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A Project Report On
Employee Training Practices In Multinational
Dr. Mousumi. S. Bhattacharya
Submitted By: Group 02
Abhishek Kumar Dutta – 02
Avinash Chandra Srivastava – 12
Md. A. S. Sarfaraz Haque – 22
Pavan Srinivasan – 32
Sandeep Kumar – 42
Sucharita Mandal – 52
Yogesh Manoharan Nair – 62
INSTITUTE OF FINANCE AND INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT
PGDM : 2008-2010
SECTION : A
DATE OF SUBMISSION : 11TH
1. Introduction 01
2. Definition Of Training 01
3. Role Of Organization in Training and Development 02
4. Traditional and Modern Approach
of Training and Developments 03
5. Training Options 03
6. Five Step Training Process 04
7. Training in an Organization Setting 05
8. Deciding Training Objective 06
9. Training Policy 07
10.Legal Aspect Of Training 07
11. Need For Training 08
12. Employee Training And Development:
Reasons and Benefits 09
13. Training Design 10
14. Training Need Analysis 13 – 17
Early millennium India saw a sector emerge and boom because of the demand surplus globally.
Since then, till today there has been a positive upward growth in the industry prior to which India
was known for the textiles and tool industry.
Though initially there was an immature growth later due to immense competition the industry saw
its mature side.
Many companies have taken birth during this course of time but most have not impressed to get
noticed, at the same time there have been a few who have got noticed and risen to become an
empire ( INFOSYS, WIPRO etc). The secret behind the success of these companies to have
sustained in both the phases (initial stage where companies saw an immature growth, later stages
where the industry matured) of the industry growth is because of innovation and effective people
management skills employed.
Upon interaction and detailed study of corporate world it comes to our understanding that training
plays a very essential part in bridging the gap between the employee skill sets and the skills
associated with a particular job.
As the new industry emerged there were other sectors which boomed along with the growth of IT
industry namely manufacturing.
During the growth of various industries players in each industry, in order to cope with the
competition concentrated on having skilled manpower in their armory, this proved to be a very
lethal weapon when they fired (launching new product, implement new technology, use new
Thus updating their employees with the necessary skill sets and knowledge became an integral part
of an employee’s tenure in the organization.
In this report let’s try and understand on what training and development is all about and various
methods adopted by various organizations to achieve the above said.
Definition Of Training
Training may be defined as a “Planned program designed to improve performance and bring about
measurable changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) and social behaviour of employee.”
It is as act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
Features of Training
Enable the employees to deal with the changing jobs and roles.
Develop knowledge, skill and attitude for handling jobs most efficiently.
Bridges the gap between the current level of employee KSA and the required level of KSA
to handle job efficiently.
Training is basically job-related and need-based.
Short-term activity designed essentially for operatives.
Role Of Organization In Training And Development
An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first
contact for both.
The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants:
• To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits
• To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount
• To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date
• To enhance the performance of employees
• Organization’s name to be a part of training unit
Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of
consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the
following steps for the transfer of training to the field.
But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this situation the
organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the
participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This leads to
failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it’s a foremost duty of the
organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture, climate,
responsibilities of organization, etc.
Traditional And Modern Approach Of Training And
Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They
were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some
views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in
executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the
importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost.
The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield
the best results
There 4 training options that an organization can consider before providing training to their
Outsourcing: Outsourcing exempts the organizations to concentrate on its core business. Also,
with the availability of sufficient amount of know-how, proficiency in the market it does not
make business sense for organizations to have a separate training division. One approach is to
tie up with some reputed training or educational institutes and send employees for training.
This way, company gets to avail the required expertise and high-quality training programs and
saves money on content development, recruiting, and maintaining training team. The only
issue in outsourcing training is that the quality of training has to be frequently tracked so as to
ensure the trainer's performance and training effectiveness.
Internal Training: A lot of questions has been raised whether to go in for training outsourcing
or setting up an internal division for training. Some companies recruit external trainers and
call them to the company site make them use their tools to train employees. This alternative is
generally for the new joinees who are given the fundamental or job-related training in-house
and then send outside for higher training.
Product-related Training: The dealer who delivers the apparatus or installs the system offers the
initial training. The user may negotiate with the dealer for a regular upgradation of product-related
know-how or expertise in place of a one-time training. The apparatus dealer may choose to send
their trainers or recruit outside trainers.
Independent Professionals: Considering the emerging threats and opportunities, the professionals
need to keep themselves updated of the developments. In this option, the responsibility of training
is entirely on the individual and a better-trained professional will always have better market worth
The Five Step Training Process
We can think of a typical training program as consisting of five steps. The steps are as follows:
1. NEED ANALYSIS
Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity
Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific levels of
education, experience, and skills, as well as their attitudes and personal motivations.
Use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives
2. INSTURCTIONAL DESIGN
Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of and sequence of content,
examples, exercises and activities. Organise them into a curriculum that supports adult
learning theory and provides a blueprint for program.
Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leader’s guides and participants’ workbooks,
complement each other, are written clearly, and blend into unified training geared directly
to the stated learning objectives.
Carefully and professionally handle all program elements-whether reproduced on paper,
film, or tape-to guarantee quality and effectiveness.
Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on
pilot results to ensure program effectiveness.
When applicable, boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that focuses on
presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content.
5. EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP
Assess program success according to :
A. REACTION – Document the learners’ immediate reactions to the training.
B. LEARNING – Use feedback devices or pre- and post tests to measure what learners
have actually learned.
C. BEHAVIOUR – Note supervisor’s reactions to learners’ performance following
completion of the training. This is the one way to measure the degree to which
learners apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs.
D. RESULTS – Determine the level of improvement in the job performance and assess
Training In An Organisational Setting
Any organisation has to opt for some or other type of training for increasing the knowledge and
skills of its employee for performing a particular job. Training is mainly job-oriented; it aims at
maintaining and improving current job performance. Training is needed to achieve the following
purposes in an organisation:
1. Newly recruited employees require to undergo structured training inputs so as to learn and
perform their tasks effectively. The nature of training they receive determines their
competencies in handling the job(s) assigned to them.
2. Imparting need-based training to existing employees for grooming them to handle their
current jobs better and to prepare them to handle higher level jobs.
3. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep them abreast of the latest
developments in the concerned job-related operations. In the face of rapid technological
changes, this is an absolute necessity.
4. Training is also necessary when a person gets transferred from one job to another (job
rotation) or when there is enhancement in this job domain (job enlargement).
5. Training makes employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs
depending on organisational needs.
6. Training improves overall job productivity / employee productivity.
7. Training, when proactively and selectively imparted to employees(s) to prepare them to
shoulder higher level jobs, is known as succession planning.
Deciding Training Objectives
Training in the organisation can be planned on the basis of the type of training objective it is
designed to meet. There are in all 5 types of training objectives.
A. Training – For ongoing organisational requirement.
Induction and Orientation Program.
Refresher Training Program for operatives.
B. Proactive – Anticipatory training required to meet futuristic organisational needs.
Training manager/Supervisors to anticipate problems before they occur.
Team building sessions with the departments.
Supervisory Development Training.
C. Problem Solving – Training to avert certain problems which may develop over a period
Training Clerks to reduce complaints.
Total Quality Management (TQM) Training.
Training Supervisors in communications to reduce grievances.
Quality circles Training.
D. Specialized Training – To meet critical organisational requirement.
To import specialized training on critical equipment.
E. Vendor arranged Training for technological up gradation.
Training Organised by vendor against the purchase of equipments.
Every organisation should have a declared training policy, which is understood and supported by
employees at all levels. Training can be abortive if there is no commitment on the part of those
being trained. Training should not be seen by employees as a penalty but as an opportunity for
them to further their knowledge and expertise both in their own and the organisation’s interest. The
climate needs to be created in which they are eager to seize such opportunities and in their
enthusiasm may well be able to identify some their own needs.
Key Features of a Good Training Policy.
1. It should be holistic and should cater to needs of the employees.
2. It should be in line with and complement business policy of the organisation.
3. It should emanate from the joint evocation of HR manager and line management with
top management support.
4. It should have commitment of the target group.
Legal Aspects Of Training
Under equal employment legislation several aspects of your training program must be assessed
with an eye toward the program’s impact on women and minorities. For example, having relatively
few women or minorities selected for the training program may require showing that the
admissions procedures are valid – that they predict performance on the job for which the person is
Similarly, suppose completing the training program is a prerequisite for promotion. You should
then be able to show that the training program itself has no adverse impact on women or
minorities. In other words, members of protected group should have as much chance of
successfully completing the training as do white males. If they do not, the validity of the training
requirements should be demonstrated. For example, it could turn out that the reading level of your
training manuals is too high for minority trainees, and that they are thus doing poorly in the
program quite aside from their aptitude for the jobs for which they are being trained. The training
program might then be found to be unfairly discriminatory.
Negligent training is another potential problem. Negligent training occurs when an employer fails
to train adequately, and an employee subsequently harms a third party. Courts will find the
employer liable in cases of negligent training, particularly the employer’s business or service is
oriented toward serving the public. Precautions here include:
1. Confirm claims of skill and experience for all applicants.
2. Reduce the risks of harm by extensively training employees who work with dangerous
equipment, materials or processes.
3. Ensure that the training includes procedures to protect third parties’ health and safety.
4. Evaluate the training activity to determine its effectiveness in reducing negligence risks.
The Need For Training
Good communications and consultation are essential for efficient operation in any organisation.
However, their impact is often diminished by a lack of skill or knowledge on the part of the
participants. It is important, therefore, to provide both managers and employees with training in the
skills and techniques required for communication and consultation.
Training can help employees better understand the information they are given and can encourage
them to play a fuller part in the way the organisation conducts its affairs. Training courses in
particular can be a useful way of giving employees factual information about their employment
because they necessarily include a substantial element of explanation and provide opportunities for
questions to be answered.
Managers have an important role to play in communicating and consulting and good training can
enable them to:
become more aware of the importance of good communication and consultation practice
understand their roles and responsibilities as communicators
Support those who are less outspoken and improve their ability to communicate.
Training is particularly important for supervisors who have important communications
responsibilities but often limited experience. Communication and consultation skills should have a
place in any development programme for them as well as for other managers.
Trade unions should also ensure that they provide adequate training for their representatives to
enable them to take a full part in employee communications and consultation.
Wherever possible training should be participative and trainees should be encouraged to exchange
views, take part in discussions and share ideas and experiences. Such participation not only makes
for more effective training but also helps to foster the idea of employee involvement which is an
underlying principle of consultation and communication.
It is good practice to evaluate periodically the effectiveness of any training undertaken.
Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits
As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them
certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad,
ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an
organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the
A. Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development
Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of
When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
As part of an overall professional development program
As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in
role in the organization
To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
To train about a specific topic (see below)
B. Typical Topics of Employee Training
Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety
languages and customs.
Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting
Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it
employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have
perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity
Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social
today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.
Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include
and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles,
benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and
Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous
repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding
Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of
organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate
C. General Benefits from Employee Training and Development
There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of
these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training
among employees. These reasons include:
A. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
B. Increased employee motivation
C. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
D. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
E. Increased innovation in strategies and products
F. Reduced employee turnover
G. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics
H. Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has
been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of
training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training.
Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal,
judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.
The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.
Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that
affect training design.
Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive
perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes
wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Trainees' learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of
trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.
Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it
into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what
must be included, what could be included.
Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be
delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and
modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:
From simple to complex
Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
From known to unknown
From specific to general
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes
clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or
techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:
• Trainees' background
• Time allocated
• Style preference of trainer
• Level of competence of trainer
• Availability of facilities and resources, etc
Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in
a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
• Accommodation, facilities and their availability
• Furnishings and equipments
• Design of the training, etc
Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The
purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is
required for effective performance and present level of performance.
Why training need analysis?
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or
not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also
highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action
Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance
ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.
Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic
planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the
organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external
environment such as opportunities and threats.
After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while
strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by
identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by
balancing it against costs.
For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved
in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in
organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future
KSAs requirements at each level.
Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every
individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is
performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between
the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly
there is a need of training.
However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are
used to analyze the individual need are:
• Appraisal and performance review
• Peer appraisal
• Competency assessments
• Subordinate appraisal
• Client feedback
• Customer feedback
• Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is
being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is
clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical
interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as
open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time.
Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the
tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future.
Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
Training Needs Analysis Form
Name of Employee:
1. Are you a new employee or a long-standing
employee of the company?
2. How long have you been in your present job?
Confirmation of Current Duties
3. Do you have a Job Description for your job? Yes No (Go to Q 6)
4. Is your job accurately described in the Job
Description? Yes (Go to Q 14) No
5.A If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your Job Description?
5.B What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your Job Description?
6. Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively.
7. Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery,
tools of trade, etc).
8. Do you require a high degree of technical
knowledge for your job? Yes No
9. How do you work? Please circle
Alone Part of a team Other (specify below)
10. If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your
11. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as
customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle.
Very little Moderately A lot
How much autonomy is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you decide how to proceed
with your work? Please circle.
Very little Moderately A lot
13. How much variety is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you do different things at work,
using several skills and talents? Please circle.
Very little Moderately A lot
14. To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal
course) to perform your current job competently (eg, Excel, bookkeeping, English as a second
15. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you
be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section,
supervisor position, etc)?
16. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What training or experience would be required
(eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)?
Future Development Needs
17. What are your career aspirations?
18. What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree
study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)?
Recognition of Prior Learning
19. What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any
training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.)
20. What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the
Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months:
(Record the details of training courses, on-the-job experiences, buddy systems or mentor
arrangements, and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to
Signature of Staff
Member : Date :
Signature of Supervisor : Date :
How Training Costs Are Calculated
The costs of learning may be difficult to decipher without an all-inclusive cost analysis system.
Many trainers perpetually defend their approach through a comprehensive justification of course
content, methodology, and cost effectiveness. Once all of the relevant factors have been isolated
and supported by data, it is much easier to decide when and how the training will be conducted, if
at all. Similarly, with the right data the decision to conduct training in-house or by an outsourcer
can be determined. Some of the questions that must answered to determine training costs include:
Facilities: Where will the training be conducted? Are hotel rooms and meeting space
required? If the training is Web or computer based, are specific resources dedicated to the
equipment, utilities, software and hardware maintenance? Are participants reimbursed for
lodging when they attend overnight training?
Instructors: Are facilitators paid a salary, per diem, or billed by an outside firm? Are
trainer expenses considered? Does the company have to pay to certify the instructors or pay
any license fees to use the materials?
Participants: What are the combined salaries and benefits costs that will be dedicated to
the time spent on training? What is the price for the time spent out of the office, at
seminars, traveling, or preparing for training while still at work?
Material format: What type of materials will be used? Is the media, books, tapes, CD-
Rom, Web-based or video? How will the material be obtained? Any shipping, packaging,
or transmission costs? If the material is developed in-house is the talent available or must
the company recruit the technical expertise? Will the materials still be timely and
technologically relevant when the training is actually delivered? If not, what are the
Communication and marketing: Will materials be produced to generate interest in the
training? Brochures, pamphlets, direct mail, postage, and Web sites all have development
costs in addition to material cost. Will time be spent by senior managers selling the training
internally? Will employees be actively solicited through kick-off and information
meetings? How much time will be spent learning about the training?
Tuition reimbursement: What is the cost of the actual benefit as described in the
company policy? What is the level of utilization by the employee population? What are the
costs of communicating the program and processing the benefit? Does the company policy
exclude reimbursement for unsuccessful completion of course requirements?
Some of the less apparent issues include:
The learning curve. How long does it take for the employee to get "up to speed?" What
are the adaptation costs, the costs of potential mistakes while in the learning process? If the
employee is in a production type situation, what is the cost of lost production on an
incremental basis, if the employee had been fully trained from the start?
Productivity inhibited. What would the employee be doing if they were not taking time
from their regular tasks to be trained? Would more income be generated for the company?
How would that time be used more profitably or effectively? Could the time have resulted
in the development of new accounts or products, faster production, or greater
Company culture and expectation. Some organizations have massive expectations from
the image and culture they communicate through their training experience. Training may
dominate company culture and be a catalyst for many associated programs that are
developed to enhance the training experience. Promotion and reward systems may be
geared towards the training effort. Incentives may be given when training is completed or
goals which training addresses are attained. All of these expectations result in higher per-
capita costs -- per employee. Additionally, because training intense companies tend to use
the most sophisticated methods and expensive materials, the per-capita cost may be far
All of these intangibles must be isolated to truly determine the overall cost and associated benefits
of the training experience.
Types Of Training
A. On-site training
On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and
conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for
broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for
developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy
to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities.
Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ
a sound OJT program.
An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and performance
plan) and related knowledges, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting up an OJT plan. To be
most effective, an OJT plan should include:
• The subject to be covered.
• Number of hours.
Apprenticeship is the process of learning a skilled occupation through both on-the-job training
(practical, paid experience) and learning the related technical knowledge in a classroom. You must
be 18 years old, or be 16 years old with parental approval.
The length of training varies from one to six years, depending on the occupation. Training is given
under the guidance of experienced master workers.
Apprenticeship training is a method that combines actual work experience with classroom related
instruction and produces a worker skilled in the occupation, who is capable of exercising
independent judgment and who subscribes to the highest standards of professional conduct. There
is a written agreement between the apprentice and the employer, which acknowledges their joint
commitment to the training process. This agreement is approved by the New York State
Department of Labor. Registration of your apprenticeship training program guarantees that your
workforce will be consistently trained at the highest skill levels, that your program will be
nationally recognized, and that you are entitled to the benefits of registered apprenticeship
under Department of Labor laws and regulations.
Benefits of Sponsoring an Apprenticeship Program
Employers experience benefits in two categories: economic and intrinsic. The economic benefits
are derived from your eligibility to pay apprentice wages (usually 40% - 50 % of journey worker
wages). Registered apprenticeship sponsors are also exempted from paying overtime to apprentices
for the related instruction portion of their training. Also, you may be entitled to tax credits if you
hire people who meet specific criteria or if your business is located in specific areas. Furthermore,
many sponsors report reduced turnover. We believe this is because the apprentice knows that the
employer values trained employees; thus, employee morale is improved.
The intrinsic benefits are many. Overall, apprentices in registered training programs know they
have jobs in the future. By working for an employer who values life long learning, apprentices
become invested in improving their skills and in achieving a Certificate of Completion which is a
nationally recognized credential. Because apprentices not only learn the techniques of a trade but
also understand why they do what they do, they become good problem solvers, work better as team
members, and demonstrate better interpersonal skills. Apprentices become skilled, motivated craft
workers with a strong work ethic who are well versed in company policy, who average better
attendance, who possess the latest technological skills and who fill critical needs for skilled
workers in the face of retirements and the need to be highly productive with a reduced workforce.
Apprentices become skilled craft workers, flexible and productive, who are dedicated to the
industry and the specific employer.
Linking mentoring with objectives and project tasks or activities is a highly productive and
effective modern method of training and developing people in organizations, especially for staff in
teams and departments, and for developing organizations themselves. The approach builds on
management by objectives (MBO's) principles, but is more participative, voluntary and inclusive.
By comparison, MBO's are a 'one-way street'; isolated and individually separate, prescribed along
a single-channel towards a task focus. Well-facilitated 'activity focused mentoring' is consensual,
team-orientated, with a personal development and team building focus, across multiple
organizational interfaces, particularly to and between management/subordinate/peer levels.
Activity focused mentoring methods also help develop systems (not IT and processes, but overall
systems: i.e., how an organization works), organizations, management and communications, in an
open, dynamic, organic, three-dimensional way. The activity-mentoring approach uses several
integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training and learning outputs,
in terms of individual skills, attitudinal development, and direct job and organizational
performance improvement. The approach is facilitative rather than prescriptive, and broadly
strategic assessment of organisational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training
interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of
pre-training skills/behavioural needs-analysis - all training delegates - and pre-training
small groups - practical workshops - short sessions - highly participative and
situation/solution-based - focused on practical job issues, individual personality/learning
style and organisational priorities
individually agreed tasks and assignments - focused on practical priorities and individual
needs (SMART and WIIFM factors)
follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support - giving high accountability and
ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers - coaching/task
notes for line managers
The process works on several different levels: individual, team, task, organisational and strategic.
Activity focused mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills, behaviour and job priority areas, as
well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues.
Mentoring cost analysis and justification
Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. Mentoring
can be external, where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people, or an internal
activity, using mentors within the organisation.
Due to the relative newness of mentoring as a formal organised process, and because mentoring
programmes are so varied, statistics as to general costs and returns across industry are not easy to
find. Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally
The main elements of a mentoring programme that carry quantifiable cost would be:
Training of mentor(s) - comfortably achievable for £1,000/head - it's not rocket science,
but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical - good natural mentors need little
training; other people who are not ready or able to help others can be beyond any amount
Mentor time away from normal activities - needs to be a minimum of an hour a month
one-to-one or nothing can usefully be achieved, up to at most a couple of hours a week
one-to-one, which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. That
said, there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day
out for the mentor, for instance client or supplier visits. Say on average a day a month
including the associated administration work, particularly where the mentoring is required
to be formalized and recorded.
Overseeing the program, evaluating and monitoring activity, progress and outputs -
depends on the size of the program, i.e. number of mentors an number of 'mentorees' - if
the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely self-
managing - if it's a programme involving several mentors an mentorees then estimate an
hour per quarter (3 months) per one-to-one mentoring relationship - probably the
responsibility of an HR or training manager. If this person with the overview/monitoring
responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days external
training or consultancy costs.
(Mentoree time away from normal activities - effective mentoring should ideally
integrate with the mentoree's normal activities, and enhance productivity, effectiveness,
etc., so this is arguably a credit not a debit.)
Mentoring principles and techniques
Rather than simply give the answers, the mentor's role should be to help the 'mentoree' find the
answers for him/herself. While giving the answers is usually better than giving no help at all,
helping the mentoree to find the answers for him/herself provides far more effective mentoring,
because the process enables so much more for the mentoree in terms of experience of learning.
Give someone the answers and they learn only the answers; instead mentors need to facilitate the
experience of discovery and learning. The mentor should therefore focus mentoring effort and
expectations (of the person being mentored especially, and the organisation) on helping and
guiding the mentoree to find the answers and develop solutions of his/her own.
Accordingly, many of the principles of mentoring are common to those of proper coaching, which
are particularly prominent within life coaching. You should also refer to aspects of NLP (Neuro-
Linguistic Programming), and Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitative Questioning methodology.
Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches, not tutors or trainers. Mentorees need simply to open
their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. The mentor should not
normally (unless in the case of emergency) provide the answers for the mentoree; instead a mentor
should ask the right questions (facilitative, guiding, interpretive, non-judgemental) that guide the
mentoree towards finding the answers for him/herself.
If a mentor tells a mentoree what to do, then the mentoree becomes like the mentor, which is
neither right nor sustainable, and does not help the mentoree to find his/her own true self.
The mentor's role is to help the mentoree to find his/her own true self; to experience their own
attempts, failures and successes, and by so doing, to develop his/her own natural strengths and
We can see parallels in the relationship between a parents and a child. If a parent imposes his or
her ways, methods and thinking upon a child, the child becomes a clone of the parent, and in some
cases then falsifies his or her own true self to please and replicate the model projected by the
parent. The true self might never appear, or when it begins to, a crisis of confidence and purpose
occurs as the person tries to find and liberate his or her true self.
When we mentor people, or when we raise children, we should try to help them develop as
individuals according to their natural selves, and their own wishes, not ours.
This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one seat to another, thus helping him
to have a general understanding of how the organisation functions. Apart from releasing boredom,
job rotation allows workers to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the
organisation, facilitating future cooperation among departments. This personnel strategy offers a
great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions or replacements become
Job rotation may pose several problems, especially when the trainees are rolled on various jobs at
frequent intervals. In such a case, trainees do not usually spend long enough in any single phase of
the operation to develop a strong degree of expertise. For slow learners, it does not give enough
room to integrate resources properly. Trainees can become confused when they are exposed to
rotation, with contrasting style of operation.
The purpose of this training is to make the trainee undergo the steps / activities of the job with
some updated inputs so as to brush up the knowledge of the trainee on the basic principles and
theory. By organizing short term courses, which incorporate the latest developments in a particular
field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and be ready to take the emerging
challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who
specialize in a particular subject/process.
Brainstorming is a practical exercise to stimulate creativity in a group, and is a very useful training
technique. Brainstorming is based on the premise that it is possible to generate more ideas
collectively than the sum of the ideas, which would be produced individually. This arises from the
interaction among members, which enables once member to trigger off new ideas in another.
The process of brainstorming demands discipline by the group and not to succumb to the
temptation to pass judgement on ideas as soon as they are read out. The subject of the session
having been decided, the members are required to write down a many ideas as possible for dealing
with the problem without attempting to evaluate them. They should let the ideas flow freely and
write them down even if they at first seem impractical.
After a suitable period of time, each member reads out his list and the other members are asked not
to criticize, however impractical a suggestion might be. A combined list is produced and the group
is then encouraged to evaluate each item. The cross-fertilisation that takes place at this stage leads
to the development of new ideas, which may or may not be directly related to the original ones.
How the process develops from this point depends on the purpose of the exercise. The final list of
ideas is prepared by taking cues from all members which are totally practical suggestions and
acceptable to all concerned in the group.
B. Off- Site Training
A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary
education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to
Use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she
may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication
is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner.
• Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of
information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details.
• Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much
information if it is presented only orally.
During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning
concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training.
• Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get
an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different
approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers.
• Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in
helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to
practice while others watch.
Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on
the job. It is a useful technique for skills development.
• Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as Trainees are actively involved in the learning
process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training.
Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what
they have learned.
• Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure those
trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
Computer based training
Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program.
• Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and
discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.
• Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training
from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.
A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that
trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based
on the content provided.
• Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would
do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important.
• Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative
and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.
Methods of training
The Different Methods of Training
On-the-job training (the four-step method)
There are other methods of training, but their effective use is specific to special training situations
and will not be discussed in this lecture. Some of those methods include:
Selecting The Right Method
All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your
trainees. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on
many factors, and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide
how you will present your material.
What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group?
How many trainees are in the group and why are they there?
How much time do you have to prepare your material?
Can you cover your topic fully in the time available?
What aids do you require?
Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence?
Are you aware of the limitations of aids?
Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions.
When the group is large - say 30 or more
When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert
When a body of factual information has to be communicated in a short time
When information is not readily available to group members
Essentials of good delivery:
Words must all be clear
Words must be spoken at a suitable pace
Pauses should occur at logical places
Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner, connecting
parts and using illustrations in a conversational way
Preparation and lecture notes
Preparation is important. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery.
Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing
method and matter).
Notes may be too brief. The lecturer may then improvise, and he or she may be vague or may
forget important elements. On the other hand, notes may be too extensive. The lecturer will then
read them, and this is undesirable.
Given an outline of the material, prepare the notes by asking these questions:
What is it safe to assume that the listeners know?
What are they likely to find difficult?
Hence, what will require special care or illustration?
What will the illustrations (in detail) be?
Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted?
What demonstrations will be appropriate?
Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points.
The more important the point, the more spectacular the demonstration should be.)
What new terms will be introduced?
What unusual names? Mark these in the notes. They will need to be written on a
blackboard, whiteboard, chart or overhead transparency.
What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re-
examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points.)
Statement of aims
Relation of this lecture to those that came before and is to follow
Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant
Outline of thoughts that are to be developed
Step-by-step building up of subject matter
A few well-developed steps, strongly made (more effective than many steps)
Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity
Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered
Summary of lecture material
Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series
Reference to additional material that should be read or seen
Setting of any assignments
Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur)
Participants sit passively without interaction
The Lecture/Discussion Method
When the group is small - say 20 or less
When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors
When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily, at least in part, or when
there is some prior knowledge of it
The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question. Some uses of questions:
At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions
During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the
End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding
Desirable features of questions:
They should be clear
They should be brief
They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt
They should stimulate thinking, rather than suggest the answer
Repeating the answer (Do not repeat. Move on.)
Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group, e.g. "Would anyone like to
add to that?")
Trampling the incorrect answerer
Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross-examined.)
Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully. Remember the objective of your
Body of lecture
The Skill Lesson:
To teach correct and safe job methods
To develop confidence in job performance
To achieve accuracy and speed
To encourage conscientious effort
Development (body of skill lesson)
Demonstration by trainer (complete)
Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage, in sequence
Practice of demonstrated job skill Conclusion
On-The-Job Training (The Four-Step Method Of Instruction)
Prepare the worker
Put the worker at ease
State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it
Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job
Place the worker in the correct position
Present the operations
Tell, show and illustrate one important point at a time
Stress each key point
Instruct clearly, completely and patiently, but teach no more than the worker can master
Try out the worker's performance
Have the worker do the job, and correct errors
Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again
Make sure the worker understands, and continue until you are certain of this
Put the worker on his or her own
Designate to whom he or she should go for help
Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow-up
Example of an on-the-job training session: training workers in the correct method of hand
Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. In order to
educate the workers in better hygienic practices, the correct hand washing method is one of the
topics demonstrated in fish processing units.
The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from
the hands. Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. It is therefore essential that hands be washed
thoroughly. The following procedure for washing hands is recommended:
Wet palms and arms, from the elbow down, with fresh water
Work lather on and around fingers, nails and arms from the elbow down
Rinse palms and hands with fresh water
Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel
Method Of Instruction
Model course evaluation questionnaires
One hour presentation
The need for evaluation
Guidelines for course evaluation
Course evaluation questionnaires
Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use before the session
Trainer self-assessment questionnaire for use after the session
The participants should be aware of the importance of evaluation in training and of methods that
can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
THE NEED FOR EVALUATION
It is not good enough for a trainer to feel self-satisfied with his or her training performance without
evaluating it. All effective trainers not only evaluate or measure the degree of success of their
course; they also evaluate their personal performance at the conclusion of each session or at least
at the end of each training day.
Neglecting to make any attempt at evaluation reflects disinterest and lack of professionalism and is
symptomatic of a non-caring attitude. Evaluation is a must; it is an integral part of effective
To improve training by discovering which training processes are successful in achieving
their objectives (to "sort out the good from the bad")
Evaluation affects learning
If we set examinations at the end of a course we affect the nature of learning
If we study trainees' job behaviour after a course we have generally changed their job
Since testing affects learning we can use it as a training aid
Two aspects of evaluation
Trainer evaluation (self-evaluation)
Guidelines For Course Evaluation :
How well did the trainees enjoy the session(s)/course?
Find out how well the trainees liked a particular training session or sessions or the course
as a whole
Does not include measurement of learning
What principles, facts and techniques were learned?
Written test questions, oral test questions, skill tests
Avoid questions like "Have you learned anything?"
What changes in job behaviour resulted from the training?
Best evaluated through appraisal by on-the-job supervisors
Remember: good trainers have on-the-job experience; they know the best way of doing
What were the tangible results of the training in terms of improved job performance?
Some types of training results are easily measured (e.g. typing)
Others are not easily measured (where management and attitudes are involved)
Course Evaluation Questionnaires
Determine what you want to find out
Use a written comment sheet covering the steps above
Obtain honest reactions by making the form anonymous
Allow trainees to write additional comments not covered by questions
Two model course evaluation questionnaires are included at the end of this module. Model 1 is
intended for evaluation of a complete training course. Model 2 can be used to evaluate either a
specific training session or module or the overall training course.
Trainer Self-Assessment Questionnaire For Use Before The Session
Do the notes show clearly the limited, definite scope of this training session?
Is my session planned to enable my specific purpose to be fully accomplished?
Have I allowed for an adequate introduction; a presentation with participant activity; and a
capitulation which will clinch the chief points?
Have I arranged for all necessary equipment/materials and teaching aids?
Will this step excite the interest of the trainees from the start - is it original or linked
strongly with an emotion-stirring activity, or some matter of topical or personal interest?
Will it pave the way for what is to follow so that the presentation will not discourage or
bore by excessive difficulty?
Will it provoke curiosity and interest for what is to come, generating a need which will be
Does it provide adequate revision of what has gone before?
Is the instruction broken up into steps of reasonable length?
Will each step offer maximum trainee participation and activity?
Will each step win trainee interest and attention?
Will each step offer some way of evaluating the trainees' comprehension before the next
step is undertaken?
If there is a written exercise to be done, have I something useful ready to occupy the
quicker trainees so that slower ones may finish comfortably?
Is there adequate provision for holding the interest of the strongest trainees and giving them
Have I allowed for a period of relief for trainees and myself after a period of intense
Will this step adequately recall and test the vital points of the session?
Have I timed my session so that there is time for this important step?
Will my chalkboard or whiteboard summary show what I expect to appear on the chalkboard at the
end of the session?
Is the arrangement (use of colour, diagrams, etc.) attractive?
Have I thought out ways of obtaining the maximum help from the chalkboard with a minimum loss
of contact with my group during the session?
Are there any parts of the chalkboard that I should not use because they are not clearly visible
because of poor lighting, shining sun, etc.?
How will arrangement of any other visual aids fit in with my use of the chalkboard?
Are there any other aids that will assist me?
What rabbits have I ready to pull out of a hat if interest flags?
Have I taken into consideration the intellectual level of the group, the time of day the session will
take place and interruptions?
Have I thought out how this session will fit into the general syllabus for the group?
Am I sure of the correct pronunciation of unusual words that I will be using during the lesson?
Am I sure of my subject-matter and of the correctness of the questions I intend to use?
Am I sufficiently familiar with my questions and steps to be able to carry on the session at
maximum effective speed without allowing the thin edge of the wedge of inattention to be inserted?
Trainer Self-Assessment Questionnaire For Use After The Session
Was my voice clearly audible in all parts of room?
Was it restrained enough not to irritate trainees or disturb other session leaders?
Did I vary the speed, pitch, volume and tone so as to give maximum interest to whatever I
Was my manner reasonable, brisk and alert?
Did I sincerely convey a sense of earnestness and enthusiasm for what I was instructing?
Was my manner reasonably pleasant and general without being affectedly so?
Did I get off to a clean brisk start, stimulating the group from the beginning?
Did I stand in such a position that I could be seen and heard by all trainees?
Did I keep all trainees under my eye and control whenever necessary?
Did I take steps to see that no trainee disturbed the work of the group or failed to take
adequate part in the session?
Did I see that at the beginning of the lesson the floor and chalkboards were clean, the desks
in order, the windows open and the class settled and ready?
Did I have the trainees pulling with or against me?
Did I refuse to be sidetracked?
Were my questions audible to all trainees?
Were most questions easy enough for all trainees to be able to attempt an answer?
Were there some particularly stimulating questions?
Where the response to a question was unsatisfactory, did I take measures to improve the
response (e.g. reframing the question) rather than waste a good question by immediately
giving an answer?
Did my questions follow rapidly without hesitation and uncertainty?
Did I insist on answers being given loudly and clearly?
Did I refrain from unnecessarily repeating answers?
Did I distribute questions widely, encouraging weak trainees?
Did I cover the steps of my session adequately?
Was my recapitulation or other final step unhurried?
Did I maintain my aim throughout the session?
Did I keep as far as possible to the plan of my lesson?
Did my trainees and I enjoy the session?
What did the trainees gain from this session?
What have I learned by leading this session?
Model 1 - COURSE EVALUATION/REACTION QUESTIONNAIRE
To assist in the planning of future courses it would be of great value if you would complete the
sections that follow. Please be frank with your responses. Remember, only your honest reactions
will enable adjustments and improvements to be made. The questions asked may not cover all of
the aspects about which you wish to comment. For that reason a space headed "General comments"
has been provided, and it is hoped that you will use it if appropriate.
Were you comfortable?
What improvements, if any, do you suggest for the accommodation of future courses?
Were the seating arrangements satisfactory?
Could you see and hear satisfactorily?
Were the morning and afternoon sessions well balanced?
Were the subjects covered the ones you expected would be?
Were there any surprises? Why?
Was the coverage sufficiently wide? If not, what subjects would you have liked included?
Was each subject covered in sufficient depth?
Name any that you think were not.
Was the course sufficiently practical in the sense that you will be able to apply knowledge
and skills taught?
Did the subjects sustain your interest?
What additional subjects would you suggest for future courses?
What subjects would you omit from future courses?
Were all sessions presented in a clear and interesting way?
Were there any sessions that left you confused or uncertain? Please specify.
Do you think trainers could have done more to improve their presentations? If so, what?
Were the lengths of sessions satisfactory?
Did the aids used help sustain your interest and understanding? Name any particular aid
that impressed you.
Model 2 - Training Module
You have just completed the training. Now we would like you to tell us about your feelings on
what has just been presented. This information is valuable in helping us make following training
sessions more interesting and useful to you. Below you will find a number of questions dealing
with the just completed training session. Most questions can be answered by circling a number on
the scale to the right of the question. Where a written response is required, please write your reply
clearly in the space provided. Please consider your responses carefully and answer truthfully.
Everything you say will be held in strictest confidence. The information will be used only to help
us make this training activity more responsive to your needs.
Topic discussed: _____________________
1. Relevance of the topic to your job Not relevant Relevant
1 2 3 4 5
2. Clarity of the module's objectives Not clear Very clear
1 2 3 4 5
3. Level of instruction Too basic Too advanced
1 2 3 4 5
4. Lecture coverage Inadequate Very comprehensive
1 2 3 4 5
5. Time allotment Too short Too long
1 2 3 4 5
6. Emphasis on details Too brief Too detailed
1 2 3 4 5
7. Organization and direction Disorganized Well organized
1 2 3 4 5
8. Treatment of the topic Abstract Practical
1 2 3 4 5
9. Additional comments you may have on these or other aspects of the content of this training
II. Training aids and handouts
1. Effectiveness of teaching aids Not effective Very effective
1 2 3 4 5
2. Readability of Not readable Very readable
____________________* 1 2 3 4 5
3. Clarity of message of Not clear Very clear
____________________* 1 2 3 4 5
4. Appeal of Not appealing Very appealing
____________________* 1 2 3 4 5
5. Usefulness of Not useful Useful
____________________* 1 2 3 4 5
* Here you would insert the names of instructional aids used: handouts, slides, videos, overhead
6. Additional remarks you may have on these or other aspects of the teaching methods, aids, and
handouts used in the training session
1. Mastery of the subject Not
1 2 3 4 5
2. Ability to transfer/communicate information and
Very poor Excellent
1 2 3 4 5
3. Ability to arouse and sustain interest Very poor Excellent
1 2 3 4 5
4. Openness to ideas of trainees Not receptive Receptive
1 2 3 4 5
5. Encouragement of trainee participation Did not encourage Encouraged
1 2 3 4 5
6. Time management Very poor Excellent
1 2 3 4 5
7. Speed in talking Too slow Too fast
1 2 3 4 5
8. Clarity of speech Not clear Clear
1 2 3 4 5
9. Additional remarks on these or other aspects of the instructor's effectiveness
1. Please state the three most important ideas or concepts that you have learned from this session
2. Suggestion(s) to improve the session
V. Training logistics/administration
1. Quality of the meals Very poor Very good
1 2 3 4 5
2. Quality of accommodation Very poor Very good
1 2 3 4 5
3. Quality of transportation Very poor Very good
1 2 3 4 5
4. Contact with staff members Very poor Very good
1 2 3 4 5
5. Quality of training facilities Very poor Very good
1 2 3 4 5
5. Please use the space below to indicate any suggestions you might have that will help us to
improve the facilities and administration.
Training and Development in IT/Software Development
The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87
billion by 2008. In 2006, it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%.
IT sector is expected to generate 2.3 million jobs by 2010, according to NASSCOM (National
Association of Software and Service Companies)
With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like
SAP, the need of human resource development has increased.
According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review, there is a direct link between training
investment of the companies and the market capitalization. Those companies with higher training
investment had higher market capitalization. It clearly indicates that the companies which have
successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with
effective results. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance,
which in turn, helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help
in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource.
With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many
companies have now started their own learning centers. As an example, Sun has its own training
department. Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of “My Learning” that offers access to
its vast learning resources to its employees. Companies are investing in both the technical training,
which has always been an essential part in IT industry, as well as in managerial skills
development. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs. As an example,
some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of
the company’s overall revenue.
Areas Covered in Training Programs in IT/Software
The specific areas where training is given in IT/Software Development sector are:
A. Computer Manufacturing
B. EDP/ E- Commerce
D. Maintenance Service
E. Operating jobs, Computer operators, Data Entry
F. System Developing /Programming /Software Engineering
H. Application Programming
I. Research and Development in Peripheral Integration
J. Product Quality Control and Reliability Testing
K. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
L. Database Warehousing and Management
Preferred Training Methods
Some of the training methods of training are:
A. Computer Based Training
B. Internet Based Learning
E. On-the-job (OTJ) Training
F. Distant Learning
J. Job Rotation
For IBM, learning is a strategic enabler of change — an indispensable tool that supports new
initiatives, re-skills our workforce and prepares us to address key market shifts and organizational
transformations, such as those associated with the rapidly approaching on demand era. IBM spends
about US$750 million annually for learning.
Employees spend an estimated 17 million hours each year (about 55 hours per employee) in formal
Either online, through online learning activities or in a traditional classroom. Approximately 47
percent of IBM learning days are now conducted online anywhere, anytime. When given
meaningful learning and developmental opportunities, 79 percent of IBM employees are likely to
stay with the company for at least three years. IBM conducts almost half of all employees training
via e-learning, realizing a cost avoidance of US$579 million over the past two years The Basic
Blue program helps new managers build skills that are necessary to Promote change, align
behavior with new corporate strategies, reduce bureaucracy, emphasize customer focus and inspire
the highest employee performance. Basic Blue is a three-phase approach to management and
leadership development. This learning solution for new IBM managers offers the optimum blend
of learning methods through its five phases:
Phase I — The purpose of Phase I is to immediately bring critical management/ leadership
information to the new IBM manager via a combination of e-learning, simulations, in-field
experiences and second-line coaching.
Phase II — in this phase, employees increase management and leadership skills and build upon
the knowledge gained in Phase I through a five-day, face-to face, experience-based workshop.
Phase III - Advisor — this is a Web-based, online tool developed to support continuous learning
for all managers, including those in nontraditional office situations, and remote and mobile
workers. Advisor has three components: exploring Web-based learning, preparing for the role of
manager and formulating an individual development plan.
Phase IV - The in-class learning lab — this phase comprises two days that focus on experiential,
higher-order learning, personal networking and action learning.
Phase V - Manager ongoing dialogue — an online, shared e-space provides a means for the same
group of managers to collaborate on their chosen management action challenges.
General Electric training
General Electric spends roughly $1 billion on training and education every year.
Hewlett-Packard spent $275 million on training while memory-chip maker Micron Technology
spent $4.8 million on training for its 21,000 employees worldwide this fiscal year. Microsoft
spends "millions" on its army of 70,000.
Infosys Technologies Training
Infosys Technologies spends Rs.750 crore a year on training fresh recruits. The company added
3,192 staff in the first quarter of 2008-09. “This comes to Rs. 2.50 lakh spent on each potential
new employee during a 16-week training period. The 335-acre campus, largest of the nine training
centers of Infosys across India, can accommodate up to 13,500 people at a given time. Apart from
containing attrition at around 13.7 per cent against the industry average of 17 per cent, the training
turned out young men and women with additional ‘soft skills’, including the ability to
communicate clearly, learn efficient team work and decision-making. Close to five per cent of
trainees did not match the job skills required and had to return home.
Cost of training at Infosys Technologies
The cost of training might seem high but in the West, it worked out to $50,000 per trainee as
compared to $6,000 here, he explained. “If our universities upgraded and made the teaching
methods more industry and employment-oriented, the IT sector need not spend that much for
training. On our part, we can claim having contributed 50,000 trained persons so far to the
workforce,” he said.
Infosys has its on-campus job skills programme, Campus Connect, covering 510 engineering
colleges in several regions. So far, 2,300 faculties have been trained on industry needs like better
understanding of concepts involved in work such as software engineering.
Wipro Technology Training
Wipro Technology has been awarded by the American Society for Training and Development
(ASTD) for its employee training and development activities. Wipro was ranked sixth among the
39 companies, which won the ASTD's BEST awards. Wipro has won the award for the third year
in a row. ASTD is an association dedicated to workplace learning. Seven other Indian companies,
including Reliance Petroleum, Infosys Technologies, ICICI Bank and Hindustan Petroleum also
won the award. Reliance Petroleum made it to the top five. The award is given to companies
based on the evidence that the employee training programmes have added to the companies'
overall performance and that the companies have made a significant investment in building talent.
BEST is an acronym for 'build talent enterprise wide, supported by the leaders, through
learning'. “The award winners are chosen from amongst 71 entries from across the world and the
winners set the standards for excellence and foster a good learning culture,”
The company spends one per cent of its total revenue on training. The company has eight
dedicated employee training centers with four in Bangalore. These centers impart training in HR,
leadership skills, behavioural skills and cross-culture training. The centers train about 3,500
employees daily. Wipro also has a dedicated learning centre for its Japanese businesses, in
Chennai. "The Japanese market is the hardest to penetrate and also very complicated
Cognizant Technological Solutions Training
At Cognizant, middle-level managers are provided with continuous learning and development
opportunities. They are also groomed for senior leadership positions through a combination of
technical and non-technical training. In addition to technical training, soft-skills such as leadership,
team building and development, assessment centers, presentation skills, and workshops on self-
awareness, are the other areas of focus.
Further, every employee of Cognizant needs to undergo 10 person-days of training to ensure that
the quality of the workforce, and therefore that of the organizations, is continuously updated and
Through this, the organisation combines a proactive readiness to service emerging demand patterns
and also a reactive fulfillment of current skill requirements in the customer market.
Interestingly, Cognizant has made both the management development program (MDP) at IIM
Bangalore and the Project Management Professional (PMP) certification mandatory for all mid-
level professionals for promotion and career growth, he says.
The training at Cognizant also includes pursuing higher education such as MS in Software
Engineering and MS in e-Business (the company has a tie-up with BITS, Pilani) and MBA (it has a
tie-up with The British Open University). This organisation also regularly sends its middle and
senior management professionals to IIM Bangalore for a customized two-week residential
management development program (MDP).
Cognizant also provides opportunities for its middle and senior level professionals to undergo
certifications in domains, processes and project management.
The company allocates approximately four per cent of its revenue for training across all levels. The
mandatory MDP at IIM Bangalore, PMP certification and Assessment Centre alone costs the
organisation more than Rs one lakh per employee per year at the mid-and-senior levels
Training programs focusing on new technology helps in deploying the knowledge required to
deliver value to a company's customers. "Apart from several other critical factors, providing
opportunity to associates for upgrading their skills also plays a significant role in retention," he
says. In Polaris, continuous learning is built into the career-path of all the associates.
Training and Development in Retail-FMCG Sector
Retail/FMCG Sector is the most booming sector in the Indian economy and is expected to reach
US$ 175-200 billion by 2016. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players in the
sector, the need of human resource development has increased. Lack of skilled workers is the
major factor that is holding back the retail sector for high growth. The sector is facing the severe
shortage of trainers. Also, the current education system is not sufficiently prepared to address the
new processes, according the industry majors.
Training Programs in Retail/FMCG Sector
Some of the training programs that are given in the retail sector are:
A. Sales Training
B. On-the-Job Training
D. Customer Relationship Management
E. Online Course
F. Group Study
G. Computer-Based Training
H. Self-Directed Training
The Training and Development effort at Colgate-Palmolive is a direct outcome of the Individual
Development Plan and the Business need. The business critical and individual specific needs are
identified every year and a training needs inventory is drawn up.
Colgate's leadership position in the global marketplace is directly linked to the skill of our
employees. Practical learning and professional growth are critical to our continued success. We
invest generously in the training and education of Colgate people.
Our commitment to skill development includes:
Formal classroom study
Sharing best practices, globally
Developing practical work applications based on real-world learnings.
Training in Banking and Insurance Sector
Favorable economic climate and number of other factors such as, growing urbanization, increasing
consumerism, rise in the standard of living, increase in financial services for people living in rural
areas, etc has increased the demand for wide range of financial products that has led to mutually
beneficial growth to the banking sector and economic growth process. This was coincided by
technology development in the banking operations. Today most of the Indian cities have
networked banking facility as well as Internet banking facility. Some of the major players in the
banking sector are State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank,
In the Insurance sector also, rapid expansion has created about 5 lakh job opportunities
approximately in the past five years. These openings are mainly in the field of insurance advisors
or marketing agents. The eligibility criteria for these jobs is graduation with some experience in
marketing or become insurance agents after completing school but this needs some relevant
training. Earlier there were no training programs as such for insurance agents but on-the-job
training only that was given once the new agent was appointed. But now the scenario has been
changed, with the coming up of big players like ICICI Life Insurance, ICICI Lombard, HDFC Life
Insurance, Tata AIG General Insurance, etc in this sector, people who've had some formal training
are preferred while recruitment because it can be helpful in the insurance field. However, only the
insurance degree in this field does not guarantee success. To be successful an agent must have
strong interpersonal, networking, and communication skills.
Number of opportunities in Banking and Insurance sector has increased than ever before. With this
rapid expansion and coming up of major players like ICICI, HDFC, UTI, Bajaj Allianz, etc in the
sector, the need of human resource development has increased.
Training and Development in Telecom Sector
Telecom is one of the fastest growing sectors in India with a growth of 21% and revenue of Rs
86,720 crore in the year 2006. The sector is expected to grow over 150% by 2012. With increase in
competition between the major players like BSNL, MTNL, Hutchison Essar, BPL, Idea, Bharti
Tele services, Tata, etc, the requirement for mobile analysts, software engineers, and hardware
engineers for mobile handsets has increased. However, holding an engineering degree is not
enough to survive in the Telecom Sector. There is constant need of updating of knowledge, skills,
With this rapid growth in Telecom Sector, the need for trained professionals in bound to rise and
so is the training need. The total training
Market in Telecom Sector is estimated to be Rs 400 crore.
Many top players are spending a huge amount on training and development, for example BSNL
alone spends more than 100 crore on training and development of its employees through the
Advanced Level Telecommunications Training Centre (ALTTC) and 43 other regional training
institutes. Reliance has also established Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and
Communication Technology. In addition to that, Bharti has also tied-up with IIT Delhi for the
Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and Management.
With the increase in competition, availability of huge amount of information through internet,
magazines, newspapers, TV, etc, and increased awareness among customers, the demand to impart
proper training in non-technological areas like customer care and marketing has increased too.
Rapid technological changes, network security threat, mobile application development, growing IP
deployment in the sector have brought back the training and development in the priority catalog.
Training and Development in KPO Sector
KPO is Knowledge Processing Outsourcing, not to be confused with BPO, which is Business
Processing Outsourcing. KPO is about providing knowledge based services in the areas like
market research, business research, financial research, legal services, etc., while BPO is about
providing customer care services, technical support, tele-sales etc. KPO market is expected to
grow from US $ 1.3 billion in the year 2003 to US $ 17 billion in the year 2010. KPO sector is
expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 49.5% till 2010. According to
the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM),
But according to Research, a UK based research firm, KPO sector will be able to reach 100,000
employees only instead of 250,000 employees. Therefore, to fill the demand and supply gap
training has now become an important tool like every other technical industry.
With the expected increase in number of employees, training has become the core of KPO industry
as well. No matter how much qualified the person is he needs to be trained on processes. As the
name itself implies, "knowledge", this sector requires high level of functional know-how as well as
domain know-how. There is a constant need of well-planned training programs as the work profile
requires understanding of market research objectives and methodologies. This sector requires
behavioral training as well as training to handle stress because of odd working hours.
If a person is committed to deliver quality, and is willing to learn with positive attitude then
definitely KPO is the right place to work for him.
Training and Development in BPO Industry
BPO is Business Process Outsourcing. It is an agreement between two parties for specific business
task. The BPO industry is growing at an annual growth rate of 14% and is expected to cross
$310 billion by 2008. Job seekers prefer BPO's over other sectors because it is providing high
jobs to graduates/undergraduates. To deliver desired services to customer, who is 10,000 miles
away, it is important to have good amount of business knowledge and required expertise.
The various reasons behind the increasing training need in the BPO industry are:
1. BPO industry is expected to generate 1.1 million jobs by 2008, and 6 million jobs by 2015,
which is why training need has increased more than ever before.
2. High attrition rate in this sector reason being unsatisfied employee, monotonous work,
neglected talent, inadequate know-how, etc
3. Coming up of high profile BPOs
Training has become a major tool to retain employees. People working in BPO sector face the
problem of night shift, job stress that results in de motivation. Well designed training program
with clear career path increases the job satisfaction among the young professionals and help
them in becoming efficient and effective at the work place. Therefore, organizations have to
handle such challenges of meeting training needs, although, the sector is taking a lot of
initiatives in conducting training for new joinees. Companies are now aligning business goals
with training costs. But what more important is, is the development of the skills of middle
management. Various BPO's have an elaborate training infrastructure that includes
Computer-Based Training rooms, and specially trained and qualified in-house trainers.
The companies are now busy designing training programs for their employees. These
companies try identifying the strengths and weaknesses and are emphasizing more on their
personalities, problem-solving skills, and leadership skills.
With constant change in processes, technologies, techniques, methods, etc, there is a constant
need of updating, developing and training the BPO employees to consistently deliver customer
Training and Development in Pharmaceutical Sector
India Pharmaceutical market is valued at about US $8 billion and is expected to reach to US $12
billion by 2010. Indian pharmaceutical market is 2% of world's pharmaceutical market. In the
last two years, 3900 new generic products have been launched because of which its market
value has been increased to about US $355 million.
Growth in Pharmaceutical Sector
This rapid growth has also increased the training need of the sector.
Supply Chain Visibility
Preferred Training Methods
Some of the preferred training methods are:
Web based training
Class room training
Training and Development in Hospitality Sector
Hospitality sector is growing at a very fast rate in India. The sector is growing at a rate of
approximately 8%. This sector can be classified into hotel industry, travel and tourism,
restaurants, pubs, clubs and bars, contract catering, and aviation. Other than that, opportunities
also exist in universities, sporting venues, exhibition centers and smaller events management
The major challenge of this sector is shortage of skilled employees along with the challenge of
attrition rate. Skilled chefs and managers are in great demand. Managers require huge range of
competencies such as, people management, viable skills, business insights, analytic skills,
succession planning, and Resource development in order to get success in this sector. In
addition to that, employees are not enough trained on Business Etiquettes, Courtesy, and
Business Communication. Hospitality is all about handling people. So an employee must have
right attitude, tolerance, and listening skills in order to move up the hierarchy. There is still a
long way to go to inculcate good public relation, interpersonal skills.
With the increase in competition due to the coming up of major players like Four Seasons,
Shangri-La, Aman Resorts, etc the need to train employees has increased more than ever
before. The major players are now strategizing to increase the turnover of the customers by
training their employees on Communication, Dining and Business etiquettes, etc. Some of the
essentials required by this sector are:
Quality of content
Certification of training course
Effective Training evaluation
Training Programs are available for the following areas:
Food and Beverage Service
To begin with we spoke to several people from various sectors of the industry, such as software/
financial services/ consultancies. Further to many requests from our sources names and identity of
a few have been with held.
Our next door neighbors INFOSYS had a very positive outlook towards training programs when
we spoke to them. Whilst our conversation with them we asked them various aspects regarding
training programs most were answered and a few details weren’t spared as a part of the company
policy. Further to our discussions with the employees of Infosys we could conclude most of the
training programs were forecasted from the time their project was in the pipeline. The major
objective of their training program would be to empower their employees with the adequate skill
sets to step into any project they are placed in.
Following is the conversation which was recorded during our interaction with the employees of
1. How do you design your training program?
Based on new projects, market research and project in the pipeline(forth coming project) , we
determine if there is a gap in the skills and then either an internal or external training is organized
with help domain or technical expert, also by inviting professional training institutes trainer.
2. What is your training methodology?
Before joining the project employee should be through in tool he going to use for the project work.
3. How much you spend on the training of ksa (knowledge, skill, and attitude) of your
Not known to us.
4. How do you evaluate your training process?
There is exam after each training program which u need to clear.
Infosys Technologies Ltd.
The training program at Bank Of America is based on the needs of the client and the requirements
of the project to be implemented. The training methodology at Bank Of America is outsourced to a
private institute. The organization identifies a institute which can provide the requisite skills
needed for a particular project and the employees are sent to that institute for the required training
program. The Bank of America spends around $10,000 on each employee for each training
program; monetary issues are not a concern where training is concerned. The evaluation of the
training provided is done through feedback forms, where the employees are asked to relate their
experiences and to suggest any improvements. The employees are also asked to undergo a test
after their training program to test their learning and the relevance of the training program.
The main problem with the training programme is when employees don’t turn up for the training
programme. This is overcome by levying fines on erring employees and asking them to undergo
that particular module once again. The other problem is regarding employee interest in learning
something new. Employees who are genuinely interested to increase their work skills have to be
choosen for the training programme, otherwise it would lead to lackluster performances which
would effect the project adversely.
This training process has been found out to be very effective and has provided excellent outcomes
for the organization. It has also increased the job skill set of the employees which has been a boon
for the organization.
REFERENCE: Mr.Chittaranjan Ghosh
Sr. Systems Engineer
Corporate Treasury Technology
Bank of America
Ph# 040-23145000 (Extn – 2016)
Based on the new projects that the organization receives, they determine if there is a gap in
the skills possessed by the employees and then there is an internal training programme conducted
to upgrade the skill set of the employees. These training programmes are organized with the help
of SME(subject matter expert) and COE(center of excellence). The job of the SME is to recognize
the skills required to complete a particular project and to find relevant material for the training
programme. The SME is helped in this process by the Center of Excellence.
1. How do you design your training program?
Based on new projects, we determine if there is a gap in the skills and then either an internal
training is organized with help of SME(Subject Matter Expert) or using COE (Center of
Excellence). In cases where SME and COE cannot impart training , HR conducts training inviting
professional training institutes
2. How much you spend on the training of ksa (knowledge, skill, and attitude) of your
Its normally 3 weeks of training per year.
3. How do you evaluate your training process?
There is a feedback form after each training session. Based on feedback especially in external
trainers it is decided if the trainer can be invited next time for similar training
Gupta, Ashish (MLITS)
Merrill lynch - 9833767848