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The Stakeholder
Management Framework
for teams, programs, and portfolios




                                                                             Drew Jemilo
                                       drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com
                                                               Scaled Agile, Inc.

        © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, Scaled Agile, Inc. and Pearson Education, Inc. All rights
        reserved. This publication may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright
        holders. Scaled Agile Framework™ is a trademark of Leffingwell, LLC. v12.07.15 Rev0
            © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.             1
Agenda

 1. Introductions
 2. Stakeholder Management
    Overview
 3. Identify Stakeholders
 4. Analyze Stakeholders
 5. Prioritize Stakeholders
 6. Engage Stakeholders
 7. Communicating
 8. Managing Expectations
 9. Scaling

              © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   2
Introductions


  Over 20 years in software engineering
   and product management as an
   external consultant and internal IT Director
  Practicing traditional, adaptive, and agile
   methods since 1989
  Worked with companies ranging from Lean
   startups to $1B international enterprises
  Principal Contributor to the Scaled Agile
   Framework
  Instructor for the Scaled Agile Academy

                  Email: drew.jemilo@scaledagile.com
                  Twitter: @drewjemilo


                  © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   3
Stakeholder Management
Overview




  © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   4
Pop Quiz

    The term “stakeholders” refers to...

           A. The people chasing the vampires in
              Twilight

           B. The ones eating prime rib with their
              hands in the Old Hickory Steakhouse

           C. Those who have the interest and
              influence to impact your product,
              program, team, or project

           D. All of the above.


               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   5
The Challenge

      Why is stakeholder management so difficult?


  There’s misalignment
   Conflicting priorities
   Unshared vision


  There are politics
   “I want to win!”
   History of conflict
      – Product Management vs. Development – “I want it now”
      – The Business vs. Architecture – “We can’t afford to invest in
         architecture”



                   © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   6
The Challenge

       Why is stakeholder management so difficult?


 You may be the messenger...
  At some point, you will need to give bad
   new
  You will need to say no

 And your stakeholders will change
 over time
  At any given point, you may not know who
   they all are
  We need a systematic approach to
   identify and prioritize



                  © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   7
The Stakeholder Management Process




                                      Stakeholders



    Identify      Analyze                   Prioritize                     Engage                     Communicate
 Stakeholders   Stakeholders              Stakeholders                  Stakeholders                     Often!




                                                                                    (Re)set                    Review
                                                                                  expectations               expectations




                                                                                                      Act on
                                                                                                   expectations




                     © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                            8
Identify
                                                                                   Stakeholders




     Identify
Stakeholders




     © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                  9
Identify Stakeholders

     Many of your stakeholders may not initially be obvious

Consider those who have...
 The ability to impact your project
 The ability to enhance your project (SMEs)
 The ability to slow down your projects
  (e.g., teams or groups you depend on)
 The ability to remove impediments
 The ability to lead opinions
 The ability to facilitate the change
  resulting from your project
 The ability to provide “a voice of reason”


                   © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   10
Identify Stakeholders

             Some may easily be overlooked

  Don’t forget external influences
   Subcontractors
   Suppliers
   Competitors
   Regulatory agencies


  Remember those who have to live
  with the solution
   IT Ops
   Production support

                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   11
Analyze
                                                                                  Stakeholders




     Analyze
Stakeholders




    © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                  12
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                                        What is it?
High                                                                            Provides a framework for
                                                                                 managing stakeholders
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                 based on interest and
        Satisfied    Engage
                                                                                 influence
                                                                                Y-axis sometimes labeled
                                                                                 “Power” (but can be a
                       Keep                                                      charged term)
         Monitor
                     Informed
                                                                        X-axis sometimes just
Low
                                                                         labeled “Interest” (but
       Low                          High                                 who likes to be thought of
                                                                         as disinterested?)
        Interest / Availability




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.           13
The Stakeholder Map




            © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   14
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                                  High Influence
High                                                                               High Interest
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                Business owners and
        Satisfied    Engage                                                      others with significant
                                                                                 decision-making authority
                                                                                Typically easy to identify

                       Keep                                                     Can kill, sustain, or
         Monitor                                                                 nurture the project
                     Informed
Low                                                                             They’re typically easy to
                                                                                 actively engage. Set up
       Low                          High
                                                                                 consistent touch points.
        Interest / Availability




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.             15
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                                  High Influence
High                                                                               Low Interest
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                Those with significantly
        Satisfied    Engage                                                      decision-making authority
                                                                                Lacks the availability or
                                                                                 interest to be actively
                                                                                 engaged
                       Keep
         Monitor                                                                It is usually difficult to
                     Informed
Low                                                                              have consistent touch
                                                                                 points. Do whatever is
       Low                          High                                         needed to keep them
                                                                                 satisfied.
        Interest / Availability




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.             16
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                                   Low Influence
High                                                                               High Interest
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                May be impacted by the
        Satisfied    Engage                                                      project but have little
                                                                                 influence
                                                                                May want more of your
                                                                                 time than you can give
                       Keep
         Monitor                                                                Find efficient ways to
                     Informed
Low                                                                              communicate and keep
                                                                                 them informed
                                                                                  –
       Low                          High
                                                                                          Email updates
        Interest / Availability                                                   –       Presentations
                                                                                  –       Publicity campaigns



                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.               17
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                                 Low Influence
High                                                                            Low Availability
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                They aren’t (and don’t
        Satisfied    Engage                                                      expect to be) significantly
                                                                                 involved
                                                                                They may not even be
                                                                                 aware of your project...
                       Keep                                                      and may not want
         Monitor
                     Informed
                                                                                 another email in their
Low
                                                                                 inbox!
       Low                          High                                        Know who they are
        Interest / Availability                                                 Monitor them and be
                                                                                 aware if they move into
                                                                                 other quadrants


                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.              18
The Stakeholder Map
                                                                                                                          Key
    Keep                 Business                                     Business           Actively
                                                                       Owner 1                                         Business Owner
Satisfied                 Owner 1                                                        Engage
                                                                                                                       Major Stakeholder

                                                                                                                       Minor Stakeholder
                                                                                                                       Subject Matter Expert
                                                                  A group of major
                                                                  stakeholders
                  Major Stakeholder 1                                                                         Business owners and major
                                                                                                               stakeholders must participate
                                                                                                               in Release Planning and the
                                                  Subject Matter Expert 1
                                                                                                               PSI Inspect & Adapt
                                                                                                               workshops to review and
                                                                                                               agree upon the PSI plan and
                                                                                                               the planned vs. actual
                                                                                                               progress
                                                                 A group of
                                                                  minor
                                                                                                              Major stakeholders should
                                                                  stakeholders                                 also be involved in the System
                                                                                                               Sprint Demos
            Subject Matter Expert 2
                                                                                                              Major stakeholders may be
                                                                                                               engaged between System
                                                      Minor Stakeholder 1                                      Sprint Demos for input
                                                                                                              Minor Stakeholders are
                                                                                                               engaged as required in order
                                                                                                               to keep them informed
                                                                                                              Subject Matter Experts are
 Monitor                                                                                 Keep                  engaged as required for input
                    Interest / Availability                                              Informed


                               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                                 19
The Stakeholder Map
                                                                                                                          Key
    Keep                 Business                                     Business           Actively
                                                                       Owner 1                                         Business Owner
Satisfied                 Owner 1                                                        Engage
                                                                                                                       Major Stakeholder

                                                                                                                       Minor Stakeholder
                                                                                                                       Subject Matter Expert
                                                                  A group of major
                                                                  stakeholders
                  Major Stakeholder 1                                                                         Business owners and major
                                                                                                               stakeholders must participate
                                                                                                               in Release Planning and the
                                                  Subject Matter Expert 1
                                                                                                               PSI Inspect & Adapt
                                                                                                               workshops to review and
                                                                                                               agree upon the PSI plan and
                                                                                                               the planned vs. actual
                                                                                                               progress
                                                                 A group of
                                                                  minor
                                                                                                              Major stakeholders should
                                                                  stakeholders                                 also be involved in the System
                                                                                                               Sprint Demos
            Subject Matter Expert 2
                                                                                                              Major stakeholders may be
                                                                                                               engaged between System
                                                      Minor Stakeholder 1                                      Sprint Demos for input
                                                                                                              Minor Stakeholders are
                                                                                                               engaged as required in order
                                                                                                               to keep them informed
                                                                                                              Subject Matter Experts are
 Monitor                                                                                 Keep                  engaged as required for input
                    Interest / Availability                                              Informed


                               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                                 20
Exercise: Create Your Stakeholder Map


   Using flip chart paper and
 stickies, create a stakeholder
  map for your team (Product
 Owner) or program (Product
            Manager)



           Color Coding

     Red       = Business Owner

    Yellow     = Major Stakeholder

     Green     = Minor Stakeholder

    Orange     = Subject Matter Expert
                                                                                                     Timebox:
                                                                                                     20 minutes

                       © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                21
Prioritize Stakeholders

   Don’t prioritize based on who can scream the loudest!

                                                       It’s...
                                                        Role
                                                        Influence
                                                        Interest/availability


                                                       It’s also their perception
   I’m the most                                        and attitude
     important!                                         Listen to them

  Is it done yet?                                       Get context from others
                                                        Conduct an NPS survey
               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   22
Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS
  Net Promoter Score is a survey technique which is gaining
                    strong acceptance


 Net Promoter Score (NPS)
  is a survey technique which:
   – Gauges loyalty
   – Is very simple
   – Is an alternative to traditional
      customer satisfaction surveys




                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   23
Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS

      An NPS survey consists of one simple question


   How likely is it that you
    would recommend _____ ?
   On a scale of 0 – 10:
     – 9 - 10 are Promoters
     – 7 - 8 are Passives
     – 0 - 6 are Detractors

     NPS = (% of Promoters) – (% of Detractors)
     – A positive NPS is considered good
     – 50 or more is considered excellent


                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   24
The Stakeholder Map and NPS

    Can NPS be an overlay on your stakeholder map?




              © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   25
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                           Promoters may...
High                                                                               Protect you from politics
                                                                                    and negative influences
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                   Remove impediments
        Satisfied    Engage
                                                                                   Secure incremental
                                                                                    funding
                                                                                   Sway opinions in a
                       Keep
         Monitor                                                                    positive direction
                     Informed
Low


       Low                          High


        Interest / Availability
                                                                                 Keep them close!



                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.               26
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                           Detractors may...
High                                                                               Find faults
                                                                                   Delay approvals
         Keep        Actively
        Satisfied    Engage                                                        Provide little support
                                                                                   Be overly controlling
                                                                                   Reassign resources
         Monitor
                       Keep                                                        Sway opinions in a
                     Informed                                                       negative direction
Low
                                                                                   Start a competing project
       Low                          High
                                                                                   Pull the plug!
        Interest / Availability
                                                                               Keep them closer!


                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.               27
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                           Promoters may...
High                                                                               Become more interested
                                                                                    and available
         Keep        Actively
        Satisfied    Engage
                                                                           Detractors may...
                                                                                   Avoid you
                       Keep                                                        Delay feedback
         Monitor
                     Informed                                               Delay approvals
Low
                                                                             (intentionally or
       Low                          High
                                                                             unintentionally)
                                                                                   Drop in, give unexpected
        Interest / Availability                                                     feedback, and leave




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.              28
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                           Promoters may...
High                                                                               Sway opinions in a
                                                                                    positive direction
         Keep        Actively
                                                                                   Want to become even
        Satisfied    Engage
                                                                                    more involved


                                                                           Detractors may...
                       Keep
         Monitor
                     Informed                                                      Sway opinions in a
Low                                                                                 negative direction

       Low                          High


        Interest / Availability




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.         29
The Stakeholder Map


                                                                          Promoters may...
High                                                                               Move to another quadrant

         Keep        Actively
        Satisfied    Engage
                                                                          Detractors may...
                                                                                   Excuse themselves from
                       Keep                                                         the water cooler when the
         Monitor
                     Informed                                                       topic of your project
Low                                                                                 comes up

       Low                          High


        Interest / Availability




                      © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.               30
Prioritize
                                                                                   Stakeholders




    Prioritize
Stakeholders




     © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                  31
Backlog of Stakeholders
Prioritizing stakeholders is like grooming a backlog: it happens
                          continuously


Considerations:
 Influence (not just power)
 Interest/availability
 Attitude


And also...
 Time value (needed this sprint?
  This release?)                                                                               Stakeholders need
                                                                                                 grooming too!


                 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                       32
Engage
                                                                                  Stakeholders




     Engage
Stakeholders




    © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                  33
Engaging Stakeholders
Now that we’ve identified our stakeholders, we need to define
             how we’ll be interacting with them


 Determine your touch points
  – One-on-one conversations
  – Standing meetings
  – Scrum ceremonies and SAFe
      program events
   – Workshops
 Define the objectives
 Set the frequency


                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   34
Sample Stakeholder Management Plan
  A stakeholder map can drive the type and frequency of interactions, e.g., one-
     on-one conversations, invitations to ceremonies/events, and workshops


Role             Person/Group             Samples – Engagement Methods / Frequency

Business         Bob Ollis                • One-on-one meetings to discuss vision, roadmap, and features prior to each
                                            release planning meeting
Owner
                                          • Attendance at requirements workshops as needed
                                          • Attendance at the release planning meeting
                                          • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop
                                          • Email communication when program scope is at risk

Major            Mary Smith               • Attendance at discover workshops
Stakeholder                               • Preview of the prioritized backlog prior to the release planning meeting
                                          • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop as needed
                                          • Attendance at the system sprint demo
                                          • Attendance at the team sprint demo (optional)
                                          • Email communication when sprint or program scope is at risk

Minor            Mike Schnitzel           • Email updates as needed
Stakeholder                               • Attendance at requirements workshops as needed


Subject Matter   Sam M. Edwards           • Pulled into sprint ceremonies as needed
Expert                                    • Pulled into individual or group SME meetings as needed




                              © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                35
Exercise: Draft Your Plan



         Draft your stakeholder management plan for your team
           (Product Owners) or program (Product Managers)



Role                Person/Group                            Engagement Methods / Frequency

Business Owner

Major Stakeholder

Subject Matter
Expert
Minor Stakeholder



                                                                                                      Timebox:
                                                                                                      20 minutes

                        © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                36
Stakeholder Touch Points
 In agile at scale, stakeholders are engaged at the portfolio,
                   program, and team levels.


                                                 Let’s first focus at the
                                                        team level




                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   37
Stakeholder Touch Points
                     (1) Mid-Sprint                 (2) Backlog
                         Review                      Grooming




                          (3) Specification Workshop
                                  (optional)




             © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   38
Other Ways to Engage Your Stakeholders

        Don’t forget many of the traditional tools as well!



  A Requirements Workshop
  Brainstorming Sessions
  Interviews
  Questionnaires
  User Experience Mock-Ups
  Use Case Modeling

  See Agile Software Requirements: Lean Requirements Practices for Teams, Programs and
     the Enterprise. Leffingwell, Dean. Addison-Wesley, 2011.


                       © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   39
Communicate
                                                                                     Often!




Communicate
     Often!




    © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                 40
Start with Rights and Responsibilities
Stakeholders not only have rights in an Agile environment, but
                   responsibilities as well.


             Rights                                                           Responsibilities
    Have an engaged team                                                  Remain engaged from the
                                                                            definition to the completion of
    Be informed of the team’s
                                                                            the Epic
     progress
    Receive good-faith estimates                                          Provide ongoing feedback and
                                                                            support
    Be educated on technical and
     architectural factors that impact                                     Define and clarify requirements
     estimates                                                             Collaborate with the Product
                                                                            Owner
    Receive Lean|Agile training
     and coaching                                                          Contribute to the growth of a
                                                                            trusting Agile environment




                     © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.              41
(Re)set                  Review
                                                                   expectations             expectations




                                                                                     Act on
                                                                                  expectations


   Managing
Expectations




    © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                            42
Managing Expectations
 Managing expectations can be challenging, especially in an
                       Agile world

  Be prepared for questions from
     those not familiar with Agile
   “What do you mean you can’t
    commit to what I’m getting six
    months from now?”
   “Can you squeeze it in? It’s really
    small.”
   “Why are you wasting time on
    architecture and refactoring?”
   What else?


                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   43
Managing Expectations
With negotiable scope, you’ll need to set expectations with your
                         stakeholders




                 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   44
How Do You Achieve a Healthy Balance
There is always a struggle when prioritizing features against technical
investments and debt reduction. How do you prioritize unlike things?




    More refactoring?                                                    Technical debt is
     More features!                                                        snowballing!




               Product                                                  Developer
               Owner




                   © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   45
Capacity Allocation for a Healthy Balance
 Capacity allocation can be applied to team backlogs for a balanced
 allocation of resource to users stories, refactors, and maintenance




                                                                                                 More...

                   © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.             46
Scaling




  © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   47
The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)
The Scaled Agile Framework is a proven, publicly-facing framework
     for applying Lean and Agile practices at enterprise scale



                                                                              Well defined in books
                                                                               and on the web
                                                                              Synchronizes vision, planning,
                                                                               interdependencies, and
                                                                               delivery of many teams
                                                                              Works well for teams of
                                                                               50 – 100 people
                                                                              Has been scaled to hundreds
                                                                               of teams and thousands of
                                                                               people
                                                                              For more info, see
                                                                               ScaledAgileFramework.com




                 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.               48
The Scaled Agile Framework Big Picture




             © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   49
The SAFe Fractal
Each level of the Scaled Agile Framework is a fractal of the one
                             below



                                                                                                   A fractal is a
                                                                                               complex geometric
                                                                                                pattern exhibiting
                                                                                               self-similarity in that
                                                                                                small details of its
                                                                                               structure viewed at
                                                                                                 any scale repeat
                                                                                                 elements of the
                                                                                                  overall pattern




                 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                       50
The Stakeholder Management Fractal
We can apply the stakeholder management framework we just
    learned to each level of the Scaled Agile Framework




               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   51
Scaling Facets
In scaling the stakeholder management framework, there are
             five areas to apply the scaling fractal

            1.     Roles
                   Who is the stakeholder manager?
            2.     Stakeholders
                   Who has the influence and interest?
            3.     Backlog level
                   Who manages what level of detail?
            4.     Capacity allocation
                   How do we allow time for technical and architectural
                   investments?
            5.     Touch points
                   At which ceremonies and events do we engage our
                   stakeholders?


                 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   52
Stakeholder Managers

Those managing the stakeholders also follow a fractal pattern




                                                                                                 Program
                                                                                                 Portfolio
                                                                                                Management




                                                                                                  Product
                                                                                                 Managers




                                                                                              Product Owners




                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                    53
Stakeholder Managers
There are overlaps and inter-relationships between stakeholder
                 managers and stakeholders

      CEO, CTO, CMO CFO
      Line of business owners
      Key customer constituents                                                                   Program
                                                                                                   Portfolio
                                                                                                  Management
      Customers
      Marketing, Sales
      System Architect
                                                                                                    Product
      Deployment/Ops
                                                                                                   Managers


      Customers
      Their teams
                                                                                                Product Owners
      Other teams
      System Architect

                  © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                    54
The Backlogs
    There are also three levels of backlogs with priorities
  influenced by customers and stakeholders at each level




                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   55
The Enterprise Backlog Model

                                                                                           Overview
                                                                            The Enterprise Backlog
                                                                             Model translates the
                                                                             allocation of strategic
                                                                             investments to the
                                                                             portfolio, program, and
                                                                             team level
                                                                            Detail is defined just-in-
                                                                             time and progressively
                                                                             elaborated




             © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                  56
Content Authority and Decision-Making



                                                                                             Program
                                                                                             Portfolio
                                                                                            Management




                                                                                              Product
                                                                                             Managers




                                                                                           Product Owners



             © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                    57
Capacity Allocation

   The same approach to allocating capacity also scales




               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   58
Design Authority
Capacity allocation provide a way to separate concerns, such that we
 can deliver the right mix of new features and architecture evolution




                   © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   59
Ceremonies and Events
 Likewise, there are program level ceremonies and events in
               which stakeholders are involved




                © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   60
Events and Touch Points
                  (2) Release               (3) Release                          (5) Release
(1) Roadmap and                                                                                                       (7) Inspect &
                    Backlog                  Planning                           Management               (6) System
 Vision updates                                                                                                           Adapt
                  Preparation                                                                           Sprint Demo
                                                              (4) Scrum of
                                                                Scrums




                                     See www.ScaledAgileFramework.com
                                     and click on the icons for details

                          © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.                                 61
In Conclusion...


    Feel free to use this
presentation with your teams
              and
   Scaled as you scale!



       Thank you!

               © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   62
Additional Resources

ScaledAgileFramework.com                                  ScaledAgileAcademy.com




                                     Drew Jemilo
                                     Scaled Agile, Inc.
                                     drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com



              © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   63
Questions?




             © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved.   64

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The Agile Stakeholder Management Framework for Teams, Programs, and Portfolios

  • 1. The Stakeholder Management Framework for teams, programs, and portfolios Drew Jemilo drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com Scaled Agile, Inc. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, Scaled Agile, Inc. and Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holders. Scaled Agile Framework™ is a trademark of Leffingwell, LLC. v12.07.15 Rev0 © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
  • 2. Agenda 1. Introductions 2. Stakeholder Management Overview 3. Identify Stakeholders 4. Analyze Stakeholders 5. Prioritize Stakeholders 6. Engage Stakeholders 7. Communicating 8. Managing Expectations 9. Scaling © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Introductions  Over 20 years in software engineering and product management as an external consultant and internal IT Director  Practicing traditional, adaptive, and agile methods since 1989  Worked with companies ranging from Lean startups to $1B international enterprises  Principal Contributor to the Scaled Agile Framework  Instructor for the Scaled Agile Academy Email: drew.jemilo@scaledagile.com Twitter: @drewjemilo © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  • 4. Stakeholder Management Overview © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. Pop Quiz The term “stakeholders” refers to... A. The people chasing the vampires in Twilight B. The ones eating prime rib with their hands in the Old Hickory Steakhouse C. Those who have the interest and influence to impact your product, program, team, or project D. All of the above. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. The Challenge Why is stakeholder management so difficult? There’s misalignment  Conflicting priorities  Unshared vision There are politics  “I want to win!”  History of conflict – Product Management vs. Development – “I want it now” – The Business vs. Architecture – “We can’t afford to invest in architecture” © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. The Challenge Why is stakeholder management so difficult? You may be the messenger...  At some point, you will need to give bad new  You will need to say no And your stakeholders will change over time  At any given point, you may not know who they all are  We need a systematic approach to identify and prioritize © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  • 8. The Stakeholder Management Process Stakeholders Identify Analyze Prioritize Engage Communicate Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Often! (Re)set Review expectations expectations Act on expectations © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. Identify Stakeholders Identify Stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  • 10. Identify Stakeholders Many of your stakeholders may not initially be obvious Consider those who have...  The ability to impact your project  The ability to enhance your project (SMEs)  The ability to slow down your projects (e.g., teams or groups you depend on)  The ability to remove impediments  The ability to lead opinions  The ability to facilitate the change resulting from your project  The ability to provide “a voice of reason” © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Identify Stakeholders Some may easily be overlooked Don’t forget external influences  Subcontractors  Suppliers  Competitors  Regulatory agencies Remember those who have to live with the solution  IT Ops  Production support © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Analyze Stakeholders Analyze Stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. The Stakeholder Map What is it? High  Provides a framework for managing stakeholders Keep Actively based on interest and Satisfied Engage influence  Y-axis sometimes labeled “Power” (but can be a Keep charged term) Monitor Informed  X-axis sometimes just Low labeled “Interest” (but Low High who likes to be thought of as disinterested?) Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. The Stakeholder Map © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. The Stakeholder Map High Influence High High Interest Keep Actively  Business owners and Satisfied Engage others with significant decision-making authority  Typically easy to identify Keep  Can kill, sustain, or Monitor nurture the project Informed Low  They’re typically easy to actively engage. Set up Low High consistent touch points. Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. The Stakeholder Map High Influence High Low Interest Keep Actively  Those with significantly Satisfied Engage decision-making authority  Lacks the availability or interest to be actively engaged Keep Monitor  It is usually difficult to Informed Low have consistent touch points. Do whatever is Low High needed to keep them satisfied. Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. The Stakeholder Map Low Influence High High Interest Keep Actively  May be impacted by the Satisfied Engage project but have little influence  May want more of your time than you can give Keep Monitor  Find efficient ways to Informed Low communicate and keep them informed – Low High Email updates Interest / Availability – Presentations – Publicity campaigns © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. The Stakeholder Map Low Influence High Low Availability Keep Actively  They aren’t (and don’t Satisfied Engage expect to be) significantly involved  They may not even be aware of your project... Keep and may not want Monitor Informed another email in their Low inbox! Low High  Know who they are Interest / Availability  Monitor them and be aware if they move into other quadrants © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. The Stakeholder Map Key Keep Business Business Actively Owner 1 Business Owner Satisfied Owner 1 Engage Major Stakeholder Minor Stakeholder Subject Matter Expert A group of major stakeholders Major Stakeholder 1  Business owners and major stakeholders must participate in Release Planning and the Subject Matter Expert 1 PSI Inspect & Adapt workshops to review and agree upon the PSI plan and the planned vs. actual progress A group of minor  Major stakeholders should stakeholders also be involved in the System Sprint Demos Subject Matter Expert 2  Major stakeholders may be engaged between System Minor Stakeholder 1 Sprint Demos for input  Minor Stakeholders are engaged as required in order to keep them informed  Subject Matter Experts are Monitor Keep engaged as required for input Interest / Availability Informed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. The Stakeholder Map Key Keep Business Business Actively Owner 1 Business Owner Satisfied Owner 1 Engage Major Stakeholder Minor Stakeholder Subject Matter Expert A group of major stakeholders Major Stakeholder 1  Business owners and major stakeholders must participate in Release Planning and the Subject Matter Expert 1 PSI Inspect & Adapt workshops to review and agree upon the PSI plan and the planned vs. actual progress A group of minor  Major stakeholders should stakeholders also be involved in the System Sprint Demos Subject Matter Expert 2  Major stakeholders may be engaged between System Minor Stakeholder 1 Sprint Demos for input  Minor Stakeholders are engaged as required in order to keep them informed  Subject Matter Experts are Monitor Keep engaged as required for input Interest / Availability Informed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. Exercise: Create Your Stakeholder Map Using flip chart paper and stickies, create a stakeholder map for your team (Product Owner) or program (Product Manager) Color Coding Red = Business Owner Yellow = Major Stakeholder Green = Minor Stakeholder Orange = Subject Matter Expert Timebox: 20 minutes © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. Prioritize Stakeholders Don’t prioritize based on who can scream the loudest! It’s...  Role  Influence  Interest/availability It’s also their perception I’m the most and attitude important!  Listen to them Is it done yet?  Get context from others  Conduct an NPS survey © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS Net Promoter Score is a survey technique which is gaining strong acceptance  Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a survey technique which: – Gauges loyalty – Is very simple – Is an alternative to traditional customer satisfaction surveys © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
  • 24. Stakeholder Satisfaction with NPS An NPS survey consists of one simple question  How likely is it that you would recommend _____ ?  On a scale of 0 – 10: – 9 - 10 are Promoters – 7 - 8 are Passives – 0 - 6 are Detractors NPS = (% of Promoters) – (% of Detractors) – A positive NPS is considered good – 50 or more is considered excellent © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. The Stakeholder Map and NPS Can NPS be an overlay on your stakeholder map? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may... High  Protect you from politics and negative influences Keep Actively  Remove impediments Satisfied Engage  Secure incremental funding  Sway opinions in a Keep Monitor positive direction Informed Low Low High Interest / Availability Keep them close! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
  • 27. The Stakeholder Map Detractors may... High  Find faults  Delay approvals Keep Actively Satisfied Engage  Provide little support  Be overly controlling  Reassign resources Monitor Keep  Sway opinions in a Informed negative direction Low  Start a competing project Low High  Pull the plug! Interest / Availability Keep them closer! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
  • 28. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may... High  Become more interested and available Keep Actively Satisfied Engage Detractors may...  Avoid you Keep  Delay feedback Monitor Informed  Delay approvals Low (intentionally or Low High unintentionally)  Drop in, give unexpected Interest / Availability feedback, and leave © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may... High  Sway opinions in a positive direction Keep Actively  Want to become even Satisfied Engage more involved Detractors may... Keep Monitor Informed  Sway opinions in a Low negative direction Low High Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
  • 30. The Stakeholder Map Promoters may... High  Move to another quadrant Keep Actively Satisfied Engage Detractors may...  Excuse themselves from Keep the water cooler when the Monitor Informed topic of your project Low comes up Low High Interest / Availability © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. Prioritize Stakeholders Prioritize Stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
  • 32. Backlog of Stakeholders Prioritizing stakeholders is like grooming a backlog: it happens continuously Considerations:  Influence (not just power)  Interest/availability  Attitude And also...  Time value (needed this sprint? This release?) Stakeholders need grooming too! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
  • 33. Engage Stakeholders Engage Stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 33
  • 34. Engaging Stakeholders Now that we’ve identified our stakeholders, we need to define how we’ll be interacting with them  Determine your touch points – One-on-one conversations – Standing meetings – Scrum ceremonies and SAFe program events – Workshops  Define the objectives  Set the frequency © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 34
  • 35. Sample Stakeholder Management Plan A stakeholder map can drive the type and frequency of interactions, e.g., one- on-one conversations, invitations to ceremonies/events, and workshops Role Person/Group Samples – Engagement Methods / Frequency Business Bob Ollis • One-on-one meetings to discuss vision, roadmap, and features prior to each release planning meeting Owner • Attendance at requirements workshops as needed • Attendance at the release planning meeting • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop • Email communication when program scope is at risk Major Mary Smith • Attendance at discover workshops Stakeholder • Preview of the prioritized backlog prior to the release planning meeting • Attendance at the PSI Inspect & Adapt workshop as needed • Attendance at the system sprint demo • Attendance at the team sprint demo (optional) • Email communication when sprint or program scope is at risk Minor Mike Schnitzel • Email updates as needed Stakeholder • Attendance at requirements workshops as needed Subject Matter Sam M. Edwards • Pulled into sprint ceremonies as needed Expert • Pulled into individual or group SME meetings as needed © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 35
  • 36. Exercise: Draft Your Plan Draft your stakeholder management plan for your team (Product Owners) or program (Product Managers) Role Person/Group Engagement Methods / Frequency Business Owner Major Stakeholder Subject Matter Expert Minor Stakeholder Timebox: 20 minutes © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. Stakeholder Touch Points In agile at scale, stakeholders are engaged at the portfolio, program, and team levels. Let’s first focus at the team level © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 37
  • 38. Stakeholder Touch Points (1) Mid-Sprint (2) Backlog Review Grooming (3) Specification Workshop (optional) © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 38
  • 39. Other Ways to Engage Your Stakeholders Don’t forget many of the traditional tools as well!  A Requirements Workshop  Brainstorming Sessions  Interviews  Questionnaires  User Experience Mock-Ups  Use Case Modeling See Agile Software Requirements: Lean Requirements Practices for Teams, Programs and the Enterprise. Leffingwell, Dean. Addison-Wesley, 2011. © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. Communicate Often! Communicate Often! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 40
  • 41. Start with Rights and Responsibilities Stakeholders not only have rights in an Agile environment, but responsibilities as well. Rights Responsibilities  Have an engaged team  Remain engaged from the definition to the completion of  Be informed of the team’s the Epic progress  Receive good-faith estimates  Provide ongoing feedback and support  Be educated on technical and architectural factors that impact  Define and clarify requirements estimates  Collaborate with the Product Owner  Receive Lean|Agile training and coaching  Contribute to the growth of a trusting Agile environment © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 41
  • 42. (Re)set Review expectations expectations Act on expectations Managing Expectations © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 42
  • 43. Managing Expectations Managing expectations can be challenging, especially in an Agile world Be prepared for questions from those not familiar with Agile  “What do you mean you can’t commit to what I’m getting six months from now?”  “Can you squeeze it in? It’s really small.”  “Why are you wasting time on architecture and refactoring?”  What else? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 43
  • 44. Managing Expectations With negotiable scope, you’ll need to set expectations with your stakeholders © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 44
  • 45. How Do You Achieve a Healthy Balance There is always a struggle when prioritizing features against technical investments and debt reduction. How do you prioritize unlike things? More refactoring? Technical debt is More features! snowballing! Product Developer Owner © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 45
  • 46. Capacity Allocation for a Healthy Balance Capacity allocation can be applied to team backlogs for a balanced allocation of resource to users stories, refactors, and maintenance More... © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 46
  • 47. Scaling © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 47
  • 48. The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) The Scaled Agile Framework is a proven, publicly-facing framework for applying Lean and Agile practices at enterprise scale  Well defined in books and on the web  Synchronizes vision, planning, interdependencies, and delivery of many teams  Works well for teams of 50 – 100 people  Has been scaled to hundreds of teams and thousands of people  For more info, see ScaledAgileFramework.com © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 48
  • 49. The Scaled Agile Framework Big Picture © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 49
  • 50. The SAFe Fractal Each level of the Scaled Agile Framework is a fractal of the one below A fractal is a complex geometric pattern exhibiting self-similarity in that small details of its structure viewed at any scale repeat elements of the overall pattern © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 50
  • 51. The Stakeholder Management Fractal We can apply the stakeholder management framework we just learned to each level of the Scaled Agile Framework © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 51
  • 52. Scaling Facets In scaling the stakeholder management framework, there are five areas to apply the scaling fractal 1. Roles Who is the stakeholder manager? 2. Stakeholders Who has the influence and interest? 3. Backlog level Who manages what level of detail? 4. Capacity allocation How do we allow time for technical and architectural investments? 5. Touch points At which ceremonies and events do we engage our stakeholders? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 52
  • 53. Stakeholder Managers Those managing the stakeholders also follow a fractal pattern Program Portfolio Management Product Managers Product Owners © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 53
  • 54. Stakeholder Managers There are overlaps and inter-relationships between stakeholder managers and stakeholders  CEO, CTO, CMO CFO  Line of business owners  Key customer constituents Program Portfolio Management  Customers  Marketing, Sales  System Architect Product  Deployment/Ops Managers  Customers  Their teams Product Owners  Other teams  System Architect © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 54
  • 55. The Backlogs There are also three levels of backlogs with priorities influenced by customers and stakeholders at each level © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 55
  • 56. The Enterprise Backlog Model Overview  The Enterprise Backlog Model translates the allocation of strategic investments to the portfolio, program, and team level  Detail is defined just-in- time and progressively elaborated © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 56
  • 57. Content Authority and Decision-Making Program Portfolio Management Product Managers Product Owners © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 57
  • 58. Capacity Allocation The same approach to allocating capacity also scales © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 58
  • 59. Design Authority Capacity allocation provide a way to separate concerns, such that we can deliver the right mix of new features and architecture evolution © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 59
  • 60. Ceremonies and Events Likewise, there are program level ceremonies and events in which stakeholders are involved © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 60
  • 61. Events and Touch Points (2) Release (3) Release (5) Release (1) Roadmap and (7) Inspect & Backlog Planning Management (6) System Vision updates Adapt Preparation Sprint Demo (4) Scrum of Scrums See www.ScaledAgileFramework.com and click on the icons for details © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 61
  • 62. In Conclusion... Feel free to use this presentation with your teams and Scaled as you scale! Thank you! © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 62
  • 63. Additional Resources ScaledAgileFramework.com ScaledAgileAcademy.com Drew Jemilo Scaled Agile, Inc. drew.jemilo@ScaledAgile.com © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 63
  • 64. Questions? © 2008 - 2012 Leffingwell, LLC, and Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. 64