strategies to fulfil the ILOs 1.Define & identify different seeds. Introduction of seed; Definition, types Lecture, demonstration of seeds, practical visit Identification, Quiz, T/F, Matching, Fill up the Blank 2. 3.
  • 30. Curriculum Format at Course Level Course Code & Title: Credit hrs: 1. Rationale: ............................. 2. Educational Objectives: 3. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): 1……………………………………………………. 2……………………………………………………. 3……………………………………………………. 4. Course Content: ……………………. 5. Teaching Strategies: Lectures, Lab Practical (group size),Field practical (group size), Field visits, Industrial training, Assignments, Tutorials, Report writing, Games, PBL, Experiential learning, Cooperative learning, Collaborative learning, Projects, Role play, Debates, Presentations, Quizzes, Self study 6. Assessment Strategies: Written examination, Oral examination, MCQs, Essays, Short answer questions, Quizzes, Portfolio, Book review, Problem /Scenario / Situation, Work-based problem , Case analysis , Role Play, Making a video References:
  • 31. Participants in Developing Curriculum  Developing or designing a curriculum involves a large number of persons, both institution based and community based.  It also involves different levels of planning: the classroom level, the district level, the state level, the national level, and even the international level. 11/12/2021 32
  • 32. Political Arena Participants  The politics of education is concerned with who benefits and how those benefits are determined.  Curriculum participants, both educators and non-educators  To determine what types of curricula will benefit what students, how to select those curricula, who will receive the benefits of particular curricula, and how to deliver those benefits. 11/12/2021 33
  • 33. University Arena Participants The key players would be scholar-experts curriculum specialists university management & administration expert  professional educators  Vice-Chancellor, Dean, and Head  teachers and students. Less involved but still important players would be community members and parents.  business people and  politicians. 11/12/2021 34
  • 34. Strategic Planning for Curriculum Review may include:  Identifying the mission/goals of the program  Brainstorming on the characteristics of an ideal graduate at each degree level  Identifying the program strengths and opportunities for improvement/growth  Writing program learning outcomes (PLO)  Mapping the achievement of learning outcomes across the curriculum  Mapping program learning outcomes (PLO or PO) and learning activities (CLO from the relevant courses)
  • 35. Standard 4: Curriculum (BAC) 37 As per the guideline of Bangladesh Accreditation Council (BAC): Curriculum must be outcome-based and consistent with the qualifications framework (QF) of Bangladesh for higher education. It should be comprehensive enough to guide the faculty and students towards systematic attainment of learning outcomes (LOs) and fulfilment of mission and objectives of the PoE.
  • 36. Cont. 38 Criterion 4-1: The curriculum of the program is designed and reviewed following a well-defined procedure by a specific body or committee with representation from the industry/employers and alumni. Criterion 4-2: Curriculum aims at producing graduates focusing on graduate profile/attributes, that are defined following the identified needs of the stakeholders and learning domains in the QF of Bangladesh for higher education.
  • 37. Cont. 39 Criterion 4-3: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) are defined within the scope of mission and objectives of the PoE and aligned with graduate profile/attributes. Criterion 4-4: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound. Criterion 4-5: Curriculum of the program is designed in compliance with the qualifications framework (QF) of Bangladesh for higher education in terms of graduating credits and credit value
  • 38. Cont. 40 Criterion 4-6: Program learning outcomes (PLOs) and courses are aligned to make the content of the curriculum appropriate and adequate. Criterion 4-7: In case of Bachelor degree program curriculum of the program includes minimum 25% of total credits for general education courses with clearly defined course learning outcomes and mapped with PLOs and learning domains of QF. In case of Master’s degree program curriculum of the program includes minimum 10% of total credits for general education courses with clearly defined course learning outcomes and mapped with PLOs and learning domains of QF.
  • 39. Cont. 41 Criterion 4-8: The PoE maintains documented course file with course plan specifying prerequisite course(s) (if any), credit value, teaching learning & assessment methods and facilities/resources that are mapped out as necessary to facilitate the attainment of course learning outcomes. Criterion4-9: Provisions of internship/project/dissertation/field work/work integrated learning opportunities are included in the curriculum.
  • 41. What is a curriculum model? A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components.
  • 42. The Framework Underlying All Curriculum Models Content Assessment Intro Teaching Learning Products Resources Grouping Extensions Modifications KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
  • 43. Curriculum models Purpose: To provide a structure for examining the elements that go to make up curriculum planning, and how these elements interrelate. OBL G. Skill
  • 44. Some of the components of a comprehensive curriculum unit  Content  Assessment  Introduction/Closure  Teaching Strategies  Learning Activities  Grouping and Pacing  Products  Resources  Extension Activities  Differentiation
  • 45. 47 Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum  Powerful knowledge goals, representative or generative topics, and big ideas  Advance organizers that clarify prior knowledge, future activities, and expectations  Motivating introductory experiences  Challenging and active learning activities  Authentic resources and products  Aligned assessment strategies and growth criteria, feedback, debriefing, transfer and extension opportunities, interaction, and support  Interest-based applications and extensions  Modifications that attend to powerful student differences