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Chapter 3 sensation and perception notes

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Chapter 3 sensation and perception notes

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Sensation andChapter 3 Sensation and PerceptionPerception  Sensation occurs when special receptorsSensation occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowingin the sense organs are activated, allowing various forms of outside stimuli to becomevarious forms of outside stimuli to become neural signals in the brain. This is calledneural signals in the brain. This is called TransductionTransduction  Sensory Receptors- Specialized forms ofSensory Receptors- Specialized forms of neurons that do not receiveneurons that do not receive neurotransmitters, but are stimulated byneurotransmitters, but are stimulated by other forms of energyother forms of energy
  2. 2. Sensory ThresholdsSensory Thresholds  Weber’s Law of Just noticeableWeber’s Law of Just noticeable difference (JND)- The smallestdifference (JND)- The smallest difference between two stimuli that isdifference between two stimuli that is detectable 50% of the timedetectable 50% of the time – Ex. Add 1 teaspoon to 5 = 1/5 or 20%Ex. Add 1 teaspoon to 5 = 1/5 or 20% Also 20% of 10 teaspoons it 2/10=1/5Also 20% of 10 teaspoons it 2/10=1/5 Comparisons between 2 stimuliComparisons between 2 stimuli  Absolute Threshold- Lowest level ofAbsolute Threshold- Lowest level of stimulation that a person canstimulation that a person can consciously detect 50% of the time theconsciously detect 50% of the time the stimulation is presentstimulation is present
  3. 3. SensorySensory Thresholds/Habituation andThresholds/Habituation and Sensory AdaptationSensory Adaptation  Subliminal Perception- Stimuli that areSubliminal Perception- Stimuli that are below the level of conscious awarenessbelow the level of conscious awareness  Habituation- Tendency of the brain to stopHabituation- Tendency of the brain to stop noticing constant, unchanging informationnoticing constant, unchanging information from the ears. Ex. Hum of air conditionerfrom the ears. Ex. Hum of air conditioner  Sensory Adaptation- Tendency of sensorySensory Adaptation- Tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive toreceptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging.a stimulus that is unchanging. – Pertains to sight, touch, taste and smellPertains to sight, touch, taste and smell – Feel of clothes would drive us nuts!Feel of clothes would drive us nuts!
  4. 4. Sensory AdaptationSensory Adaptation  The eyes are different. They are neverThe eyes are different. They are never that adapted to what we see otherwisethat adapted to what we see otherwise we would eventually go blind fromwe would eventually go blind from seeing things so oftenseeing things so often
  5. 5. QuizQuiz
  6. 6. Sight- PerceptualSight- Perceptual Properties of LightProperties of Light  Three aspects to the perception ofThree aspects to the perception of light:light: – 1. Brightness- determined by the aptitude1. Brightness- determined by the aptitude of the wave; how high/low the wave isof the wave; how high/low the wave is  Higher the wave=brighterHigher the wave=brighter – 2. Color- determined by the length of the2. Color- determined by the length of the wavewave  Long wavelengths= redLong wavelengths= red – 3. Saturation- purity of the color3. Saturation- purity of the color determined by the purity of thedetermined by the purity of the wavelengthswavelengths
  7. 7. Structure of the EyeStructure of the Eye  Cornea- clear membrane that covers theCornea- clear membrane that covers the eyeeye – Protects eye and focuses lightProtects eye and focuses light  Pupil- Iris hole in which light enters the eyePupil- Iris hole in which light enters the eye  Iris- Muscle that controls the size of pupilIris- Muscle that controls the size of pupil and how much light enters eyeand how much light enters eye  Lens- Finishes the focusing processLens- Finishes the focusing process – As lens hardens, as you age, sight gets worseAs lens hardens, as you age, sight gets worse  Visual Accommodation- The change in theVisual Accommodation- The change in the thickness of the lens as the eye changesthickness of the lens as the eye changes focus on far away/close objectsfocus on far away/close objects
  8. 8. Structure of the EyeStructure of the Eye  Retina- Last stop for light that containsRetina- Last stop for light that contains 3 layers; ganglion cells, bipolar cells3 layers; ganglion cells, bipolar cells and special cells (photoreceptors)and special cells (photoreceptors) – Photoreceptors respond to rods andPhotoreceptors respond to rods and conescones  Rods- sensory receptors responsible for non-Rods- sensory receptors responsible for non- color sensitivity to low levels of lightcolor sensitivity to low levels of light – Found all over the eye except the center-peripheralFound all over the eye except the center-peripheral visionvision – All connected to one bipolar cell so the brainAll connected to one bipolar cell so the brain doesn’t know exactly which rod the signal isdoesn’t know exactly which rod the signal is coming from so hard to see in low lightcoming from so hard to see in low light
  9. 9. Structure of the EyeStructure of the Eye  Cones- sensory receptors responsible forCones- sensory receptors responsible for color and sharpness of visioncolor and sharpness of vision – Found only in center of eyeFound only in center of eye – Turn photons of light into neuron signals to brainTurn photons of light into neuron signals to brain – Send signals to bipolar cells that send signals toSend signals to bipolar cells that send signals to ganglion cellsganglion cells Light travels through the cornea andLight travels through the cornea and past the iris, through the pupil and intopast the iris, through the pupil and into the lens and on to the retina where it isthe lens and on to the retina where it is transformed into nerve impulsestransformed into nerve impulses
  10. 10. How the Eye WorksHow the Eye Works  Dark Adaptation- Eye recovers it’s ability toDark Adaptation- Eye recovers it’s ability to see when going from very bright to darksee when going from very bright to dark – The brighter the light the longer toThe brighter the light the longer to readapt to darkreadapt to dark – As person gets older longer it takes toAs person gets older longer it takes to adapt to darkadapt to dark – Rods adapt to dark, but do not seeRods adapt to dark, but do not see sharplysharply  Light Adaptation- Recovery of eye’sLight Adaptation- Recovery of eye’s sensitivity to light after being in the darksensitivity to light after being in the dark – Cones adapt to lightCones adapt to light
  11. 11. Perception of ColorPerception of Color  How people see colorHow people see color – Trichromatic Theory- Three types ofTrichromatic Theory- Three types of cones; red, blue and greencones; red, blue and green – The combinations of cones and rates atThe combinations of cones and rates at which the neurons are fired determine thewhich the neurons are fired determine the colorscolors – Afterimage- vision of an object is stillAfterimage- vision of an object is still seen after the object is removed fromseen after the object is removed from sight, though the colors are all wrong!sight, though the colors are all wrong!  Flag experimentFlag experiment
  12. 12. Perception of ColorPerception of Color  Opponent-Process theory- FourOpponent-Process theory- Four primary colors with cones arranged inprimary colors with cones arranged in pairs; red-green and yellow-bluepairs; red-green and yellow-blue – If one color is stimulated the other is notIf one color is stimulated the other is not working: when one color is seen a lot itworking: when one color is seen a lot it tires out so the other can take overtires out so the other can take over
  13. 13. Color BlindnessColor Blindness  3 kinds of color blindness3 kinds of color blindness – Monochrome= either have no cones or theMonochrome= either have no cones or the cones do not workcones do not work  See only shades of graySee only shades of gray – Red-green= either red or green cones do notRed-green= either red or green cones do not workwork – Blue= blue cones do not work only see red,Blue= blue cones do not work only see red, green and graygreen and gray  More men are color blind than womenMore men are color blind than women  Color blindness is recessiveColor blindness is recessive  Men only need one recessive geneMen only need one recessive gene  Y chromosome does not have the gene that preventsY chromosome does not have the gene that prevents colorblindnesscolorblindness  Women need two recessive genesWomen need two recessive genes
  14. 14. QuizQuiz
  15. 15. Hearing-Perception ofHearing-Perception of SoundSound  Sound waves are the vibrations ofSound waves are the vibrations of molecules of airmolecules of air  Have the same properties as light wavesHave the same properties as light waves  Wavelengths are interpreted as frequencyWavelengths are interpreted as frequency or pitchor pitch  Amplitude is interpreted as volumeAmplitude is interpreted as volume  Purity is interpreted as timbre (pure tones)Purity is interpreted as timbre (pure tones)  Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz)Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz)  Most accurate hearing is at 1,000 HzMost accurate hearing is at 1,000 Hz
  16. 16. Structure of the EarStructure of the Ear  Outer EarOuter Ear – Pinna is the outside of the ear that funnels soundPinna is the outside of the ear that funnels sound – Pinna is entrance to auditory canal (ear canal)Pinna is entrance to auditory canal (ear canal) that leads to eardrumthat leads to eardrum – Tiny bones vibrate sound waves hit themTiny bones vibrate sound waves hit them  Middle Ear (Hammer, Anvil, & Stirrup)Middle Ear (Hammer, Anvil, & Stirrup) – The three tiny bones are; hammer, anvil & stirrupThe three tiny bones are; hammer, anvil & stirrup – Named for the shapes of the bonesNamed for the shapes of the bones – Stirrup vibrates a membrane covering theStirrup vibrates a membrane covering the opening to the inner earopening to the inner ear
  17. 17. Structure of the EarStructure of the Ear  Inner Ear (Oval window)Inner Ear (Oval window) – Cochlea-snail shaped structure filled withCochlea-snail shaped structure filled with fluid that vibratesfluid that vibrates – Basilar membrane- in the middle of theBasilar membrane- in the middle of the cochlea that houses the organ of corticochlea that houses the organ of corti – Organ of corti contains receptor cells forOrgan of corti contains receptor cells for hearinghearing – Sound waves go through pinna, vibrateSound waves go through pinna, vibrate the eardrum, vibrates the hammer, anvilthe eardrum, vibrates the hammer, anvil & stirrup, vibrates the oval window, fluid& stirrup, vibrates the oval window, fluid in cochlea vibrates, basilar membranein cochlea vibrates, basilar membrane vibrates, Corti bends hair cells, signalvibrates, Corti bends hair cells, signal sent to brain.sent to brain.
  18. 18. Structure of the EarStructure of the Ear  Louder the sound=stronger theLouder the sound=stronger the vibrations=stimulates more hairvibrations=stimulates more hair cells=sound interpreted as loudcells=sound interpreted as loud
  19. 19. Theories of PitchTheories of Pitch  Pitch- how low or high a sound isPitch- how low or high a sound is  Place theory- the pitch a person hearsPlace theory- the pitch a person hears depends on where the hair cells thatdepends on where the hair cells that are stimulated areare stimulated are  Frequency theory- Pitch depends onFrequency theory- Pitch depends on how fast the basilar membranehow fast the basilar membrane vibrates; slow=lowvibrates; slow=low  Both theories are correctBoth theories are correct – Place theory=above 1,000 HzPlace theory=above 1,000 Hz – Frequency theory=below 100 HzFrequency theory=below 100 Hz
  20. 20. Theories of PitchTheories of Pitch  Volley Principal= After 100 Hz theVolley Principal= After 100 Hz the auditory neurons take turns firingauditory neurons take turns firing  If sound is at 300 Hz there are 3If sound is at 300 Hz there are 3 groups of neurons at 100 Hz eachgroups of neurons at 100 Hz each
  21. 21. Types of HearingTypes of Hearing ImpairmentsImpairments  Conduction Hearing Impairment-Conduction Hearing Impairment- Sound not passed from eardrum toSound not passed from eardrum to cochlea= damage to eardrum/bones-cochlea= damage to eardrum/bones- hearing aid may helphearing aid may help  Nerve Hearing Impairment-Nerve Hearing Impairment- – Inner ear, auditory pathways, or corticalInner ear, auditory pathways, or cortical areas are damaged.areas are damaged. – Aging, or exposure to loud noisesAging, or exposure to loud noises – Damage to the hair cells in the cochlea.Damage to the hair cells in the cochlea. – Tinnitus – ringing in one’s earsTinnitus – ringing in one’s ears

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