2. Speaker Profile:
Md. Shaifullar Rabbi
Tourism Educator & Consultant
Coordinator & Lecturer- Dept. of Tourism & Hospitality
Management, Daffodil Institute of IT(Affiliated National
Assessor -Bangladesh Technical Education Board (Ticketing
Guest Trainer - Sheikh Hasina National Institute of Youth
GuestTrainer - ATABTourismTraining Institute
GuestTrainer- HB Aviation Training Center
Guest Trainer - Bangladesh Hotel Management Tourism
Former Manager sales - Mamun Air Service (IATA Travel
Founder –Travel Memoria
MBA & BBA-Major in Tourism & Hospitality
Management, University of Dhaka.
Certified NTVQF Level -4/Assessor Part (Ticketing
Completed Diploma Course in Travel Agency &
Tour Operation Management
Certified NTVQF Level 2 Course entitled Ticketing
Certified NTVQF Level 1 Course entitled Tour
3. Security Strategy
A Security Strategy is a document prepared periodically which outlines the major security concerns of a country or
organization and outlines plans to deal with them.
Effective security strategy
Risk Analysis – Analyzing risk helps you determine your tolerance levels for risk and which you can accept, avoid,
transfer, or prevent. Risk analysis can help determine how to best budget and prioritize security initiatives.
Classification of Data and Assets – It is necessary to understand the data and assets that your organization
maintains, and classify based on importance to the core business objectives. This helps you set priorities for levels
of security and set permissions for information access.
User Security Awareness Training – Without question, people pose the biggest threat to your organization via
accidental or malicious misuse or abuse of data. Employees must be properly trained on the sensitivity of data,
threats, and how to handle data appropriately. Employee awareness of company policy and procedures can
certainly help prevent data loss.
Management Approval – Management approval and executive sponsorship is the most important factor in the
success of a successful security program. Align your security strategy with business objectives to ensure
management approval. This can lead to improved employee adherence to policies and increased security budgets
leading to implementation of effective solutions that support the strategy.
4. An effective security plan should be based on the following principles
o It should result from collaboration between entity management, scientific, facilities, safety
and security personnel.
o It is built upon tested, well documented operational processes.
o It should account for and secure all biological select agents or toxins from creation or
acquisition to destruction.
o It complements other plans such as biosafety, disaster recovery, continuity of operations,
o It does not violate any laws. Laws to consider when creating the security plan include the
Americans with Disabilities Act, OSHA Safety Standards, and local building and fire codes.
o The entity should provide security plan training to ensure every person understands his or
o It requires reporting of all suspected security incidents and suspicious activities.
o It is reviewed at least annually and updated whenever conditions change.
o It is based on a site-specific risk assessment.
5. Security Plan Roles and Responsibilities
The security program should define each individual’s roles and
responsibilities and solicit their input for improvements. An
entity should be aware of, and collaborate with, the personnel
responsible for and/or impacting security.This may include:
o Responsible Official
o Facility key control and access control personnel
o Alarm companies
o Campus security personnel
o Security personnel who observe video
o Local law enforcement or other response forces
6. Key Entity Leadership
Certain parties should be involved in the process of designing and
implementing the security plan. These include, but are not limited
o Principal Investigator (PI)
o Responsible Official (RO)
o Alternate Responsible Official (ARO)
o Human Resources
o Biosafety staff
o Security staff
o Institutional Biosafety Committee
o Laboratory Management
7. Three Security Objectives
Deterrence: The ability to affect the
motivation / psychology of attacker and
upset their intention to compel them to
abandon or cancel the plan.
Detection: The ability to identify the
hazard usually at a portal or defined site.
Prevention: Physically intercepting the
attackers, after the initial sequence or
planning of the plot has been carried out.
8. Orientation with Security Equipment& Functionality
1. Standoff Distance : Standoff distance is a security term that refers to measures to prevent unscreened
and potentially threatening people and vehicles from approaching within a certain distance of
a building, car, or other shelter, roadblock or other location, or to a person such as a law enforcement
officer or VIP, or to a friendly area / location. Standoff distance is used when a violent criminal is in a
fortified position, when hostages are under armed threat from kidnappers, when a bomb is believed to
have been placed, or when other unspecified dangers may be lurking. It is a measure of distance used by
government, law enforcement, or military operatives handling the situation to protect their own agents
and civilians from physical injury or death while the situation is resolved.
2. Spike Strip: A spike strip (spike belt, traffic spikes, tire shredders, stingers, stop sticks or formally known
as a tire deflation device) is a device or incident weapon used to impede or stop the movement of
wheeled vehicles by puncturing their tires. Generally, the strip is composed of a collection of 35-to-75-
millimetre-long (1 1⁄2 to 3 in) metal barbs, teeth or spikes pointing upward. The spikes are designed to
puncture and flatten tires when a vehicle is driven over them; they may be detachable, with new spikes
fitted to the strip after use.
3. Separation Barrier : A separation barrier or separation wall is a barrier, wall or fence, constructed to
limit the movement of people across a certain line or border, or to separate peoples or cultures. A
separation barrier that runs along an internationally recognized border is known as a border barrier.
9. 4. Barbed Wire: Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, occasionally corrupted as bobbed wire or bob wire, is a
type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strands. It is
used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property. It is also a major
feature of the fortifications in trench warfare (as a wire obstacle).
5. Electric Fence: An electric fence is a barrier that uses electric shocks to deter animals and people from
crossing a boundary. The voltage of the shock may have effects ranging from discomfort to death. Most electric
fences are used today for agricultural fencing and other forms of animal control, although they are also used to
protect high-security areas such as military installations or prisons, where potentially lethal voltages may be
6. Access control system operation: When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential's
information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor. The control panel compares the
credential's number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log
to a database. When access is denied based on the access control list, the door remains locked. If there is a
match between the credential and the access control list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn
unlocks the door. The control panel also ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm. Often the reader
provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an access denied and a flashing green LED for an access
7. Airport security: Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect
passengers, staff, aircraft, and airport property from accidental/malicious harm, crime, terrorism, and other
threats. Aviation security is a combination of human and material resources to safeguard civil aviation against
unlawful interference. Unlawful interference could be acts of terrorism, sabotage, threat to life and property,
communication of false threat, bombing, etc.
10. 8. Safe Deposit Locker: A safe deposit box, also known as a safe deposit locker (SDL) and safety deposit box, is an
individually secured container, usually held within a larger safe or bank vault. Safe deposit boxes are generally located
in banks, post offices or other institutions such as private safe deposit vault companies. Safe deposit boxes are used
to store valuable possessions, such as gemstones, precious metals, currency, marketable securities, luxury goods,
important documents (e.g. wills, property deeds, or birth certificates), or computer data, which need protection
from theft, fire, flood, tampering, or other perils. Hotels, resorts, and cruise ships sometimes also offer safe deposit
boxes or small safes to their patrons, for temporary use during their stay. These facilities may be located behind
the reception desk, or securely anchored within private guest rooms for privacy.
9. Security Alarm: A security alarm is a system designed to detect intrusion – unauthorized entry – into a building or
other area such as a home or school. Security alarms are used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military
properties for protection against burglary (theft) or property damage, as well as personal protection against
intruders. Security alarms in residential areas show a correlation with decreased theft. Car alarms likewise help
protect vehicles and their contents. Prisons also use security systems for control of inmates.
10. Closed-Circuit Television: Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video
cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in
that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point-to-point (P2P), point-to-multipoint (P2MP),
or mesh wired or wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to
those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, stores, and other areas where security is
needed. Though video telephony is seldom called "CCTV" one exception is the use of video in distance education,
where it is an important tool.
11. Internet Protocol Camera: An Internet Protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera that
receives control data and sends image data via an IP network. They are commonly used for surveillance but unlike
analog closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, they require no local recording device, only a local area network.
Most IP cameras are webcams, but the term IP camera or net cam usually applies only to those that can be directly
accessed over a network connection, usually used for surveillance.
11. 12. Security Lighting: In the field of physical security, security lighting is lighting that intended to deter or detect
intrusions or other criminal activity on a piece of real property. It can also be used to increase a feeling of safety.
Lighting is integral to crime prevention through environmental design.
13. Thermal Imaging: Infrared thermograph (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples
of infrared imaging science. Thermos graphic cameras usually detect radiation in the long-infrared range of
the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm) and produce images of that radiation,
called thermos grams. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero
according to the black body radiation law, thermograph makes it possible to see one's environment with or
without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore,
thermograph allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm
objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm-blooded animals become easily visible
against the environment, day or night. As a result, thermograph is particularly useful to the military and other users
of surveillance cameras.
14. Night-Vision Device : A night-vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD)
and night-vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light
approaching total darkness. The image may be a conversion to visible light of both visible light and near-infrared,
while by convention detection of thermal infrared is denoted thermal imaging. The image produced is
typically monochrome, e.g. shades of green. NVDs are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies,
but are available to civilian users.
15. Metal Detector: A metal detector is an electronic instrument that detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal
detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground. They
often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the
sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an
indicator. Usually the device gives some indication of distance; the closer the metal is, the higher the tone in the
earphone or the higher the needle goes. Another common type are stationary "walk through" metal detectors used
for security screening at access points in prisons, courthouses, and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a
person's body. The main types of metal detectors are beat-frequency oscillation, very low frequency, pulse induction
12. 16.Archway:An archway is the passage ("way") under an arch.
17. X-Ray Scanner: A full-body scanner is a device that detects objects on or inside a person's body for
security screening purposes, without physically removing clothes or making physical contact. Depending on
the technology used, the operator may see an alternate-wavelength image of the person's naked body,
merely a cartoon-like representation of the person with an indicator showing where any suspicious items
were detected or full X-ray image of the person. For privacy and security reasons, the display is generally
not visible to other passengers, and in some cases is located in a separate room where the operator cannot
see the face of the person being screened.
18. Biometric Access Control: Biometrics is the analysis of biological data using technology. Typically, this
data relates to specific physical traits that an individual might have. So, biometric access control is the use
of this biological data to either grant or deny access to a building or area of a building.
19. A smart card: A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC) is a physical electronic
authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card-sized card
with an embedded integrated circuit (IC) chip. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to
electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, and some are both. Smart cards can
provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Applications
include identification, financial, mobile phones (SIM), public transit, computer security, schools, and
healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on (SSO) within
organizations. Numerous nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations.
20. Proximity Card : A proximity card or proxy card is a contactless smart card which can be read without
inserting it into a reader device, as required by earlier magnetic stripe cards such as credit cards and
contact type smart cards. The proximity cards are part of the contactless card technologies. Held near an
electronic reader for a moment they enable the identification of an encoded number. The reader usually
produces a beep or other sound to indicate the card has been read.
A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target. Hazards can be both natural
and human induced. Sometimes natural hazards such as floods and drought can be caused by human activity.
Floods can be caused by bad drainage facilities and droughts can be caused by over-irrigation or groundwater
pollution. The terms "hazard" and "risk" are often used interchangeably however, in terms of risk assessment, they
are two very distinct terms. A hazard is any agent that can cause harm or damage to humans, property, or the
environment. Risk is defined as the probability that exposure to a hazard will lead to a negative consequence, or
more simply, a hazard poses no risk if there is no exposure to that hazard.
Hazards can be dormant or potential, with only a theoretical probability of harm. An event that is caused by
interaction with a hazard is called an incident. The likely severity of the undesirable consequences of an incident
associated with a hazard, combined with the probability of this occurring, constitute the associated risk. If there is
no possibility of a hazard contributing towards an incident, there is no several ways. One of these ways is by
specifying the origin of the hazard. One key concept in identifying a hazard is the presence of stored energy that,
when released, can cause damage. Stored energy can occur in many forms: chemical, mechanical, thermal,
radioactive, electrical, etc. Another class of hazard does not involve release of stored energy; rather it involves the
presence of hazardous situations. Examples include confined or limited egress spaces, oxygen-depleted
atmospheres, awkward positions, repetitive motions, low-hanging or protruding objects, etc. Hazards may also be
classified as natural, anthropogenic, or technological. They may also be classified as health or safety hazards, by
the populations that may be affected, and the severity of the associated risk. In most cases a hazard may affect a
range of targets, and have little or no effect on others.
14. Classification of Hazards
Hazards can be classified as different types in several ways. One
of these ways is by specifying the origin of the hazard. One key
concept in identifying a hazard is the presence of stored energy
that, when released, can cause damage. Stored energy can occur
in many forms: chemical, mechanical, thermal, radioactive,
electrical, etc. Another class of hazard does not involve release of
stored energy; rather it involves the presence of hazardous
situations. Examples include confined or limited egress spaces,
oxygen-depleted atmospheres, awkward positions, repetitive
motions, low-hanging or protruding objects, etc.
15. Based on energy source
Biological hazard-Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, originate in biological processes of living organisms,
and refer to agents that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, the security of property, or the health of the
Chemical hazard-A chemical can be considered a hazard if by virtue of its intrinsic properties it can cause harm or
danger to humans, property, or the environment.
Ergonomic hazard- Ergonomic hazards are physical conditions that may pose risk of injury to the musculoskeletal
system, such as the muscles or ligaments of the lower back, tendons or nerves of the hands/wrists, or bones
surrounding the knees. Ergonomic hazards include things such as awkward or extreme postures, whole-body or
hand/arm vibration, poorly designed tools, equipment, or workstations, repetitive motion, and poor lighting.
Mechanical hazard- A mechanical hazard is any hazard involving a machine or industrial process. Motor vehicles,
aircraft, and air bags pose mechanical hazards. Compressed gases or liquids can also be considered a mechanical
Physical hazard- A physical hazard is a naturally occurring process that has the potential to create loss or damage.
Physical hazards include earthquakes, floods, fires, and tornadoes. Physical hazards often have both human and
Psychosocial hazard- Psychological or psychosocial hazards are hazards that affect the psychological well-being of
people, including their ability to participate in a work environment among other people. Psychosocial hazards are
related to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as the economic and social contexts of work and
are associated with psychiatric, psychological and/or physical injury or illness.
16. Based on origin
Natural hazards- Natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, volcanoes and tsunami have threatened
people, society, the natural environment, and the built environment, particularly more vulnerable people,
throughout history, and in some cases, on a day-to-day basis. According to the Red Cross, each year
130,000 people are killed, 90,000 are injured and 140 million are affected by unique events known as
Anthropogenic hazards- Hazards due to human behavior and activity. The social, natural and built
environment are not only at risk from geophysical hazards, but also from technological hazards including
industrial explosions, release of chemical hazards and major accident hazards (MAHs).
Technological hazards- Hazards due to technology, and therefore a sub-class of anthropogenic hazards.
Sociological hazards- Hazards due to sociological causes, also a sub-class of anthropogenic hazards.
Sociological hazards include crime, terrorist threats and war.
Environmental hazards-Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the
environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed
subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste,
industrial and home chemicals.
17. Based on effects
Health hazards- Hazards affecting the health of exposed persons, usually
having an acute or chronic illness as the consequence. Fatality would not
normally be an immediate consequence. Health hazards may cause
measurable changes in the body which are generally indicated by the
development of signs and symptoms in the exposed persons, or non-
measurable, subjective symptoms.
Safety hazards- Hazards affecting the safety of individuals, usually having
an injury or immediate fatality as the consequence of an incident.
Economic hazards- Hazards affecting property, wealth and the economy.
Environmental hazards-Hazards affecting the environment, particularly
the natural environment and ecosystems.
18. Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other
garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The
hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat,
chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for
job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and
other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of
clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and
others.PPE suits can be similar in appearance to a clean room suit.
The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards
when engineering controls and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce
these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed when there are hazards present. PPE has the
serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at the source and may result in
employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails.
19. PPE may include
Ear muffs and ear plugs
Eye and face protection such as goggles
Safety helmets and sun hats
Gloves and safety boots
Clothing, such as aprons, uniforms, vests, life jackets
20. Ear Protection
Earmuffs are used to protect the ears from too much noise in the workplace.
The designed is to fully cover the ears.
Earplugs are used to protect the ears from too much noise in the workplace.The designed is to fully cover the ears.
Eye and Face Protection
Face shield is best for general protection of the face. Commonly worn under a welding helmet.
Safety Goggles are used to protect the eyes from dust and particles.
Respirators filter dust and other particles from the air.
Gloves are the most common type of PPE used. It can protect the hands from heat, spatter, dirt or radiations.
Safety shoes are made of leather designed purposively to protect the toe from falling objects.
Leather apron is made of chrome leather and provides a welder with complete protection from sparks and hot metal from his chest
to mid calf.
Protective clothing and ensembles
This form of PPE is all-encompassing and refers to the various suits and uniforms worn to protect the user from harm. Lab coats worn
by scientists and ballistic vests worn by law enforcement officials, who are worn on a regular basis, would fall into this category. Entire sets
of PPE, worn together in a combined suit, are also in this category.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process
of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Fire is
hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen,
O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and
water releases energy (418 kJ per 32 g of O2); the bond energies of
the fuel play only a minor role here. At a certain point in the combustion
reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the
visible portion of the fire. Flames consist primarily of carbon dioxide, water
vapor, oxygen and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to
produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities
outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different.
22. Classes of fire
Class A - fires involving solid materials such as wood, paper or textiles.
Class B - fires involving flammable liquids such as petrol, diesel or oils.
Class C - fires involving gases.
Class D - fires involving metals.
Class E - fires involving live electrical apparatus. (Technically ‘Class E’ doesn’t exists
however this is used for convenience here)
Class F - fires involving cooking oils such as in deep-fat fryers.
23. Types of Fires
Not all fires are the same. Per NFPA 10, burning may be
classified into one or more of the following fire classes
and your fire protection specialist will select the right
fire extinguisher size and agent for the hazard.
o Class A
o Class B
o Class C
o Class D
o Class K
24. Class A
Class A fires are
fires in ordinary
as wood, paper,
cloth, rubber, and
25. Class B
Class B fires are fires in flammable
liquids such as gasoline, petroleum
greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints,
solvents, alcohols. Class B fires also
include flammable gases such
as propane and butane. Class B
fires do not include fires involving
cooking oils and grease.
26. Class C
Class C fires are fires
involving energized electrical
equipment such as computers,
servers, motors, transformers, and
appliances. Remove the power
and the Class C fire becomes one
of the other classes of fire.
27. Class D
Class D fires are fires
in combustible metals such
as magnesium, titanium,
zirconium, sodium, lithium,
28. Class K
Class K fires are fires
in cooking oils and
as animal and vegetable fats.
29. Types of Fire Extinguishers
Water and Foam
Cartridge Operated Dry Chemical
30. Water and Foam
Water and Foam fire
extinguishers extinguish the fire
by taking away the heat element
of the fire triangle. Foam agents
the oxygen element from the
Water extinguishers are for Class
A fires only - they should not be
used on Class B or C fires. The
discharge stream could spread
the flammable liquid in a Class B
fire or could create a shock
hazard on a Class C fire.
31. Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers
extinguish fire by taking away
the oxygen element of the fire
triangle and also be removing
the heat with a very cold
Carbon dioxide can be used on
Class B & C fires. They are usually
ineffective on Class A fires.
32. Dry Chemical
Dry Chemical fire extinguishers extinguish the
fire primarily by interrupting the chemical
reaction of the fire triangle.
Today's most widely used type of fire
extinguisher is the multipurpose dry chemical
that is effective on Class A, B, and C fires. This
agent also works by creating a barrier between
the oxygen element and the fuel element on
Class A fires.
Ordinary dry chemical is for Class B & C fires
only. It is important to use the correct
extinguisher for the type of fuel! Using the
incorrect agent can allow the fire to re-ignite
after apparently being extinguished successfully.
33. Wet Chemical
Wet Chemical is a new agent that
extinguishes the fire by removing the
heat of the fire triangle and prevents re-
ignition by creating a barrier between
the oxygen and fuel elements.
Wet chemical of Class K extinguishers
were developed for modern, high
efficiency deep fat fryers in commercial
cooking operations. Some may also be
used on Class A fires in commercial
34. Clean Agent
Halogenated or Clean Agent extinguishers
include the halon agents as well as the newer
and less ozone depleting halocarbon agents.
They extinguish the fire by interrupting
the chemical reaction and/or removing
heat from the fire triangle.
Clean agent extinguishers are effective on
Class A, B and C fires. Smaller sized handheld
extinguishers are not large enough to obtain a
1A rating and may carry only a Class B and C
35. Dry Powder
Dry Powder extinguishers are
similar to dry chemical except
that they extinguish the fire by
separating the fuel from
the oxygen element or by
removing the heat element of the
However, dry powder
extinguishers are for Class D or
combustible metal fires, only.
They are ineffective on all other
classes of fires.
36. Water Mist
Water Mist extinguishers are a
recent development that
extinguishes the fire by taking away
the heat element of the fire
triangle. They are an alternative to
the clean agent extinguishers where
contamination is a concern.
Water mist extinguishers are
primarily for Class A fires, although
they are safe for use on Class C
fires as well.
37. Cartridge Operated Dry Chemical
Cartridge Operated Dry Chemical fire extinguishers
extinguish the fire primarily by interrupting
the chemical reaction of the fire triangle.
Like the stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers,
the multipurpose dry chemical is effective on Class A,
B, and C fires. This agent also works by creating a
barrier between the oxygen element and the fuel
element on Class A fires.
Ordinary dry chemical is for Class B & C fires only. It
is important to use the correct extinguisher for the
type of fuel! Using the incorrect agent can allow the
fire to re-ignite after apparently being extinguished
38. Basic Fire FightingTips
Before deciding to fight a fire, be certain that:
The fire is small and not spreading.
A fire can double in size within two or three minutes.
You have the proper fire extinguisher for what is burning.
The fire won’t block your exit if you can’t control it.
A good way to ensure this is to keep the exit at your back.
You know your fire extinguisher works. Inspect extinguishers once a month
for dents, leaks or other signs of damage.
Assure the pressure is at the recommended level.
39. PASS Method
1.Pull- the Pin at the top of the extinguisher. The pin releases a locking
mechanism and will allow you to discharge the extinguisher.
2. Aim- at the base of the fire, not the flames. This is important – in order
to put out the fire, you must extinguish the fuel.
3. Squeeze- the lever slowly. This will release the extinguishing agent in the
extinguisher. If the handle is released, the discharge will stop.
4. Sweep from side to side- Using a sweeping motion, move the fire
extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely out. Operate the
extinguisher from a safe distance, several feet away, and then move
towards the fire once it starts to diminish. Be sure to read the instructions
on your fire extinguisher – different fire extinguishers recommend
operating them from different distances.
40. Basic Fire Fighting 101
How to Fight a Fire Safely:
Always stand with an exit at your back.
Stand several feet away from the fire, moving closer once the
fire starts to diminish.
Use a sweeping motion and aim at the base of the fire.
If possible, use a “buddy system” to have someone back you up
or call for help if something goes wrong.
Be sure to watch the area for a while to ensure it doesn’t re-
41. Never Fight A Fire If:
The fire is spreading rapidly. Only use a fire extinguisher when the fire is in its early stages.
If the fire is already spreading quickly, evacuate and call the fire department.
You don’t know what is burning. Unless you know what is burning, you won’t know what type of fire
extinguisher to use.
Even if you have an ABC extinguisher, there could be something that will explode or produce highly
You don’t have the proper fire extinguisher. The wrong type of extinguisher can be dangerous or life-
There is too much smoke or you are at risk of inhaling smoke. Seven out of ten fire-related deaths occur
from breathing poisonous gases produced by the fire.
Any sort of fire will produce some amount of carbon monoxide, the most deadly gas produced by a fire.
Materials such as wool, silk, nylon and some plastics can produce other highly toxic gases such as carbon
dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, or hydrogen chloride. Beware – all of these can be fatal.
Smoke inhalation or exposure to fire itself can be life threatening so get educated about the basics in
CPR and burn treatment.
42. Safety equipment Related to Fire Fighting
Fire Extinguisher: A fire extinguisher is a portable device that discharges a
jet of water, foam, other material to extinguish a fire.
Smoke alarms / Detector: A fire protection device that automatically
detects and gives a warning of the presence of smoke.
Fire sprinkler: A fire sprinkler is the component of a fire sprinkler system
that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected.
Carbon monoxide alarm: Be aware of the hazards of Carbon Monoxide
(CO), known as the "invisible killer."
Fire /Flame Detector: A fire protection device that automatically detects
and gives a warning of the presence of fire.
Fire hydrant: A fire hydrant is a connection point by which firefighters can
tap into a water supply.