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14123991 hrm-project

Research on HRM Project for Training and Development in any Industry. Whether Training and Developement Programs in the Organisations are necessary or not? How Training Needs Analysis is done?

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14123991 hrm-project

  1. 1. A Project Report On Employee Training Practices In Multinational Corporations (MNCs) Submitted To: Dr. Mousumi. S. Bhattacharya Submitted By: Group 02 Abhishek Kumar Dutta – 02 Avinash Chandra Srivastava – 12 Md. A. S. Sarfaraz Haque – 22 Pavan Srinivasan – 32 Sandeep Kumar – 42 Sucharita Mandal – 52 Yogesh Manoharan Nair – 62 1
  2. 2. 2 INSTITUTE OF FINANCE AND INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT PGDM : 2008-2010 SECTION : A DATE OF SUBMISSION : 11TH AUGUST 2008 INDEX 1. Introduction 01 2. Definition Of Training 01 3. Role Of Organization in Training and Development 02 4. Traditional and Modern Approach of Training and Developments 03 5. Training Options 03 6. Five Step Training Process 04 7. Training in an Organization Setting 05 8. Deciding Training Objective 06 9. Training Policy 07 10.Legal Aspect Of Training 07 11. Need For Training 08 12. Employee Training And Development: Reasons and Benefits 09 13. Training Design 10 14. Training Need Analysis 13 – 17
  3. 3. Introduction Early millennium India saw a sector emerge and boom because of the demand surplus globally. Since then, till today there has been a positive upward growth in the industry prior to which India was known for the textiles and tool industry. Though initially there was an immature growth later due to immense competition the industry saw its mature side. Many companies have taken birth during this course of time but most have not impressed to get noticed, at the same time there have been a few who have got noticed and risen to become an empire ( INFOSYS, WIPRO etc). The secret behind the success of these companies to have sustained in both the phases (initial stage where companies saw an immature growth, later stages where the industry matured) of the industry growth is because of innovation and effective people management skills employed. Upon interaction and detailed study of corporate world it comes to our understanding that training plays a very essential part in bridging the gap between the employee skill sets and the skills associated with a particular job. As the new industry emerged there were other sectors which boomed along with the growth of IT industry namely manufacturing. During the growth of various industries players in each industry, in order to cope with the competition concentrated on having skilled manpower in their armory, this proved to be a very lethal weapon when they fired (launching new product, implement new technology, use new strategies etc). Thus updating their employees with the necessary skill sets and knowledge became an integral part of an employee’s tenure in the organization. In this report let’s try and understand on what training and development is all about and various methods adopted by various organizations to achieve the above said. Definition Of Training Training may be defined as a “Planned program designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) and social behaviour of employee.” It is as act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Features of Training  Enable the employees to deal with the changing jobs and roles.  Develop knowledge, skill and attitude for handling jobs most efficiently.  Bridges the gap between the current level of employee KSA and the required level of KSA to handle job efficiently.  Training is basically job-related and need-based.  Short-term activity designed essentially for operatives. 3
  4. 4. Role Of Organization In Training And Development An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: • To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits • To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount • To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date • To enhance the performance of employees • Organization’s name to be a part of training unit Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field. 4
  5. 5. But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it’s a foremost duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture, climate, responsibilities of organization, etc. Traditional And Modern Approach Of Training And Development Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results Training Options There 4 training options that an organization can consider before providing training to their employees: Outsourcing: Outsourcing exempts the organizations to concentrate on its core business. Also, with the availability of sufficient amount of know-how, proficiency in the market it does not make business sense for organizations to have a separate training division. One approach is to tie up with some reputed training or educational institutes and send employees for training. This way, company gets to avail the required expertise and high-quality training programs and saves money on content development, recruiting, and maintaining training team. The only issue in outsourcing training is that the quality of training has to be frequently tracked so as to ensure the trainer's performance and training effectiveness. Internal Training: A lot of questions has been raised whether to go in for training outsourcing or setting up an internal division for training. Some companies recruit external trainers and call them to the company site make them use their tools to train employees. This alternative is generally for the new joinees who are given the fundamental or job-related training in-house and then send outside for higher training. 5
  6. 6. Product-related Training: The dealer who delivers the apparatus or installs the system offers the initial training. The user may negotiate with the dealer for a regular upgradation of product-related know-how or expertise in place of a one-time training. The apparatus dealer may choose to send their trainers or recruit outside trainers. Independent Professionals: Considering the emerging threats and opportunities, the professionals need to keep themselves updated of the developments. In this option, the responsibility of training is entirely on the individual and a better-trained professional will always have better market worth than others The Five Step Training Process We can think of a typical training program as consisting of five steps. The steps are as follows: 1. NEED ANALYSIS  Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity  Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience, and skills, as well as their attitudes and personal motivations.  Use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives 2. INSTURCTIONAL DESIGN  Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of and sequence of content, examples, exercises and activities. Organise them into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a blueprint for program. 6
  7. 7.  Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leader’s guides and participants’ workbooks, complement each other, are written clearly, and blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning objectives.  Carefully and professionally handle all program elements-whether reproduced on paper, film, or tape-to guarantee quality and effectiveness. 3. VALIDATION  Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness. 4. IMPLEMENTATION  When applicable, boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content. 5. EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP  Assess program success according to : A. REACTION – Document the learners’ immediate reactions to the training. B. LEARNING – Use feedback devices or pre- and post tests to measure what learners have actually learned. C. BEHAVIOUR – Note supervisor’s reactions to learners’ performance following completion of the training. This is the one way to measure the degree to which learners apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs. D. RESULTS – Determine the level of improvement in the job performance and assess needed maintenance. Training In An Organisational Setting Any organisation has to opt for some or other type of training for increasing the knowledge and skills of its employee for performing a particular job. Training is mainly job-oriented; it aims at maintaining and improving current job performance. Training is needed to achieve the following purposes in an organisation: 1. Newly recruited employees require to undergo structured training inputs so as to learn and perform their tasks effectively. The nature of training they receive determines their competencies in handling the job(s) assigned to them. 2. Imparting need-based training to existing employees for grooming them to handle their current jobs better and to prepare them to handle higher level jobs. 7
  8. 8. 3. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep them abreast of the latest developments in the concerned job-related operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity. 4. Training is also necessary when a person gets transferred from one job to another (job rotation) or when there is enhancement in this job domain (job enlargement). 5. Training makes employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organisational needs. 6. Training improves overall job productivity / employee productivity. 7. Training, when proactively and selectively imparted to employees(s) to prepare them to shoulder higher level jobs, is known as succession planning. Deciding Training Objectives Training in the organisation can be planned on the basis of the type of training objective it is designed to meet. There are in all 5 types of training objectives. A. Training – For ongoing organisational requirement.  Induction and Orientation Program.  Refresher Training Program for operatives. B. Proactive – Anticipatory training required to meet futuristic organisational needs.  Training manager/Supervisors to anticipate problems before they occur.  Computer Training.  Team building sessions with the departments.  Supervisory Development Training. C. Problem Solving – Training to avert certain problems which may develop over a period time.  Training Clerks to reduce complaints.  Total Quality Management (TQM) Training.  Training Supervisors in communications to reduce grievances.  Quality circles Training. D. Specialized Training – To meet critical organisational requirement. 8
  9. 9. To import specialized training on critical equipment. E. Vendor arranged Training for technological up gradation.  Training Organised by vendor against the purchase of equipments. Training Policy Every organisation should have a declared training policy, which is understood and supported by employees at all levels. Training can be abortive if there is no commitment on the part of those being trained. Training should not be seen by employees as a penalty but as an opportunity for them to further their knowledge and expertise both in their own and the organisation’s interest. The climate needs to be created in which they are eager to seize such opportunities and in their enthusiasm may well be able to identify some their own needs.  Key Features of a Good Training Policy. 1. It should be holistic and should cater to needs of the employees. 2. It should be in line with and complement business policy of the organisation. 3. It should emanate from the joint evocation of HR manager and line management with top management support. 4. It should have commitment of the target group. Legal Aspects Of Training Under equal employment legislation several aspects of your training program must be assessed with an eye toward the program’s impact on women and minorities. For example, having relatively few women or minorities selected for the training program may require showing that the admissions procedures are valid – that they predict performance on the job for which the person is being trained. Similarly, suppose completing the training program is a prerequisite for promotion. You should then be able to show that the training program itself has no adverse impact on women or minorities. In other words, members of protected group should have as much chance of successfully completing the training as do white males. If they do not, the validity of the training requirements should be demonstrated. For example, it could turn out that the reading level of your training manuals is too high for minority trainees, and that they are thus doing poorly in the 9
  10. 10. program quite aside from their aptitude for the jobs for which they are being trained. The training program might then be found to be unfairly discriminatory. Negligent training is another potential problem. Negligent training occurs when an employer fails to train adequately, and an employee subsequently harms a third party. Courts will find the employer liable in cases of negligent training, particularly the employer’s business or service is oriented toward serving the public. Precautions here include: 1. Confirm claims of skill and experience for all applicants. 2. Reduce the risks of harm by extensively training employees who work with dangerous equipment, materials or processes. 3. Ensure that the training includes procedures to protect third parties’ health and safety. 4. Evaluate the training activity to determine its effectiveness in reducing negligence risks. The Need For Training Good communications and consultation are essential for efficient operation in any organisation. However, their impact is often diminished by a lack of skill or knowledge on the part of the participants. It is important, therefore, to provide both managers and employees with training in the skills and techniques required for communication and consultation. Training can help employees better understand the information they are given and can encourage them to play a fuller part in the way the organisation conducts its affairs. Training courses in particular can be a useful way of giving employees factual information about their employment because they necessarily include a substantial element of explanation and provide opportunities for questions to be answered. Managers have an important role to play in communicating and consulting and good training can enable them to:  become more aware of the importance of good communication and consultation practice  understand their roles and responsibilities as communicators  Support those who are less outspoken and improve their ability to communicate. Training is particularly important for supervisors who have important communications responsibilities but often limited experience. Communication and consultation skills should have a place in any development programme for them as well as for other managers. Trade unions should also ensure that they provide adequate training for their representatives to enable them to take a full part in employee communications and consultation. Wherever possible training should be participative and trainees should be encouraged to exchange views, take part in discussions and share ideas and experiences. Such participation not only makes for more effective training but also helps to foster the idea of employee involvement which is an underlying principle of consultation and communication. 10
  11. 11. It is good practice to evaluate periodically the effectiveness of any training undertaken. Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future. A. Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.  When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed  To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort  As part of an overall professional development program  As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization  To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system  To train about a specific topic (see below) B. Typical Topics of Employee Training  Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety 11
  12. 12. of  languages and customs.  Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and  office tasks.  Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that  employees understand and meet the needs of customers.  Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different  perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity  Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also,  today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.  Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings  and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.  Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles,  benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for  quality, etc.  Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals,  repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.  Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the  organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate  behaviors. C. General Benefits from Employee Training and Development There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include: A. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees B. Increased employee motivation C. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain D. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods E. Increased innovation in strategies and products F. Reduced employee turnover 12
  13. 13. G. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) H. Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training Training-Design The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.  Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.  Trainees' learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.  Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.  Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.  Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship 13
  14. 14.  Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees' background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etc 14
  15. 15. Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: • Time • Accommodation, facilities and their availability • Furnishings and equipments • Budget • Design of the training, etc 15
  16. 16. Training Need Analysis (TNA) An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group. Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved 16
  17. 17. in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level. Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: • Appraisal and performance review • Peer appraisal • Competency assessments • Subordinate appraisal • Client feedback • Customer feedback • Self-assessment or self-appraisal Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done. Training Needs Analysis Form Name of Employee: Department: General 1. Are you a new employee or a long-standing 17
  18. 18. employee of the company? 2. How long have you been in your present job? Confirmation of Current Duties 3. Do you have a Job Description for your job? Yes No (Go to Q 6) 4. Is your job accurately described in the Job Description? Yes (Go to Q 14) No 5.A If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your Job Description? 5.B What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your Job Description? Job Analysis 6. Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively. 7. Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery, tools of trade, etc). 8. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job? Yes No 9. How do you work? Please circle Alone Part of a team Other (specify below) 10. If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your team? 18
  19. 19. 11. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot 12. How much autonomy is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot 13. How much variety is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you do different things at work, using several skills and talents? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot Training Needs 14. To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently (eg, Excel, bookkeeping, English as a second language, etc)? 15. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section, supervisor position, etc)? 16. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What training or experience would be required (eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)? Future Development Needs 17. What are your career aspirations? 19
  20. 20. 18. What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)? Recognition of Prior Learning 19. What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.) 20. What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation? Action Plan Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months: (Record the details of training courses, on-the-job experiences, buddy systems or mentor arrangements, and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to occur.) Training Date Signature of Staff Member : Date : Signature of Supervisor : Date : 20
  21. 21. How Training Costs Are Calculated The costs of learning may be difficult to decipher without an all-inclusive cost analysis system. Many trainers perpetually defend their approach through a comprehensive justification of course content, methodology, and cost effectiveness. Once all of the relevant factors have been isolated and supported by data, it is much easier to decide when and how the training will be conducted, if at all. Similarly, with the right data the decision to conduct training in-house or by an outsourcer can be determined. Some of the questions that must answered to determine training costs include:  Facilities: Where will the training be conducted? Are hotel rooms and meeting space required? If the training is Web or computer based, are specific resources dedicated to the equipment, utilities, software and hardware maintenance? Are participants reimbursed for lodging when they attend overnight training?  Instructors: Are facilitators paid a salary, per diem, or billed by an outside firm? Are trainer expenses considered? Does the company have to pay to certify the instructors or pay any license fees to use the materials?  Participants: What are the combined salaries and benefits costs that will be dedicated to the time spent on training? What is the price for the time spent out of the office, at seminars, traveling, or preparing for training while still at work?  Material format: What type of materials will be used? Is the media, books, tapes, CD- Rom, Web-based or video? How will the material be obtained? Any shipping, packaging, or transmission costs? If the material is developed in-house is the talent available or must the company recruit the technical expertise? Will the materials still be timely and technologically relevant when the training is actually delivered? If not, what are the redesign costs?  Communication and marketing: Will materials be produced to generate interest in the training? Brochures, pamphlets, direct mail, postage, and Web sites all have development costs in addition to material cost. Will time be spent by senior managers selling the training internally? Will employees be actively solicited through kick-off and information meetings? How much time will be spent learning about the training?  Tuition reimbursement: What is the cost of the actual benefit as described in the company policy? What is the level of utilization by the employee population? What are the costs of communicating the program and processing the benefit? Does the company policy exclude reimbursement for unsuccessful completion of course requirements? Some of the less apparent issues include: 21
  22. 22.  The learning curve. How long does it take for the employee to get "up to speed?" What are the adaptation costs, the costs of potential mistakes while in the learning process? If the employee is in a production type situation, what is the cost of lost production on an incremental basis, if the employee had been fully trained from the start?  Productivity inhibited. What would the employee be doing if they were not taking time from their regular tasks to be trained? Would more income be generated for the company? How would that time be used more profitably or effectively? Could the time have resulted in the development of new accounts or products, faster production, or greater organizational efficiency?  Company culture and expectation. Some organizations have massive expectations from the image and culture they communicate through their training experience. Training may dominate company culture and be a catalyst for many associated programs that are developed to enhance the training experience. Promotion and reward systems may be geared towards the training effort. Incentives may be given when training is completed or goals which training addresses are attained. All of these expectations result in higher per- capita costs -- per employee. Additionally, because training intense companies tend to use the most sophisticated methods and expensive materials, the per-capita cost may be far greater. All of these intangibles must be isolated to truly determine the overall cost and associated benefits of the training experience. Types Of Training A. On-site training  On-the-Job Training On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound OJT program. An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and performance plan) and related knowledges, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting up an OJT plan. To be most effective, an OJT plan should include: • The subject to be covered. 22
  23. 23. • Number of hours.  Apprentice Training Apprenticeship is the process of learning a skilled occupation through both on-the-job training (practical, paid experience) and learning the related technical knowledge in a classroom. You must be 18 years old, or be 16 years old with parental approval. The length of training varies from one to six years, depending on the occupation. Training is given under the guidance of experienced master workers. Apprenticeship training is a method that combines actual work experience with classroom related instruction and produces a worker skilled in the occupation, who is capable of exercising independent judgment and who subscribes to the highest standards of professional conduct. There is a written agreement between the apprentice and the employer, which acknowledges their joint commitment to the training process. This agreement is approved by the New York State Department of Labor. Registration of your apprenticeship training program guarantees that your workforce will be consistently trained at the highest skill levels, that your program will be nationally recognized, and that you are entitled to the benefits of registered apprenticeship under Department of Labor laws and regulations. Benefits of Sponsoring an Apprenticeship Program Employers experience benefits in two categories: economic and intrinsic. The economic benefits are derived from your eligibility to pay apprentice wages (usually 40% - 50 % of journey worker wages). Registered apprenticeship sponsors are also exempted from paying overtime to apprentices for the related instruction portion of their training. Also, you may be entitled to tax credits if you hire people who meet specific criteria or if your business is located in specific areas. Furthermore, many sponsors report reduced turnover. We believe this is because the apprentice knows that the employer values trained employees; thus, employee morale is improved. The intrinsic benefits are many. Overall, apprentices in registered training programs know they have jobs in the future. By working for an employer who values life long learning, apprentices become invested in improving their skills and in achieving a Certificate of Completion which is a nationally recognized credential. Because apprentices not only learn the techniques of a trade but also understand why they do what they do, they become good problem solvers, work better as team members, and demonstrate better interpersonal skills. Apprentices become skilled, motivated craft workers with a strong work ethic who are well versed in company policy, who average better attendance, who possess the latest technological skills and who fill critical needs for skilled workers in the face of retirements and the need to be highly productive with a reduced workforce. Apprentices become skilled craft workers, flexible and productive, who are dedicated to the industry and the specific employer. 23
  24. 24.  Coaching/Mentoring Linking mentoring with objectives and project tasks or activities is a highly productive and effective modern method of training and developing people in organizations, especially for staff in teams and departments, and for developing organizations themselves. The approach builds on management by objectives (MBO's) principles, but is more participative, voluntary and inclusive. By comparison, MBO's are a 'one-way street'; isolated and individually separate, prescribed along a single-channel towards a task focus. Well-facilitated 'activity focused mentoring' is consensual, team-orientated, with a personal development and team building focus, across multiple organizational interfaces, particularly to and between management/subordinate/peer levels. Activity focused mentoring methods also help develop systems (not IT and processes, but overall systems: i.e., how an organization works), organizations, management and communications, in an open, dynamic, organic, three-dimensional way. The activity-mentoring approach uses several integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training and learning outputs, in terms of individual skills, attitudinal development, and direct job and organizational performance improvement. The approach is facilitative rather than prescriptive, and broadly features:  strategic assessment of organisational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training needs  interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of the organisation  pre-training skills/behavioural needs-analysis - all training delegates - and pre-training preparatory work  small groups - practical workshops - short sessions - highly participative and situation/solution-based - focused on practical job issues, individual personality/learning style and organisational priorities  individually agreed tasks and assignments - focused on practical priorities and individual needs (SMART and WIIFM factors)  follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support - giving high accountability and reliable deliverables  ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers - coaching/task notes for line managers The process works on several different levels: individual, team, task, organisational and strategic. Activity focused mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills, behaviour and job priority areas, as well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues. Mentoring cost analysis and justification Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. Mentoring can be external, where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people, or an internal activity, using mentors within the organisation. 24
  25. 25. Due to the relative newness of mentoring as a formal organised process, and because mentoring programmes are so varied, statistics as to general costs and returns across industry are not easy to find. Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally appointed mentors. The main elements of a mentoring programme that carry quantifiable cost would be:  Training of mentor(s) - comfortably achievable for £1,000/head - it's not rocket science, but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical - good natural mentors need little training; other people who are not ready or able to help others can be beyond any amount of training.  Mentor time away from normal activities - needs to be a minimum of an hour a month one-to-one or nothing can usefully be achieved, up to at most a couple of hours a week one-to-one, which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. That said, there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day out for the mentor, for instance client or supplier visits. Say on average a day a month including the associated administration work, particularly where the mentoring is required to be formalized and recorded.  Overseeing the program, evaluating and monitoring activity, progress and outputs - depends on the size of the program, i.e. number of mentors an number of 'mentorees' - if the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely self- managing - if it's a programme involving several mentors an mentorees then estimate an hour per quarter (3 months) per one-to-one mentoring relationship - probably the responsibility of an HR or training manager. If this person with the overview/monitoring responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days external training or consultancy costs.  (Mentoree time away from normal activities - effective mentoring should ideally integrate with the mentoree's normal activities, and enhance productivity, effectiveness, etc., so this is arguably a credit not a debit.) Mentoring principles and techniques Rather than simply give the answers, the mentor's role should be to help the 'mentoree' find the answers for him/herself. While giving the answers is usually better than giving no help at all, helping the mentoree to find the answers for him/herself provides far more effective mentoring, because the process enables so much more for the mentoree in terms of experience of learning. Give someone the answers and they learn only the answers; instead mentors need to facilitate the experience of discovery and learning. The mentor should therefore focus mentoring effort and expectations (of the person being mentored especially, and the organisation) on helping and guiding the mentoree to find the answers and develop solutions of his/her own. Accordingly, many of the principles of mentoring are common to those of proper coaching, which are particularly prominent within life coaching. You should also refer to aspects of NLP (Neuro- Linguistic Programming), and Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitative Questioning methodology. 25
  26. 26. Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches, not tutors or trainers. Mentorees need simply to open their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. The mentor should not normally (unless in the case of emergency) provide the answers for the mentoree; instead a mentor should ask the right questions (facilitative, guiding, interpretive, non-judgemental) that guide the mentoree towards finding the answers for him/herself. If a mentor tells a mentoree what to do, then the mentoree becomes like the mentor, which is neither right nor sustainable, and does not help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. The mentor's role is to help the mentoree to find his/her own true self; to experience their own attempts, failures and successes, and by so doing, to develop his/her own natural strengths and potential. We can see parallels in the relationship between a parents and a child. If a parent imposes his or her ways, methods and thinking upon a child, the child becomes a clone of the parent, and in some cases then falsifies his or her own true self to please and replicate the model projected by the parent. The true self might never appear, or when it begins to, a crisis of confidence and purpose occurs as the person tries to find and liberate his or her true self. When we mentor people, or when we raise children, we should try to help them develop as individuals according to their natural selves, and their own wishes, not ours.  Job Rotation This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one seat to another, thus helping him to have a general understanding of how the organisation functions. Apart from releasing boredom, job rotation allows workers to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the organisation, facilitating future cooperation among departments. This personnel strategy offers a great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions or replacements become inevitable. Job rotation may pose several problems, especially when the trainees are rolled on various jobs at frequent intervals. In such a case, trainees do not usually spend long enough in any single phase of the operation to develop a strong degree of expertise. For slow learners, it does not give enough room to integrate resources properly. Trainees can become confused when they are exposed to rotation, with contrasting style of operation.  Refresher Training The purpose of this training is to make the trainee undergo the steps / activities of the job with some updated inputs so as to brush up the knowledge of the trainee on the basic principles and theory. By organizing short term courses, which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and be ready to take the emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialize in a particular subject/process. 26
  27. 27.  Brainstorming Brainstorming is a practical exercise to stimulate creativity in a group, and is a very useful training technique. Brainstorming is based on the premise that it is possible to generate more ideas collectively than the sum of the ideas, which would be produced individually. This arises from the interaction among members, which enables once member to trigger off new ideas in another. The process of brainstorming demands discipline by the group and not to succumb to the temptation to pass judgement on ideas as soon as they are read out. The subject of the session having been decided, the members are required to write down a many ideas as possible for dealing with the problem without attempting to evaluate them. They should let the ideas flow freely and write them down even if they at first seem impractical. After a suitable period of time, each member reads out his list and the other members are asked not to criticize, however impractical a suggestion might be. A combined list is produced and the group is then encouraged to evaluate each item. The cross-fertilisation that takes place at this stage leads to the development of new ideas, which may or may not be directly related to the original ones. How the process develops from this point depends on the purpose of the exercise. The final list of ideas is prepared by taking cues from all members which are totally practical suggestions and acceptable to all concerned in the group. B. Off- Site Training  Lectures/Seminars A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to Use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. • Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. • Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.  Role Playing During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. 27
  28. 28. • Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. • Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.  Simulations Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. It is a useful technique for skills development. • Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as Trainees are actively involved in the learning process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. • Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure those trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.  Computer based training Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. • Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. • Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.  Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. • Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. 28
  29. 29. • Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track. Methods of training The Different Methods of Training  Lecture  Lecture/discussion  Skill lesson  On-the-job training (the four-step method) There are other methods of training, but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture. Some of those methods include:  Role play  Assignment  Case study  Training games  Group exercises  Programmed learning Selecting The Right Method All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors, and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material.  What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group?  How many trainees are in the group and why are they there?  How much time do you have to prepare your material?  Can you cover your topic fully in the time available?  What aids do you require?  Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence?  Are you aware of the limitations of aids? Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions. The Lecture Use 29
  30. 30.  When the group is large - say 30 or more  When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert  When a body of factual information has to be communicated in a short time  When information is not readily available to group members Delivery Essentials of good delivery:  Words must all be clear  Words must be spoken at a suitable pace  Pauses should occur at logical places  Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner, connecting parts and using illustrations in a conversational way Preparation and lecture notes Preparation is important. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery. Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing method and matter). Notes may be too brief. The lecturer may then improvise, and he or she may be vague or may forget important elements. On the other hand, notes may be too extensive. The lecturer will then read them, and this is undesirable. Given an outline of the material, prepare the notes by asking these questions:  What is it safe to assume that the listeners know?  What are they likely to find difficult?  Hence, what will require special care or illustration?  What will the illustrations (in detail) be?  Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted?  What demonstrations will be appropriate?  Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points. The more important the point, the more spectacular the demonstration should be.)  What new terms will be introduced?  What unusual names? Mark these in the notes. They will need to be written on a blackboard, whiteboard, chart or overhead transparency.  What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re- examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points.) Structure Introduction: 30
  31. 31.  Statement of aims  Relation of this lecture to those that came before and is to follow  Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant needs  Outline of thoughts that are to be developed  Step-by-step building up of subject matter  Logical development  A few well-developed steps, strongly made (more effective than many steps)  Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity  Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered Conclusion:  Summary of lecture material  Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series  Reference to additional material that should be read or seen  Setting of any assignments Disadvantages:  Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur)  Participants sit passively without interaction The Lecture/Discussion Method Uses :  When the group is small - say 20 or less  When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors  When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily, at least in part, or when there is some prior knowledge of it Discussion: The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question. Some uses of questions:  At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions  During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the lecture  End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding Desirable features of questions:  They should be clear  They should be brief  They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt  They should stimulate thinking, rather than suggest the answer 31
  32. 32. Pitfalls:  Repeating the answer (Do not repeat. Move on.)  Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group, e.g. "Would anyone like to add to that?")  Trampling the incorrect answerer  Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross-examined.)  Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully. Remember the objective of your discussion.) Structure:  Introduction  Body of lecture  Discussion  Conclusion The Skill Lesson: Aims  To teach correct and safe job methods  To develop confidence in job performance  To achieve accuracy and speed  To encourage conscientious effort Structure  Development (body of skill lesson)  Demonstration by trainer (complete)  Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage, in sequence  Practice of demonstrated job skill Conclusion On-The-Job Training (The Four-Step Method Of Instruction) Step 1  Prepare the worker  Put the worker at ease  State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it  Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job  Place the worker in the correct position Step 2  Present the operations  Tell, show and illustrate one important point at a time 32
  33. 33.  Stress each key point  Instruct clearly, completely and patiently, but teach no more than the worker can master Step 3  Try out the worker's performance  Have the worker do the job, and correct errors  Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again  Make sure the worker understands, and continue until you are certain of this Step 4  Follow up  Put the worker on his or her own  Designate to whom he or she should go for help  Check frequently  Encourage questions  Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow-up Example of an on-the-job training session: training workers in the correct method of hand washing Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. In order to educate the workers in better hygienic practices, the correct hand washing method is one of the topics demonstrated in fish processing units. The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from the hands. Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. It is therefore essential that hands be washed thoroughly. The following procedure for washing hands is recommended:  Wet palms and arms, from the elbow down, with fresh water  Apply soap  Work lather on and around fingers, nails and arms from the elbow down  Rinse palms and hands with fresh water  Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel 33
  34. 34. Evaluating training Method Of Instruction  Lecture/discussion Aids  Overhead transparencies  Handouts  Model course evaluation questionnaires Time frame  One hour presentation Content  The need for evaluation  Guidelines for course evaluation  Course evaluation questionnaires  Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use before the session  Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use after the session Learning outcome: The participants should be aware of the importance of evaluation in training and of methods that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training. THE NEED FOR EVALUATION It is not good enough for a trainer to feel self-satisfied with his or her training performance without evaluating it. All effective trainers not only evaluate or measure the degree of success of their course; they also evaluate their personal performance at the conclusion of each session or at least at the end of each training day. Neglecting to make any attempt at evaluation reflects disinterest and lack of professionalism and is symptomatic of a non-caring attitude. Evaluation is a must; it is an integral part of effective training. 34
  35. 35. Purpose  To improve training by discovering which training processes are successful in achieving their objectives (to "sort out the good from the bad") Evaluation affects learning  If we set examinations at the end of a course we affect the nature of learning  If we study trainees' job behaviour after a course we have generally changed their job behaviour  Since testing affects learning we can use it as a training aid Two aspects of evaluation  Course evaluation  Trainer evaluation (self-evaluation) Guidelines For Course Evaluation : Evaluating reaction How well did the trainees enjoy the session(s)/course?  Find out how well the trainees liked a particular training session or sessions or the course as a whole  Does not include measurement of learning Evaluating learning What principles, facts and techniques were learned?  Written test questions, oral test questions, skill tests  Avoid questions like "Have you learned anything?" Evaluating behaviour What changes in job behaviour resulted from the training?  Best evaluated through appraisal by on-the-job supervisors  Remember: good trainers have on-the-job experience; they know the best way of doing things Evaluating results What were the tangible results of the training in terms of improved job performance? 35
  36. 36.  Some types of training results are easily measured (e.g. typing)  Others are not easily measured (where management and attitudes are involved) Course Evaluation Questionnaires  Determine what you want to find out  Use a written comment sheet covering the steps above  Obtain honest reactions by making the form anonymous  Allow trainees to write additional comments not covered by questions Two model course evaluation questionnaires are included at the end of this module. Model 1 is intended for evaluation of a complete training course. Model 2 can be used to evaluate either a specific training session or module or the overall training course. Trainer Self-Assessment Questionnaire For Use Before The Session Preparation  Do the notes show clearly the limited, definite scope of this training session?  Is my session planned to enable my specific purpose to be fully accomplished?  Have I allowed for an adequate introduction; a presentation with participant activity; and a capitulation which will clinch the chief points?  Have I arranged for all necessary equipment/materials and teaching aids? Introduction  Will this step excite the interest of the trainees from the start - is it original or linked strongly with an emotion-stirring activity, or some matter of topical or personal interest?  Will it pave the way for what is to follow so that the presentation will not discourage or bore by excessive difficulty?  Will it provoke curiosity and interest for what is to come, generating a need which will be satisfied?  Does it provide adequate revision of what has gone before? Body  Is the instruction broken up into steps of reasonable length?  Will each step offer maximum trainee participation and activity?  Will each step win trainee interest and attention?  Will each step offer some way of evaluating the trainees' comprehension before the next step is undertaken?  If there is a written exercise to be done, have I something useful ready to occupy the quicker trainees so that slower ones may finish comfortably? 36
  37. 37.  Is there adequate provision for holding the interest of the strongest trainees and giving them worthwhile activity?  Have I allowed for a period of relief for trainees and myself after a period of intense concentrated work? Conclusion  Will this step adequately recall and test the vital points of the session?  Have I timed my session so that there is time for this important step? Chalkboard summary  Will my chalkboard or whiteboard summary show what I expect to appear on the chalkboard at the end of the session?  Is the arrangement (use of colour, diagrams, etc.) attractive?  Have I thought out ways of obtaining the maximum help from the chalkboard with a minimum loss of contact with my group during the session?  Are there any parts of the chalkboard that I should not use because they are not clearly visible because of poor lighting, shining sun, etc.?  How will arrangement of any other visual aids fit in with my use of the chalkboard? General  Are there any other aids that will assist me?  What rabbits have I ready to pull out of a hat if interest flags?  Have I taken into consideration the intellectual level of the group, the time of day the session will take place and interruptions?  Have I thought out how this session will fit into the general syllabus for the group?  Am I sure of the correct pronunciation of unusual words that I will be using during the lesson?  Am I sure of my subject-matter and of the correctness of the questions I intend to use?  Am I sufficiently familiar with my questions and steps to be able to carry on the session at maximum effective speed without allowing the thin edge of the wedge of inattention to be inserted? Trainer Self-Assessment Questionnaire For Use After The Session Voice  Was my voice clearly audible in all parts of room?  Was it restrained enough not to irritate trainees or disturb other session leaders?  Did I vary the speed, pitch, volume and tone so as to give maximum interest to whatever I said? Manner 37
  38. 38.  Was my manner reasonable, brisk and alert?  Did I sincerely convey a sense of earnestness and enthusiasm for what I was instructing?  Was my manner reasonably pleasant and general without being affectedly so? Group management  Did I get off to a clean brisk start, stimulating the group from the beginning?  Did I stand in such a position that I could be seen and heard by all trainees?  Did I keep all trainees under my eye and control whenever necessary?  Did I take steps to see that no trainee disturbed the work of the group or failed to take adequate part in the session?  Did I see that at the beginning of the lesson the floor and chalkboards were clean, the desks in order, the windows open and the class settled and ready?  Did I have the trainees pulling with or against me?  Did I refuse to be sidetracked? Questioning  Were my questions audible to all trainees?  Were most questions easy enough for all trainees to be able to attempt an answer?  Were there some particularly stimulating questions?  Where the response to a question was unsatisfactory, did I take measures to improve the response (e.g. reframing the question) rather than waste a good question by immediately giving an answer?  Did my questions follow rapidly without hesitation and uncertainty?  Did I insist on answers being given loudly and clearly?  Did I refrain from unnecessarily repeating answers?  Did I distribute questions widely, encouraging weak trainees? General  Did I cover the steps of my session adequately?  Was my recapitulation or other final step unhurried?  Did I maintain my aim throughout the session?  Did I keep as far as possible to the plan of my lesson?  Did my trainees and I enjoy the session?  What did the trainees gain from this session?  What have I learned by leading this session? Model 1 - COURSE EVALUATION/REACTION QUESTIONNAIRE To assist in the planning of future courses it would be of great value if you would complete the sections that follow. Please be frank with your responses. Remember, only your honest reactions will enable adjustments and improvements to be made. The questions asked may not cover all of the aspects about which you wish to comment. For that reason a space headed "General comments" has been provided, and it is hoped that you will use it if appropriate. 38
  39. 39. Conditions  Were you comfortable?  What improvements, if any, do you suggest for the accommodation of future courses?  Were the seating arrangements satisfactory?  Could you see and hear satisfactorily?  Were the morning and afternoon sessions well balanced? Course content  Were the subjects covered the ones you expected would be?  Were there any surprises? Why?  Was the coverage sufficiently wide? If not, what subjects would you have liked included?  Was each subject covered in sufficient depth?  Name any that you think were not.  Was the course sufficiently practical in the sense that you will be able to apply knowledge and skills taught?  Did the subjects sustain your interest?  What additional subjects would you suggest for future courses?  What subjects would you omit from future courses? Presentation  Were all sessions presented in a clear and interesting way?  Were there any sessions that left you confused or uncertain? Please specify.  Do you think trainers could have done more to improve their presentations? If so, what?  Were the lengths of sessions satisfactory?  Did the aids used help sustain your interest and understanding? Name any particular aid that impressed you. Model 2 - Training Module Instructions You have just completed the training. Now we would like you to tell us about your feelings on what has just been presented. This information is valuable in helping us make following training sessions more interesting and useful to you. Below you will find a number of questions dealing with the just completed training session. Most questions can be answered by circling a number on the scale to the right of the question. Where a written response is required, please write your reply clearly in the space provided. Please consider your responses carefully and answer truthfully. Everything you say will be held in strictest confidence. The information will be used only to help us make this training activity more responsive to your needs. Topic discussed: _____________________ I. Content 1. Relevance of the topic to your job Not relevant Relevant 39
  40. 40. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Clarity of the module's objectives Not clear Very clear 1 2 3 4 5 3. Level of instruction Too basic Too advanced 1 2 3 4 5 4. Lecture coverage Inadequate Very comprehensive 1 2 3 4 5 5. Time allotment Too short Too long 1 2 3 4 5 6. Emphasis on details Too brief Too detailed 1 2 3 4 5 7. Organization and direction Disorganized Well organized 1 2 3 4 5 8. Treatment of the topic Abstract Practical 1 2 3 4 5 9. Additional comments you may have on these or other aspects of the content of this training module/session __________________________________ __________________________________ II. Training aids and handouts 1. Effectiveness of teaching aids Not effective Very effective 1 2 3 4 5 2. Readability of Not readable Very readable ____________________* 1 2 3 4 5 3. Clarity of message of Not clear Very clear ____________________* 1 2 3 4 5 4. Appeal of Not appealing Very appealing ____________________* 1 2 3 4 5 5. Usefulness of Not useful Useful ____________________* 1 2 3 4 5 * Here you would insert the names of instructional aids used: handouts, slides, videos, overhead transparencies, etc. 6. Additional remarks you may have on these or other aspects of the teaching methods, aids, and handouts used in the training session _________________________ _________________________ Instructor effectiveness 1. Mastery of the subject Not knowledgeable Knowledgeable 40
  41. 41. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Ability to transfer/communicate information and knowledge effectively Very poor Excellent 1 2 3 4 5 3. Ability to arouse and sustain interest Very poor Excellent 1 2 3 4 5 4. Openness to ideas of trainees Not receptive Receptive 1 2 3 4 5 5. Encouragement of trainee participation Did not encourage Encouraged 1 2 3 4 5 6. Time management Very poor Excellent 1 2 3 4 5 7. Speed in talking Too slow Too fast 1 2 3 4 5 8. Clarity of speech Not clear Clear 1 2 3 4 5 9. Additional remarks on these or other aspects of the instructor's effectiveness _________________________ _________________________ IV. General 1. Please state the three most important ideas or concepts that you have learned from this session _________________________ _________________________ 2. Suggestion(s) to improve the session _________________________ _________________________ V. Training logistics/administration 1. Quality of the meals Very poor Very good 1 2 3 4 5 2. Quality of accommodation Very poor Very good 1 2 3 4 5 3. Quality of transportation Very poor Very good 1 2 3 4 5 4. Contact with staff members Very poor Very good 1 2 3 4 5 5. Quality of training facilities Very poor Very good 1 2 3 4 5 5. Please use the space below to indicate any suggestions you might have that will help us to improve the facilities and administration. 41
  42. 42. *** Secondary data Training and Development in IT/Software Development Industry The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87 billion by 2008. In 2006, it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%. IT sector is expected to generate 2.3 million jobs by 2010, according to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Service Companies) With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like SAP, the need of human resource development has increased. According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review, there is a direct link between training investment of the companies and the market capitalization. Those companies with higher training investment had higher market capitalization. It clearly indicates that the companies which have successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with effective results. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance, which in turn, helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource. With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many companies have now started their own learning centers. As an example, Sun has its own training department. Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of “My Learning” that offers access to its vast learning resources to its employees. Companies are investing in both the technical training, 42
  43. 43. which has always been an essential part in IT industry, as well as in managerial skills development. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs. As an example, some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of the company’s overall revenue. Areas Covered in Training Programs in IT/Software Development Industry The specific areas where training is given in IT/Software Development sector are: A. Computer Manufacturing B. EDP/ E- Commerce C. Designing D. Maintenance Service E. Operating jobs, Computer operators, Data Entry F. System Developing /Programming /Software Engineering G. Networking H. Application Programming I. Research and Development in Peripheral Integration J. Product Quality Control and Reliability Testing K. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) L. Database Warehousing and Management Preferred Training Methods Some of the training methods of training are: A. Computer Based Training B. Internet Based Learning C. Lectures 43
  44. 44. D. Labs E. On-the-job (OTJ) Training F. Distant Learning G. E-Books H. Mentoring I. Coaching J. Job Rotation IBM Training For IBM, learning is a strategic enabler of change — an indispensable tool that supports new initiatives, re-skills our workforce and prepares us to address key market shifts and organizational transformations, such as those associated with the rapidly approaching on demand era. IBM spends about US$750 million annually for learning. Employees spend an estimated 17 million hours each year (about 55 hours per employee) in formal training — Either online, through online learning activities or in a traditional classroom. Approximately 47 percent of IBM learning days are now conducted online anywhere, anytime. When given meaningful learning and developmental opportunities, 79 percent of IBM employees are likely to stay with the company for at least three years. IBM conducts almost half of all employees training via e-learning, realizing a cost avoidance of US$579 million over the past two years The Basic Blue program helps new managers build skills that are necessary to Promote change, align behavior with new corporate strategies, reduce bureaucracy, emphasize customer focus and inspire the highest employee performance. Basic Blue is a three-phase approach to management and leadership development. This learning solution for new IBM managers offers the optimum blend of learning methods through its five phases: Phase I — The purpose of Phase I is to immediately bring critical management/ leadership information to the new IBM manager via a combination of e-learning, simulations, in-field experiences and second-line coaching. Phase II — in this phase, employees increase management and leadership skills and build upon the knowledge gained in Phase I through a five-day, face-to face, experience-based workshop. Phase III - Advisor — this is a Web-based, online tool developed to support continuous learning for all managers, including those in nontraditional office situations, and remote and mobile 44
  45. 45. workers. Advisor has three components: exploring Web-based learning, preparing for the role of manager and formulating an individual development plan. Phase IV - The in-class learning lab — this phase comprises two days that focus on experiential, higher-order learning, personal networking and action learning. Phase V - Manager ongoing dialogue — an online, shared e-space provides a means for the same group of managers to collaborate on their chosen management action challenges. General Electric training General Electric spends roughly $1 billion on training and education every year. Hewlett-Packard Training Hewlett-Packard spent $275 million on training while memory-chip maker Micron Technology spent $4.8 million on training for its 21,000 employees worldwide this fiscal year. Microsoft spends "millions" on its army of 70,000. Infosys Technologies Training Infosys Technologies spends Rs.750 crore a year on training fresh recruits. The company added 3,192 staff in the first quarter of 2008-09. “This comes to Rs. 2.50 lakh spent on each potential new employee during a 16-week training period. The 335-acre campus, largest of the nine training centers of Infosys across India, can accommodate up to 13,500 people at a given time. Apart from containing attrition at around 13.7 per cent against the industry average of 17 per cent, the training turned out young men and women with additional ‘soft skills’, including the ability to communicate clearly, learn efficient team work and decision-making. Close to five per cent of trainees did not match the job skills required and had to return home. Cost of training at Infosys Technologies The cost of training might seem high but in the West, it worked out to $50,000 per trainee as compared to $6,000 here, he explained. “If our universities upgraded and made the teaching methods more industry and employment-oriented, the IT sector need not spend that much for training. On our part, we can claim having contributed 50,000 trained persons so far to the workforce,” he said. Infosys has its on-campus job skills programme, Campus Connect, covering 510 engineering colleges in several regions. So far, 2,300 faculties have been trained on industry needs like better understanding of concepts involved in work such as software engineering. Wipro Technology Training 45
  46. 46. Wipro Technology has been awarded by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) for its employee training and development activities. Wipro was ranked sixth among the 39 companies, which won the ASTD's BEST awards. Wipro has won the award for the third year in a row. ASTD is an association dedicated to workplace learning. Seven other Indian companies, including Reliance Petroleum, Infosys Technologies, ICICI Bank and Hindustan Petroleum also won the award. Reliance Petroleum made it to the top five. The award is given to companies based on the evidence that the employee training programmes have added to the companies' overall performance and that the companies have made a significant investment in building talent. BEST is an acronym for 'build talent enterprise wide, supported by the leaders, through learning'. “The award winners are chosen from amongst 71 entries from across the world and the winners set the standards for excellence and foster a good learning culture,” The company spends one per cent of its total revenue on training. The company has eight dedicated employee training centers with four in Bangalore. These centers impart training in HR, leadership skills, behavioural skills and cross-culture training. The centers train about 3,500 employees daily. Wipro also has a dedicated learning centre for its Japanese businesses, in Chennai. "The Japanese market is the hardest to penetrate and also very complicated Cognizant Technological Solutions Training At Cognizant, middle-level managers are provided with continuous learning and development opportunities. They are also groomed for senior leadership positions through a combination of technical and non-technical training. In addition to technical training, soft-skills such as leadership, team building and development, assessment centers, presentation skills, and workshops on self- awareness, are the other areas of focus. Further, every employee of Cognizant needs to undergo 10 person-days of training to ensure that the quality of the workforce, and therefore that of the organizations, is continuously updated and enhanced. Through this, the organisation combines a proactive readiness to service emerging demand patterns and also a reactive fulfillment of current skill requirements in the customer market. Interestingly, Cognizant has made both the management development program (MDP) at IIM Bangalore and the Project Management Professional (PMP) certification mandatory for all mid- level professionals for promotion and career growth, he says. The training at Cognizant also includes pursuing higher education such as MS in Software Engineering and MS in e-Business (the company has a tie-up with BITS, Pilani) and MBA (it has a tie-up with The British Open University). This organisation also regularly sends its middle and senior management professionals to IIM Bangalore for a customized two-week residential management development program (MDP). 46
  47. 47. Cognizant also provides opportunities for its middle and senior level professionals to undergo certifications in domains, processes and project management. The company allocates approximately four per cent of its revenue for training across all levels. The mandatory MDP at IIM Bangalore, PMP certification and Assessment Centre alone costs the organisation more than Rs one lakh per employee per year at the mid-and-senior levels Training programs focusing on new technology helps in deploying the knowledge required to deliver value to a company's customers. "Apart from several other critical factors, providing opportunity to associates for upgrading their skills also plays a significant role in retention," he says. In Polaris, continuous learning is built into the career-path of all the associates. Training and Development in Retail-FMCG Sector Retail/FMCG Sector is the most booming sector in the Indian economy and is expected to reach US$ 175-200 billion by 2016. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased. Lack of skilled workers is the major factor that is holding back the retail sector for high growth. The sector is facing the severe shortage of trainers. Also, the current education system is not sufficiently prepared to address the new processes, according the industry majors. Training Programs in Retail/FMCG Sector Some of the training programs that are given in the retail sector are: A. Sales Training B. On-the-Job Training C. Seminars/Workshops D. Customer Relationship Management E. Online Course F. Group Study 47
  48. 48. G. Computer-Based Training H. Self-Directed Training Colgate Training The Training and Development effort at Colgate-Palmolive is a direct outcome of the Individual Development Plan and the Business need. The business critical and individual specific needs are identified every year and a training needs inventory is drawn up. Colgate's leadership position in the global marketplace is directly linked to the skill of our employees. Practical learning and professional growth are critical to our continued success. We invest generously in the training and education of Colgate people. Our commitment to skill development includes:  Formal classroom study  Sharing best practices, globally  Developing practical work applications based on real-world learnings. Link: http://www.colgate.co.in/app/Colgate/IN/Corp/Careers/TrainingDevelopment.cvsp Training in Banking and Insurance Sector Favorable economic climate and number of other factors such as, growing urbanization, increasing consumerism, rise in the standard of living, increase in financial services for people living in rural areas, etc has increased the demand for wide range of financial products that has led to mutually beneficial growth to the banking sector and economic growth process. This was coincided by technology development in the banking operations. Today most of the Indian cities have networked banking facility as well as Internet banking facility. Some of the major players in the banking sector are State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, etc. In the Insurance sector also, rapid expansion has created about 5 lakh job opportunities approximately in the past five years. These openings are mainly in the field of insurance advisors or marketing agents. The eligibility criteria for these jobs is graduation with some experience in marketing or become insurance agents after completing school but this needs some relevant training. Earlier there were no training programs as such for insurance agents but on-the-job training only that was given once the new agent was appointed. But now the scenario has been changed, with the coming up of big players like ICICI Life Insurance, ICICI Lombard, HDFC Life Insurance, Tata AIG General Insurance, etc in this sector, people who've had some formal training are preferred while recruitment because it can be helpful in the insurance field. However, only the insurance degree in this field does not guarantee success. To be successful an agent must have strong interpersonal, networking, and communication skills. 48
  49. 49. Number of opportunities in Banking and Insurance sector has increased than ever before. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players like ICICI, HDFC, UTI, Bajaj Allianz, etc in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased. Training and Development in Telecom Sector Telecom is one of the fastest growing sectors in India with a growth of 21% and revenue of Rs 86,720 crore in the year 2006. The sector is expected to grow over 150% by 2012. With increase in competition between the major players like BSNL, MTNL, Hutchison Essar, BPL, Idea, Bharti Tele services, Tata, etc, the requirement for mobile analysts, software engineers, and hardware engineers for mobile handsets has increased. However, holding an engineering degree is not enough to survive in the Telecom Sector. There is constant need of updating of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. With this rapid growth in Telecom Sector, the need for trained professionals in bound to rise and so is the training need. The total training Market in Telecom Sector is estimated to be Rs 400 crore. Many top players are spending a huge amount on training and development, for example BSNL alone spends more than 100 crore on training and development of its employees through the Advanced Level Telecommunications Training Centre (ALTTC) and 43 other regional training institutes. Reliance has also established Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology. In addition to that, Bharti has also tied-up with IIT Delhi for the Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and Management. With the increase in competition, availability of huge amount of information through internet, magazines, newspapers, TV, etc, and increased awareness among customers, the demand to impart proper training in non-technological areas like customer care and marketing has increased too. Rapid technological changes, network security threat, mobile application development, growing IP deployment in the sector have brought back the training and development in the priority catalog. Training and Development in KPO Sector KPO is Knowledge Processing Outsourcing, not to be confused with BPO, which is Business Processing Outsourcing. KPO is about providing knowledge based services in the areas like market research, business research, financial research, legal services, etc., while BPO is about providing customer care services, technical support, tele-sales etc. KPO market is expected to grow from US $ 1.3 billion in the year 2003 to US $ 17 billion in the year 2010. KPO sector is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 49.5% till 2010. According to the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), 49
  50. 50. But according to Research, a UK based research firm, KPO sector will be able to reach 100,000 employees only instead of 250,000 employees. Therefore, to fill the demand and supply gap training has now become an important tool like every other technical industry. With the expected increase in number of employees, training has become the core of KPO industry as well. No matter how much qualified the person is he needs to be trained on processes. As the name itself implies, "knowledge", this sector requires high level of functional know-how as well as domain know-how. There is a constant need of well-planned training programs as the work profile requires understanding of market research objectives and methodologies. This sector requires behavioral training as well as training to handle stress because of odd working hours. If a person is committed to deliver quality, and is willing to learn with positive attitude then definitely KPO is the right place to work for him. Training and Development in BPO Industry BPO is Business Process Outsourcing. It is an agreement between two parties for specific business task. The BPO industry is growing at an annual growth rate of 14% and is expected to cross $310 billion by 2008. Job seekers prefer BPO's over other sectors because it is providing high paying jobs to graduates/undergraduates. To deliver desired services to customer, who is 10,000 miles away, it is important to have good amount of business knowledge and required expertise. The various reasons behind the increasing training need in the BPO industry are: 1. BPO industry is expected to generate 1.1 million jobs by 2008, and 6 million jobs by 2015, which is why training need has increased more than ever before. 50
  51. 51. 2. High attrition rate in this sector reason being unsatisfied employee, monotonous work, neglected talent, inadequate know-how, etc 3. Coming up of high profile BPOs Training has become a major tool to retain employees. People working in BPO sector face the problem of night shift, job stress that results in de motivation. Well designed training program with clear career path increases the job satisfaction among the young professionals and help them in becoming efficient and effective at the work place. Therefore, organizations have to handle such challenges of meeting training needs, although, the sector is taking a lot of initiatives in conducting training for new joinees. Companies are now aligning business goals with training costs. But what more important is, is the development of the skills of middle management. Various BPO's have an elaborate training infrastructure that includes Computer-Based Training rooms, and specially trained and qualified in-house trainers. The companies are now busy designing training programs for their employees. These companies try identifying the strengths and weaknesses and are emphasizing more on their personalities, problem-solving skills, and leadership skills. With constant change in processes, technologies, techniques, methods, etc, there is a constant need of updating, developing and training the BPO employees to consistently deliver customer goals. Training and Development in Pharmaceutical Sector India Pharmaceutical market is valued at about US $8 billion and is expected to reach to US $12 billion by 2010. Indian pharmaceutical market is 2% of world's pharmaceutical market. In the last two years, 3900 new generic products have been launched because of which its market 51
  52. 52. value has been increased to about US $355 million. Growth in Pharmaceutical Sector This rapid growth has also increased the training need of the sector. Training Areas  Brand Protection  Contamination Control  Drug Verification  Supply Chain Visibility  Recall Management  Shrinkage Reductions Preferred Training Methods Some of the preferred training methods are:  Web based training  Class room training  Workshops  On-the-job training Training and Development in Hospitality Sector 52
  53. 53. Hospitality sector is growing at a very fast rate in India. The sector is growing at a rate of approximately 8%. This sector can be classified into hotel industry, travel and tourism, restaurants, pubs, clubs and bars, contract catering, and aviation. Other than that, opportunities also exist in universities, sporting venues, exhibition centers and smaller events management companies. The major challenge of this sector is shortage of skilled employees along with the challenge of attrition rate. Skilled chefs and managers are in great demand. Managers require huge range of competencies such as, people management, viable skills, business insights, analytic skills, succession planning, and Resource development in order to get success in this sector. In addition to that, employees are not enough trained on Business Etiquettes, Courtesy, and Business Communication. Hospitality is all about handling people. So an employee must have right attitude, tolerance, and listening skills in order to move up the hierarchy. There is still a long way to go to inculcate good public relation, interpersonal skills. With the increase in competition due to the coming up of major players like Four Seasons, Shangri-La, Aman Resorts, etc the need to train employees has increased more than ever before. The major players are now strategizing to increase the turnover of the customers by training their employees on Communication, Dining and Business etiquettes, etc. Some of the essentials required by this sector are:  Good infrastructure  Trained trainers  Quality of content  Certification of training course  Effective Training evaluation Training Programs are available for the following areas:  Food Production  Food and Beverage Service  Front Office *** 53
  54. 54. To begin with we spoke to several people from various sectors of the industry, such as software/ financial services/ consultancies. Further to many requests from our sources names and identity of a few have been with held. Our next door neighbors INFOSYS had a very positive outlook towards training programs when we spoke to them. Whilst our conversation with them we asked them various aspects regarding training programs most were answered and a few details weren’t spared as a part of the company policy. Further to our discussions with the employees of Infosys we could conclude most of the training programs were forecasted from the time their project was in the pipeline. The major objective of their training program would be to empower their employees with the adequate skill sets to step into any project they are placed in. Following is the conversation which was recorded during our interaction with the employees of Infosys. 1. How do you design your training program? Based on new projects, market research and project in the pipeline(forth coming project) , we determine if there is a gap in the skills and then either an internal or external training is organized with help domain or technical expert, also by inviting professional training institutes trainer. 2. What is your training methodology? Before joining the project employee should be through in tool he going to use for the project work. 3. How much you spend on the training of ksa (knowledge, skill, and attitude) of your employee? Not known to us. 4. How do you evaluate your training process? There is exam after each training program which u need to clear. Navneet Ghose System Engineer Infosys Technologies Ltd. Electronic City Bangalore 9886727551 ******************************************************************************* 54
  55. 55. The training program at Bank Of America is based on the needs of the client and the requirements of the project to be implemented. The training methodology at Bank Of America is outsourced to a private institute. The organization identifies a institute which can provide the requisite skills needed for a particular project and the employees are sent to that institute for the required training program. The Bank of America spends around $10,000 on each employee for each training program; monetary issues are not a concern where training is concerned. The evaluation of the training provided is done through feedback forms, where the employees are asked to relate their experiences and to suggest any improvements. The employees are also asked to undergo a test after their training program to test their learning and the relevance of the training program. The main problem with the training programme is when employees don’t turn up for the training programme. This is overcome by levying fines on erring employees and asking them to undergo that particular module once again. The other problem is regarding employee interest in learning something new. Employees who are genuinely interested to increase their work skills have to be choosen for the training programme, otherwise it would lead to lackluster performances which would effect the project adversely. This training process has been found out to be very effective and has provided excellent outcomes for the organization. It has also increased the job skill set of the employees which has been a boon for the organization. REFERENCE: Mr.Chittaranjan Ghosh Sr. Systems Engineer Corporate Treasury Technology Bank of America Ph# 040-23145000 (Extn – 2016) ******************************************************************************* 55
  56. 56. Based on the new projects that the organization receives, they determine if there is a gap in the skills possessed by the employees and then there is an internal training programme conducted to upgrade the skill set of the employees. These training programmes are organized with the help of SME(subject matter expert) and COE(center of excellence). The job of the SME is to recognize the skills required to complete a particular project and to find relevant material for the training programme. The SME is helped in this process by the Center of Excellence. Merrill lynch 1. How do you design your training program? Based on new projects, we determine if there is a gap in the skills and then either an internal training is organized with help of SME(Subject Matter Expert) or using COE (Center of Excellence). In cases where SME and COE cannot impart training , HR conducts training inviting professional training institutes 2. How much you spend on the training of ksa (knowledge, skill, and attitude) of your employee? Its normally 3 weeks of training per year. 3. How do you evaluate your training process? There is a feedback form after each training session. Based on feedback especially in external trainers it is decided if the trainer can be invited next time for similar training Regards, Gupta, Ashish (MLITS) Ashish Gupta Associate consultant Merrill lynch - 9833767848 ******************************************************************************* 56