SUBMETED TO: - MR IQBAL SAB
PREPARED ABD DESIGN BY:-
NAME REGISTRATION #
1. KHURRAM SHAHZAD BUTT 14P2-110010
PLANNING, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION OF
POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
1. Concepts of GIS
Geographic information systems have emerged as an essential tool for land use
planning, utilities management, ecosystems modeling, landscape assessment
and planning, transportation and infrastructure planning, market analysis, visual
impact analysis, facilities management, tax assessment, real estate analysis and
many other applications
GIS capacity to store, retrieve, analyze, model and map large areas with huge
volumes of spatial data has led to an extraordinary proliferation of applications.
Geographic information systems are now used for
Mapmaking and geographic analysis are not new, but a GIS performs these tasks
better and faster than the old manual methods. Before GIS technology, only a
few people had the necessary skills to use geographic information.
Today, GIS is a multibillion-dollar industry employing hundreds of thousands of
people worldwide. GIS is taught in schools, colleges, and universities throughout
the world. Professionals in every field are increasingly aware of the advantages
of thinking and working geographically
1.1.What is GIS?
A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool that is used
to store and manipulate the geographic information. It also involves the
mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth.
GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and
statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis.
These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it
valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining
events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies.
Primary concern of geographic information system is the management,
analysis, and visualization / mapping of spatial data. An oftenly quoted
definition of GIS in literature has came from Burrough (1986). He stated that
"GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will,
transform and displaying spatial data from the real world", (Burrough , 1986).
Aronoff (1989) gives a general description of GIS as “any manual or
computer-based set of procedures used to store and manipulate
¯ More specifically, Aronoff (1989) defines GIS as "a computer-based
system that provides four sets of capabilities to handle georeferenced
i) data input
ii) data management (data storage and retrieval)
iii) manipulation and analysis
iv) data output.”
Data types used in GIS are; geographical and attribute data in association
with each other. Generally, the geographical data represented as points,
lines or polygons and attributes are linked to it. The data types being handled
easily by using convention database management systems (DBMS).
According to Aronoff "Geographic information systems are computer-based
systems that are used to store and manipulate geographic
information"(Aronoff , 1995).
GIS technology has provided an exciting potential for geographic information
to be used more systematically and by a greater diversity of disciplines than
ever before. The major challenges we face in the world today;
overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, natural disasters, has a critical
geographic dimension. Whether selecting a new site for business, finding the
best soil for growing a particular crop, or figuring out the best route for an
emergency vehicle, local problems also have a geographical component.
GIS will give you the power to create maps, integrate information, visualize
scenarios, solve complicated problems, present powerful ideas, and develop
effective solutions like never before. GIS is a tool used by individuals and
organizations, schools, governments, and businesses seeking innovative
ways to solve their problems. Components of GIS
1.2.Components of GIS
A working GIS integrates five key components: hardware, software, data,
people, and methods.
Hardware is the computer on which a GIS operates. Today, GIS software
runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralized computer servers
to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations.
GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and
display geographic information. Key software components are:
Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information -
A database management system (DBMS)
Tools that support geographic query, analysis, and visualization -
A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools
Possibly the most important component of a
GIS is the data. Geographic data and related
tabular data can be collected in-house or
purchased from a commercial data provider. A
GIS will integrate spatial data with other data
resources and can even use a DBMS, used by
most organizations to organize and maintain
their data, to manage spatial data.
GIS technology is of limited value without the people who manage the system
and develop plans for applying it to real-world problems. GIS users range
from technical specialists, who design and maintain the system to those who
use it to help them perform their everyday work.
A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan and business
rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each
Features of the GIS
• A GIS stores information about
• the world as a collection of layers that can be
linked together by geography
DATA STORED IN GIS
A GIS stores a representation of the world in the
form of layers connected by a common
geographical frame of reference. The simple
concept of layers allows a GIS to abstract the
complexity of the real world into a number of
discrete levels of observation each containing
information relevant to a particular group of
features, e.g. buildings, poles, roads, trees, soil types, customer locations
Geometry of Spatial Data
• Location Data
– Vector (Feature) Themes
• Points - Cities, buildings, poles...
• Lines - Rivers, roads, lines…
• Polygons - Service areas, lakes,…
– Raster Themes
• Images - Scanned map, air photo, satellite
• Attribute Data
– Stored in tables.
– New tables can be created and data added.
Vector (Feature) Data
Points, Lines and Areas represent entities
– Points - City, Tree
– Lines - River, Road
– Areas - Forest, Lake
– Network Analysis (shortest path)
SCOPE OF WORK
We are working in Existent electricity network it’s developed back 2006 by the AJKED and its
consultant. Now this is the 2010 the network enhances day by day but not updated. In this project, firstly
we are working, how would update and technical analysis the existent power distribution network.
Updating of Digital Database & Geographical Mapping of Power
Distribution Feeder including:
GIS in Management of Electricity Distribution Network: A case
study of 11KV City- 4 Feeder 132KV Muzaffarabad Grid AK .
The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Electricity Distribution Facilities. With
inherent limitations faced by traditional system of keeping and managing information, an
automated system is developed for Azad Jammu & Kashmir Electricity Department. The
administrativestreet and electricity distribution network maps were collected from relevant
agencies. Electricity distribution facilities spatial database was designed and created using
relational database model approach. The paper maps were converted to digital form, through
scanning. The raster images were sent to ArcGIS info environment for geo-referencing and
on-screen victimization. The drawings were edited and exported to ArcGIS 9.3 environment.
The graphics were linked with the created spatial database. The developed system was put to
the test by carrying out a number of GIS operation and analysis. Results obtained were
displayed in graphics and tables. It was ascertained from the results that GIS is a competent
and effective tool for managing electricity distribution network. In this context, conclusions and
some useful recommendations were proffered.
Generally, electricity could be accepted to mean supply of electric current. This involves
generation, transmission and distribution of the electric current to consumers. Electricity is an
aspect of the utility sector that is very essential to the smooth and meaningful development of
a society. It supports the economy and promotes the well-being of individuals. Efficient
functioning of this utility is of paramount importance for the sustenance of its growth and
consequential realization of its planning and managerial objectives.
the AJKED started GIS System in 2001 and completed it in 2006 in all AJK electrical network,
because of some reasons this network would not update after 2010, so that why I want to
used my skills for update this system.
1.1 Problems at Hand
The creation, updating, maintenance and general management of electricity distribution
network in terms of spatial and non-spatial data is a Herculean task. The voluminous nature
of data involved for proper record keeping is indeed cumbersome, and cannot effectively be
handled by traditional system of record keeping. The analogue system means acceptance of
inflexibility resulting from data storage in fixed forms and formats. The system becomes less
useful for many purposes and are rarely updated because of costs implication. The maps are
easily displaced or destroyed because many different people at different locations use them.
This is very difficult to update the entire network so I select an area for that project; all the
layers are available at that particular area like, Transformer, Poles, Conductor and different
consumers, domestic, commercial and industrial.
An alternative approach of maintaining a coherent database in a scientific and efficient
manner by use of advanced information technology is therefore, required. Hence, there will be
improvements in planning, implementation and operation of the electricity sector through
provision of timely, reliable, sufficiently and accurately detailed data which will facilitate its
decision making activities. Uluocha (1998) noted that if the noble objective of mapping for
proper utility design and maintenance is to be satisfactorily achieved, the more sophisticated
computer-based Automated Mapping /Facility Management (AMFM) or a Geographic
Information System (GIS) must be embraced. The potentials and challenges of using the GIS
technique in utility mapping in a developing country as Nigeria, have to some extent been
demonstrated by the work of Adekunle (1995). With the use of GIS, can collect, input, edit,
store, retrieve, query, process, analyze and output large amount of data at desired scales and
projections (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1.0: Electricity Network.
1.2 The Study Area
The study area (Fig. 3.0) is the north of capital AJK Challa . It is situated between
latitudes73.458 N and 73.483N and longitudes 34.408E and 34.403 E. It serves as the
gateway between southeastern and southwestern Muzaffarabad.
The area situates where a high ground underlain by the sandstones of the Bende-Ameke
formation, comes very close to River Niger. It provides a stretch of well-drained, healthy site
in the flood plains of the River Niger. Such favorable site at the meeting point of two
regions east and west of the Muzaffarabad. the area to develop as an important commercial
center, south. The area is heavily populated resulti
ng in high electricity consumption. Fig 2. Shows a transformer station within the study area.
Fig. 2: A AJKED Transformer Station city 4 challa. (GIS can facilitate routine maintenance)
Fig. 3.0: Map of Muzaffarabad and Location of The study area
Data used for this study are:
1. The Administrative / Street Map
2. The Electricity Distribution Network Map
3. Attribute Data collected on the ground
4. Data on the end-users
The administrative/street map was acquired from Land Used Planning, Survey and Urban
Planning, PND. The Electricity Distribution Network map and some of the attribute data were
collected from AJK Electricity Department (AJKED), Muzaffarabad District. Using on-spot
observation and personal interview, some attribute data and data on the end-users were
A number of application software packages were used for data processing. Such packages
include: photo-plus for scanning and AutoCAD map R2 for geo-referencing and on-screen
digitizing. ArcGIS 9.3 was used for GIS overlay operation and analysis of spatial and spatial
2.1 User-Requirement Survey
User-requirement survey was carried out to determine actually what the
end-users would want the system to do for them. From the survey
carried out, the types of analysis to carry out were known. It also guided
in knowing the configuration of the hardware and software systems
required of the work and in the choice of appropriate model and structure
In this project we used GPS and guide maps
2.2 Design of Database
In the design of database, four basic steps were taken. These include: articulation of reality,
translation of reality to conceptual model, translation of conceptual model to logical design
and physical design. Realities were articulated based on geographic data within the study
area with respect to electricity distribution facilities. In this case, reality includes the following
geographic features: Administrative Areas, Roads, Streets, AJKED Transmission, 11kv Lines,
Power Transformer, and Distribution Transformer.
In translation of reality to conceptual model, the articulated realities were represented in a
simplified manner and at the same time satisfied the information required by the users.
Hence, vector data modeling was adopted. The realities were represented and displayed as
points, lines or area (polygon), with their attributes defined by pair of plane coordinates (X, Y).
The objects together with the spatial relationships among them were carefully identified and
Translation of conceptual model to logical design involves representation of the designed data
model to reflect the recording of the data in the computer. The data were structured to
describe logically the organization of data in the database. Relational data structure was
chosen to implement the model because of its flexibility capability and very wide deployment
both within and outside GIS. During physical design, the designed data structure was
represented in a form that is acceptable to the implementation hardware and software. The
tables' names, the attributes, data type, and the width of the data were specified in Data
Declaration as shown in Table 1.0
TABLE 1.0: DATA DECLARATION
TABLE NAME ATTRIBUTES DESCRIPTION
ADMIN. AREA AD.A_id Administrative Area identifier Number 5
Place where the Administrative Area is
ROADS RD_id Road identifier Number 5
RD_name The name of the road String 20
N_Surface The nature of the road’s surface String 15
R_Class The class in which the road belongs String 15
STREETS St_id Street identifier Number 5
St_name The name of the street String 20
N_Surface The nature of the street’s surface String 15
TRANSMISSION NT_id NEPA transmission identifier Number 5
The place where the NEPA
transmission is located.
IIKV LINE IIKV_id IIKV Line identifier. Number 5
IIKV_Cap The capacity of IIKV Line. Number 6
A _ served
The area or section of the town 11kv
Line is serving.
The power transformer feeding the
PT_id Power transformer identifier. Number 5
The number of feeders that depend on
The Capacity of the power
PT_Loc The location of the power transformer. Number 20
DT_id Distribution transformer identifier. Number 5
The location of the distribution
A _ Serv
The area or section of town the
distribution transformer is serving.
The year the distribution transformer
The capacity of the distribution
The number of consumers the d t is
The identifier of the IIKV line the
distribution transformer is serving.
The no. of people the distribution
transformer is serving.
2.3 Creation of Database
The database was created by inputting the relevant spatial and attribute data into the system.
The tables were populated with the attribute data. The spatial data were captured by scanning
the paper maps using A3 scanner with photo-plus. The raster images were geo-referenced
and digitized on-screen in AutoCAD map R2 environment. The images were separated and
digitized under the following layers:
MAP 1 (BASE MAP)
MAP 2 (ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK)
2.4 Quality Assurance and Quality Control
The digitized drawings were edited and subjected to quality assurance test. The edited
drawings shown in Figs. 4.0 and 5.0 were exported to Arc GIS 9.3 environment and linked
with the created database after converting them to shape files. The linkage was possible by
unique identifiers assigned to each of the entities; GIS operation and analysis were carried
Fig. 4.0: The Digitized and Edited Drawings of Administrative/Street Map of Project Area.
Fig. 5.0: The Digitized and Edited Drawings of Electricity Distribution Network
3.0 Data Analysis and Presentation
The following GIS operation and analysis were carried out: Overlay operation, spatial query,
and a spatial query.
3.1 Overlay Operation
The essence of overlay operation is to superimpose two or more data layer that occupies the
same location (Sun et al, 2001). The base map was superimposed with the electricity
distribution network. The result of the overlay operation is shown in fig. 6.0.
Fig.6.0: The map of Area with Electricity Distribution Network.
3.2 Spatial Query
Spatial query was carried out to get all information about a given electricity distribution facility
located in a given area. In this case, the system was queried to search and display all
available information about the existing distribution transformer located within “Otu” area. The
result was displayed as shown in Fig. 7.0.
Fig. 7.0: Distribution Transformer located within “Otu” area with its Attribute Information.
3.3 A spatial Query
This task was carried out in order to know the location(s) of a given facility with a known
attribute. For example, the location(s) of all the distribution transformers with capacity 15mva
along Old Market Road could be known as provided by the system. The result is shown in
Fig. 8.0: Distribution Transformers with Capacity 15mva along Old Market Road.
4.0 Discussion of Results
In Fig. 6.0, the base map (administrative/ Street map) was overlaid with the electricity
distribution network, hence revealing the spatial distributions and locations of electricity
distribution facilities. The facilities on ground such as 11kv line, power transformer,
distribution transformer, transmission station etc, were shown and the extents at which they
occur were also revealed. With this result, AJKED will be able to know the spatial
relationships that exist among their facilities. Such knowledge will help them know the area(s)
or sections(s) of the town that lack their services. It will also guide them in knowing where
they could extend or improve their services and equally areas that need new installation.
In addition to these, the results can equally provide good information for other professionals,
for example Urban Planners, Construction Managers, Civil Engineers etc. The knowledge of
the spatial locations of the distribution facilities will help to avoid or reduce damages done to
these facilities during construction works. To the Town Planners, it will help to plan better.
When damages occur in any of the facilities, GIS will assist in quick location of problem areas
and best approach to solution. Overlay operation can be used during map revision and up-
dating GIS environment and in identification of dangers due to time in a given area.
The result in Fig. 7.0, revealed the attributes of the distribution transformer. The identify
results table displayed, shows descriptive information about the object. The distribution
transformer was installed on 6th October 2006. The transformer depends on CITY- 4 feeder
via 11kv line. The capacity of the transformer is 45mva while 62 households depend on it. In
Fig. 8.0, the selected distribution transformers with capacity 15mva along old market were
displayed in yellow circles. The result indicated that they are three in number. Their
associated records were highlighted in green color on the attribute of AJKED transformer
These results demonstrated some of the capabilities of GIS in handing and managing
electricity distribution spatial data. With GIS, one can manipulate and carry out tasks that are
vital in management of electricity for proper and efficient results. When new facilities are
installed, the GIS database and graphical (map) components can be updated easily to
accommodate the new features. So, map revision and digital mapping become easy in GIS
4.1 More Benefits of the Developed System
In addition to the use of the system in fault management, and network extensions and
optimization, the following benefits can also be obtained:
1. In planning of routine maintenance.
2. In easy handling of customer’s inquiries.
3. In network configuration.
4. In improved revenue management.
5. In right of way and compensation.
6. In provision of back-up system that eliminates the problem of data loss.
7. In easy and speedy retrieval of information.
8. In data update and possible sharing of data among different users simultaneously.
5.0 Conclusions and Recommendation
Spatial and attribute data of electricity distribution network of Onitsha-North Local
Government Area, which are presently acquired, processed, managed, stored and presented
in analogue form, can be digitalized. Digital system provides timely, accurate, and easier way
of acquiring information, which are very vital in taken prompt and accurate decisions
necessary in the economic development of any enterprise. Ayeni et al (2003) noted that
Geospatial Information (GI) is very essential to economic planning and national development.
This is buttressed further by Alamu and Ejiobih (2002), when they concluded that a well
maintained utility information infrastructure gives up-to-date information on what is where, the
state of it, the reaction other actions on it would cause, how it can be harnessed for optimum
use of the people and economy.
In conclusion therefore, the following recommendations are preferred: -
1. There is need for greater awareness to be created at all levels of government. Taking
off from national level through the municipal, down to individual managers, of what is
required to establish GIS.
2. AJKED as well as other Utility organizations in developing countries that have
dealings with spatial data should embrace digital system of keeping and managing
3. There is need for briefings, training and re-training sessions among staff of AJKED,
Nigeria and other municipal authorities in GIS.
4. The increased services of Geometricians are needed in AJKED. They will champion
the responsibility of spatial data acquisition, processing, management and
presentation of outputs in usable form.
5. The international body with their vast strength and power should encourage the
developing countries to establish GIS in different areas of human Endeavour through
6. Good institutional framework should be established at all levels of governments down
to individual who will be coordinating the affairs of producers and users of geo-spatial
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Some typical examples of GIS applications in Pakistan are;
land-use planning and management e.g. Cadastral mapping, Urban
growth, Land use changes etc. S.O.P, SUPARCO, P.D.A, C.D.A, P.E
power generation, transmission & distribution (AJKED)
oil & mineral exploration (O.G.D.C, Oil companies, P.G.S)
environmental impact studies
management of water resources (IIMI, AKRSP, WAPDA)
natural hazard mapping (FFC, NESPAK)
forestry and wildlife management (FMC, PFI, AKRSP)
soil degradation studies (Soil survey of Pakistan)
socio-economic survey and mapping