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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Multicellular Primary Producers
  2. 2. Seaweeds Seaweeds!!! Come in all kinds of interesting Shapes and sizes! • some are delicious! • some are poisonous • Some have weird names • Come in all sorts of colors
  3. 3. Seaweed Structure • Thallus-body • Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves • Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate • Stipe-stem-likestructure
  4. 4. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) • Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis • Most are freshwater • Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive
  5. 5. Green algae structure • Most unicellular • Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing – nucleus divides but cell never divides
  6. 6. Reproduction of Algae • Sexual • Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella • spores released from sporophyte- 4 flagella
  7. 7. Representative species • Halimeda • Caluerpa-invasive
  8. 8. CFU: Green Algae • Are green algae unicellular or multicellular • Autotrophic or heterotrophic • What is an important organelle in photosynthesis • How does green algae grow in length? – Same cell, division of nucleus • What is the function of the Stipe?
  9. 9. Red Algae
  10. 10. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae) • Primarily marine • Most diverse among seaweeds • Cholorphylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins • Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  11. 11. Structure • Multicellular and less than 1 meter long • Wide variety of shapes and organization among species
  12. 12. Reproduction • Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features……….. 1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes 2. 3 multicellular stages 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae
  13. 13. Ecological Roles • Porphhra- used as food in oriental dishes • Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans • Some grow on other plants or animals • Help form base of coral reef • Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings • Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations
  14. 14. CFU: Red Algae • Heterotrophic or Autotrophic? • Multicellular or unicellular • What are the two unique stages? • What organisms feed on red algae?
  15. 15. Brown Algae
  16. 16. Phaeophyta (brown algae) • Mostly marine • Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red • Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters) • Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin • Mostly in high latitudes • Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help bouy plant toward light • Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  17. 17. reproduction • Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta) • Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  18. 18. Ecological role • Habitats for a variety of marine life • Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries • Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  19. 19. • Excessive nutrients – Runoff from fertilizer Human Impacts • Causes huge algae blooms! – When algae dies off decomposers consume majority of the oxygen in the environment – Eutrophication • Kills off fish and marine life
  20. 20. CFU: Algae • What macromolecule allows algae to live in marine environments without swelling? • What causes algae blooms? • What is this process called? • What are the harmful effects of algae blooms?
  21. 21. Sea grasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves
  22. 22. Salt Marsh Plants and Sea Grasses • Salt marshes are in Estuaries – The kidneys of the coasts • Nursery for small fish – 75% of commercial fish are hatched in estuaries • Estuaries are severly affected by humans – Coastal development – Pollution – Eutrophication • Protect us from storms
  23. 23. Phylum Anthophyta • Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves • Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments • Help slow down erosion • Have to deal with extreme changes in salinty and oxygen Mixing of salt and fresh water Eutrophication
  24. 24. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants) • Related to lilies • Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen • Literally look like grass • Food for manatees and sea turtles • Can live up to 100 meters below sea level
  25. 25. Sea Grasses in Florida • 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium - manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  26. 26. Salt Marsh Plants • Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action • Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance • Species native to Jacksonville – SpartinaAlternaflora – BatisMaritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicorniavirginica
  27. 27. Mangroves • Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West • 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle • Distinctive by their root system and pods
  28. 28. Mangroves: Highly adaptive • Use active transport to regulate water levels in their roots • Live in anaerobic mud – Why they stand above the water • Protect coral reefs from eutrophication – Filter, kidney
  29. 29. Help Protect Coastal Development 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
  30. 30. Mangrove reproduction • Flowers pollinated by wind or bees • Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed) • Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  31. 31. Red Mangrove Black Mangrove Red, White, and Black mangrove White Mangrove leaves

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