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Curriculum models

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Tyler model
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Curriculum models

  2. 2. What are models  Models are a set of beliefs about curriculum and curriculum work including underlying assumptions  A curriculum development model is a perfect example or copy to be followed in developing the curriculum.  Other terms used to describe models are; approach, image, orientation, perspective or position
  3. 3.  There are many approaches to curriculum development.  They differ by the various perspectives curriculum developers construct(theory/idea) regarding the key curricula elements--curriculum, teachers, students and the context.
  4. 4.  Some curriculum developers focus on students and their learning goals  Others focus on the effect of the teacher’s action upon learning.  While others focus on the context of learning and the degree to which individuals are viewed.
  5. 5. Most common about approaches  Procedural - What steps should one follow?  Descriptive - What do curriculum planners actually do?  Conceptual - What are the elements of curriculum planning and how do they relate to one another?
  6. 6. Purpose of models  Are designed to provide a basis for decisions regarding the selection, structuring and sequencing of the educational experiences  They represent a reasonable guide for coherent thinking and acting in curriculum
  7. 7. Common model types  The most common models followed are; 1)Technical-Scientific Approach 2)Nontechnical-Scientific Approach (Holistic)
  8. 8. 1) Technical-Scientific Approach  curriculum is objective, universal, and logical.  Reality can be defined and represented in symbolic form  aims of education can be made known and be addressed in a linear fashion.  Subject matter is the focus 2) Nontechnical Approach (Holistic)  stresses subjectivity, personal, aesthetic and transactional.  They stress the learner not the content through activity oriented approaches to teaching and learning.  They stress that not all ends of education can be known nor need to be known in all cases.  The learner is the focus
  9. 9. •1 Technical- Tyler- Four Basic Principles, Taba-Grass-roots Rationale, Hunkins- Decision-making •2 Nontechnical- Gratthorn- Naturalistic Decker Walker- Deliberation
  10. 10. The Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles  There are four major stages in the process of curriculum development.  1. Goals and objectives,  2. Content ,  3. Learning experiences and  4. Evaluation  These four stages are derived from the four questions raised by Ralph Tyler in 1949, one of the pioneers of curriculum engineering and techniques.
  11. 11. The Tyler Model In his book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (Tyler 1949), Tyler suggested four fundamental questions.  1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?  2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these questions?
  12. 12.  3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?  4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? These questions may be formulated into a simple “four” Step process by which a curriculum is planned and developed.
  13. 13.  He suggests that curriculum planners should gather data from three sources- 1. Subject matter 2. Learner 3. Society
  14. 14. The learner  The child’s needs and interests must be related to psychology of the child- appropriate objectives must coincide with appropriate age levels of the learner  The objectives must be developed from identified needs, behavoural changes and interests of learners  Studies of learners must be conducted to identify the above issues
  15. 15. The society  Challenges and needs of society can guide the development of purposes which provide the knowledge, skills and attitudes for the learner  An analysis of philosophy which is part of the culture of the nation will provide the objectives of the curriculum e.g Kagisano in Botswana. “Ujamaa socialism” in Tanzania, etc.
  16. 16. Subject matter  The subject specialists are responsible for providing purposes which are specialised  They don’t seek to produce specialist but with the knowledge of their subject areas they provide relevant content for the learners
  17. 17. Philosophical and psychological screens Step 1: identification of objectives  Screening is done to remove unimportant and contradictory factors  The philosophy should define what is expected to be a good life. Eg values which foster democratic environment  Question used to screen these values may be; -The acceptance of every human being regardless of their status or sex - An opportunity for everyone’s participation in activities of society
  18. 18. Psychology as a screen  The age of the child and the way they behave will determine the appropriate purposes for each age group.  Western theories of learning are used to determine the purposes in African curriculum development.
  19. 19. STEP 2: SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES  There should be learning experiences- the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment  These influence the attainment of goals of education.  They influence leaners to; - Develop positive attitudes towards self and others - Acquire knowledge useful in problem solving - Develop skills useful for oneself and the society
  20. 20. STEP 3. ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES - be made systematic such that ideas, concepts, values and skills are tied together and link as content within subjects - Can be shown through the timetable - Concepts can be organised in a particular subject, i.e facts, principles and skills etc. - Showing continuity, integration and sequence
  21. 21. STEP 4. EVALUATION  Check effectiveness of the program, whether the purposes have been attained  Whether learning experiences produced intended results.
  22. 22. Linear model  Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps are followed in a sequence or a straight line.  This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model
  23. 23. Hilda Taba's Linear Model 1. Diagnosis of needs-identifying needs of student  The teacher (curriculum designer) starts the process by identifying the needs of the students for whom the curriculum is to be planned
  24. 24. 2. Formulation of objectives- Specifying objectives to be accomplished  After the teacher has identified the needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished.
  25. 25. 3. Selection of content  Determining the content, its validity and significance  The objectives selected or created suggest the subject matter or content of the curriculum.  Not only should objectives and content match but also the validity and significance of the content chosen needs to be determined.
  26. 26. 4. Organization of content Sequencing content considering maturity of learners, their achievement and interests  A teacher can not just select content, but must organize it in some type of sequence, taking into consideration the maturity of the learners, their academic achievement, and their interests.
  27. 27. 5.Selection of learning experiences  Selection of instructional methods that involve students with the content  Content must be presented to pupils and pupils must engage the content. At this point, the teacher select instructional methods that will involve students with the content.
  28. 28. 6.Organization of learning activities  Consider the students when choosing activities  Just as content must be sequenced and organized, so must the learning activities. Often the sequence of the learning activities is determined by the content. But the teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he or she will be teaching.
  29. 29. 7.Evaluation and means of evaluation  Determining which objectives have been accomplished  The curriculum planner must determine just what objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation procedures need to be considered by the students and teachers.
  30. 30. Grass-roots approach  In Taba’s book, Curriculum development: Theory and Practice (1962), she argued that there was a definite order to creating the curriculum.  Where Taba differed from Tyler was that she believed that those who teach the curriculum, the teachers, should participate in developing it.  She advocated what has been called the grass-roots approach, a model whose steps or stages are similar to Tyler’s.
  31. 31.  Although Tyler did not advocate that his model only be employed by persons in the central office, educators during the early days of curriculum making thought that the central authorities really had the knowledge thereby creating “top down” curricula.  Taba believed that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students.  More specifically, she advocated that teachers take an inductive approach to curriculum development —starting with specifics and building to a general design—as opposed to the more traditional deductive approach—starting with the general design and working toward the specifics
  32. 32.  The Wheeler Model  Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims.  One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e.g. like a cycle
  33. 33.  The Wheeler Model While Tyler’s model suggested that evaluation serves purely to ascertain the extent to which the objectives stated had been achieved, critics argued that evaluation need not be a terminal stage, but should take place at every stage. For this Wheeler has converted Tyler’s original ideas into cyclic form.
  34. 34. 2. Selection of learning experiences 3. Selection of content 4. Organization and integration of leaning experiences 5. Evaluation 1. Aims, Goals and Objectives
  35. 35. The Hunkins’s Decision making Model  Curriculum conceptualisation -various concepts of the curriculum are identified and examined- considering social and cultural views. -conversing with various players to interprete the discourses generated in the field  Diagnosis -translating needs into causes( what causes some needs) -generating goals and objectives from the needs-these serve as guidelines or as statements of expected learning
  36. 36. • Content selection -The what of the curriculum, foundation of the curriculum comprising of facts, concepts, principles, theories and generalizations - Refers to cognitive porcesses, procedures students learn to use to applytheir knowledge and skills and to communicate to others • Experience selection -deals with instruction- how content should be delivered -what teaching methods to be employed, what activities to make learning effective and enjoyable
  37. 37. • Implementation -1. initial piloting -2. final diffusion of the tested program • Evaluation - So as to decide to continue, modify or discontinue the program • Maintenance -educating new staff, ensuring supply of materials, supervisors assisting teachers
  38. 38. Stage 1 Philosophical Questions (cultural variables) e.g. aims of education worthwhile knowledge Stage 2 (Cultural variables) e.g. the kind of society we have/we want Sociology Questions Stage 3 Selection from Culture Stage 4 Psychological Questions and theories e.g. of learning, instruction, development etc. Stage 5 Curriculum Organized in stages, sequences
  39. 39.  Identify the main concepts in each of these models.  Itemize the similarities and differences among them.  Can you think of other models of curriculum development? Refer to the work of Tyler and Taba  What are the major points to consider when selecting objectives in curriculum development? Explain them in relation to your country schools’ curriculum development
  40. 40. Walker’s Deliberative Approach  What is Deliberation?  Perreira(1984) emphasizes the purpose of deliberation as;  “ essentially a systematic method for formulating and intertaining an adequate variety of alternatives, alternative perceptions, alternative problems and alternative solutions”(p. 5)
  41. 41. Walker’s Deliberative Approach  He studied what people actually do when they study the curriculum  Used term “naturalistic” because he described how curriculum was actually developed rather than how it should be developed
  42. 42. Curriculum Planning has Three Parts  Platform – approach the task with our ideas, convictions, and beliefs. Everyone gets an opportunity to talk, discuss, and even argue  The preliminary step is to get everyone to join in , to talk, discuss and argue about what the platform should be.  The platform provides a basis for the future discussions
  43. 43. Deliberation  Deliberation – Move away from individual beliefs to assessing possible points of action- Feelings can run high and the process can seem chaotic  This is the practical stage- they identify possible problems about the situation in which the curriculum is to be implemented and how it could mitigate problems
  44. 44. Deliberation cont…  The process includes;  Identifying relevant facts, generating alternative courses of action in light of precedents  Considering the costs and consequences of all alternatives
  45. 45.  Choosing the most defensible alternatives  The emphasis is to clear away clashes between alternatives
  46. 46. Design  Design – Group achieves consensus so that a course of action is accepted  During this phase curriculum development contains both implicit and explicit considerations  Decisions may still be influenced bypersonal preferences  The design phase is the creation of the curriculum, which includes; specific subjects, instructions,, teaching materials the group believes advisable
  47. 47. Walker’s Model
  48. 48. CONCLUSION  Walker’s approch is of considerable value to teachers  - The assertions of personal beliefs  -The use of deliberation in identifying problematic situations and weighing alternative solutions  The interplay of explicit and implicit in designing a curriculum  All the above could help in identifying pitfalls and frustrations in curriculum development