Methodology – Design and Equipment
50 female participants with low dietary restraint were recruited to take part (mean age: 21.4 years). All
participants were regular breakfast eaters (>5 times per week) and non-obese.
Energy content (HE=279kcal, LE=78kcal) manipulated by the addition of 35g maltodextrin and 25g of
whey protein. Sensory properties were altered by the addition of tara gum to increase viscosity, milk
caramel flavour and vanilla extract to increase the creaminess. The drinks were described as a “tropical
fruit lassi” and presented in transparent plastic bottle with or without a label attached.
Two labels suggesting either high satiety
(“Stay full”) or low satiety (“Lighter”) were used.
Methodology - Procedure and Diary Analysis
Participants attended the Lab for 4 short sessions:
1. Training session – familiarise Ps with the recording pack and completing the food diary.
2. 1st Test session *
3. 2nd Test session*
•Combined, the food diaries, recording cups (only used where appropriate) and photographs provide
a detailed record of food and drink consumption and patterns of intake.
•Photographs thought to limit underreporting in two ways:
1. Awareness of experimenter viewing images increases motivation to make accurate
2. Pictures allow a more accurate encoding of items consume
• Participants offered an optional nutritional breakdown of the two days to increase motivation to
keep accurate records.
•12 mp Digital camera
Background and Aims
• Individuals hold expectations about the satiety consequences of the food they consume
• Oro-sensory quality (thick mouthfeel and creamy flavour) and satiety relevant-labelling are two factors
thought to influence the satiety expectations of a drink preload .
• New research from our laboratory indicates that the satiating power of a drink preload is enhanced
when satiety expectations match the actual energy content.
N = 50 High sensory Low sensory
High energy Low energy High energy Low energy
No label HSHE no label HSLE no label LSHE no label LSLE no label
Congruent HSHE high satiety label HSLE low satiety label LSHE high satiety label LSLE low satiety label
Incongruent HSHE low satiety label HSLEhigh satiety label LSHE low satiety label LSLE high satiety label
3-factor mixed design aimed to
assess the satiating effect of 6
novel drink preloads on self
reported intake of free living
females Analysing the food diaries
• Diet plan 6.6 nutritional analysis software used to encode diary records(see www.foresoft.co.uk).
• Experimenter was blind to the experimental condition during analysis.
1. Changes in rated appetite – hunger and fullness ratings measured before and after drink using the
Sussex Ingestion Pattern Monitor (SIPM) (see www.sipm.co.uk).
2. Free living intake following drink consumption – time (minutes) and size (kcal) of first „episode‟ of
consumption; total calories consumed each day (kcal); both measured using 24 hour food diary.
We predicted that high satiety labelling would enhance the effect of sensory and energy content so that
intake would be most diminished after consuming the HSHE preload labelled „Stay full‟.
Enhancing satiety in the real world.
Keri McCrickerd1, Martin Yeomans1, Lucy Chambers1, Laura Jansz1, Lydia Stables1, Harvey Ells2 and Ken Woodward2,
1School of Psychology, University of Sussex
2School of Service Management, University of Brighton
Keri McCrickerd firstname.lastname@example.org +441273
Prof Martin Yeomans email@example.com +44 1273 678617
Yeomans and Chambers (unpublished)
DeCastro , J.M. (1994). Appetite, 23, 179-192
DeCastro , J.M. (2010). Physiology and Behavior, 446-453
• Photographs were analysed along side each diary –
important when accounting for leftovers.
≥ 120 mins 15 mins
Eat + record
between 10-11 am;
rate appetite and
drink, record in
Start diary Complete diary until bed
•Once identified, items were summed together (if appropriate) into episodes of consumption.
•Classifying reported intake into an individual „episode‟ of consumption followed three simple
definitions >10kcal/10 minutes
>50 kcal/ 20 minutes
>100 kcal/40 minutes
• However, we need to increase our understanding of how products designed to
maximise satiety modify intake in the natural world .
• The present study aims to complement new data from our laboratory (see Yeomans
and Chambers) by measuring free living intake using diet diary methodology.
Table 1. Summary of the drink preload conditions. HS=high Sensory, LS=Low Sensory, HE=high energy, LE=low energy.
Between subject : Sensory, label; Within subject: Energy.
Results – to be determined
In the current study careful analysis of food diaries was used to assess the effect of preloads
(varying in labelling, sensory properties, nutrient and energy content) on self reported naturalistic
Evidence that enhancing the satiating power of food can lead to real world changes in eating
behaviour would support new research from our laboratory and help to inform design rules for the
development of high satiety food and drink products.