Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: SIMLESA Experiences and Lessons

5. May 2015

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Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: SIMLESA Experiences and Lessons

  1. Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa SIMLESA Experiences and Lessons Mulugetta Mekuria and Team SIMLESA Program Leader CIMMYT Southern Africa Regional Office Harare, Zimbabwe Beating Famine Southern Africa Conference Lilongwe, Malawi April 14th – 17th 2015
  2. Outline of the Presentation • The what and Why of Sustainable Intensification(SI) • The Problem Setting • CIMMYT’s and its partners Response: SIMLESA • SIMLESA First Five Years Journey: Lessons and Insights • Take Home messages
  3. The problem setting Low productivity Scarce biomass Land degradation Poor marketsClimate variability Limited resouces
  4. What is SI? • Sustainable intensification (SI) means producing more output from the same area of land while reducing the negative environmental impacts and at the same time improving natural resources and environmental services. • Sustainable intensification is receiving growing attention as a way to address the challenge of feeding an increasingly populous and resource- constrained world
  5. Sustainable Intensification Sustainability •Conserve the natural resource base (Godfray et al., 2010; Pretty et al., 2011; Tilman et al., 2011) •Ecologically and technically sound eg soil quality degradation through erosion, fertility decline •Socially and Culturally acceptable ( Do the technologies fit local farming systems?) •Economically viable (does it make economic sense?) Intensification •Increased yield or outputs per unit area/inputs (Enhance productivity) •Diversification from maize for diet diversification and improved incomes •Integration of crops & livestock •Improved resilience to market shocks and climate risks •Improved efficiency per unit input eg water, labour, capital, inputs Improved food security and livelihoods
  6. Why SI The use of sustainable intensification in current debates is based upon three fundamental assumptions about agricultural production systems in the 21st century(iied,2015) • The world must produce significantly more food in the coming decades to feed a growing, increasingly affluent population. • The arable land base cannot be expanded significantly. Agricultural production must preserve the natural capital on which sustainable and resource use efficient to agriculture relies.
  7. Rationale for Investing in SI (John Dixon ACIAR 2014) The pressure on land, water and energy resources was reflected in increasing prices, for example the crisis in 2008. The declining real prices during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s led to complacency and neglect of public and private investment in agricultural innovation. A commitment to sustainable intensification is the best way to turn this around
  8. • Executed by CIMMYT with financial Grant from ACIAR • Phase 1-2010-2013 SIMLESA2 2014-2018 PARTNERS-NARS • EIAR, KARI, DRD,DARS , IIAM, spill over NARO,RAB, DAR • Regional/International • QAAFI, ARC, ASARECA, ILRI ,CIAT • - CCARDESA(phase2),
  9. SIMLESA Enhancing Integration, Innovation and Impact Vision of Success • To increase maize and legume yields by 30% while sustaining the environment through: • Conservation agriculture practices • Improved maize and legume varieties • Development of markets and value chains, from input supplies to output markets. • To reduce downside yield risks by 30% • To benefit 650,000 farm households within 10 years.
  10. Approaches 3+3- Is INTEGRATION (SYSTEMS) INNOVATION PLATFORMS IMPACT ORIENTATION Information Inputs Institutions/policy Complimentary projects: DTMA, TL-II ACIAR/AIFSC- AP, ZIMCLF, FACASI, TF-ICRAF
  11. System integration: Diversification through Cereal (Maize)-Legume Integration Legumes • Increase soil fertility • Improved nutrition • Supply cashCereal (Maize) • Increased productivity – Ensured food security – Income security -Increase productivity -Increase profitability -Reduce down side risk Forage • Alternative of cattle feeding (residue management) • Improved animal nutrition
  12. The SIMLESA journey 2009 – SIMLESA I formulation workshop, Lilongwe 2010 – teams, field sites, capacity building 2011 – ARPM, Nairobi 2012 – ARPM, Arusha 2013 – ARPM, Chimoio 2014 – ARPM, Addis Ababa Start of SIMLESA II 2015 – ARPM Harare
  13. SIMLESA I (2010 – 2013) Made considerable progress in each of the target countries Ethiopia, Kenya Tanzania, Malawi Mozambique ‘Steady flight path’
  14. SIMLESA I (2010 – 2013) • Characterization of maize-legume production and value chain systems; • Testing of promising smallholder maize-legume cropping systems; • Increasing the range of maize and legume varieties available for smallholders; • Developing regional and local innovations systems; • Substantial capacity building of agricultural research partners
  15. 1. Strengths of SIMLESA-1 • considered as a model for Effective partnerships -NARS and other major donors’ testimonies • Multi-stakeholder • NARS empowered and enabled to make good amount of operational decisions on program activities and thrust • NARS receive a relatively higher funds compared to other projects • Joint data ownership with NARS • Developed good collaboration and partnership arrangements between CIMMYT and NARS based on trust and respect between players • NARS empowered and enabled to make decisions on program activities and thrust • Joint presentations and development of publications between CIMMYT and NARS
  16. • NARS participation at high Profile conferences and congresses- paper and poster presentations- • Journal articles published • 5th World Congress on CA -Brisbane, Australia -2011 • 6th World Congress on CA Winnipeg ,Canada June 2014 • International Agronomy Conference-India 2012 • International Agricultural Economics Conference, August 2012 Brazil • Other country and regional meetings( IACAC, AGRF, FARA..) 2. Science outputs
  17. 3. SIMLESA: BEING INSTITUIONALIZED AS NARS STARATEGY / FRAMEWORK • Systems and integrated approach • Value Chain Analysis • Innovation Platforms • Mainstreaming Gender • Institutionalizing and capacity building in M&E
  18. TRENDS OF SIPS ADOPTION SPREAD (% HHLDS): KENYA 75 88 72 69 20 2 76 89 72 48 26 4 Improved maize variety Inorganic fertilizer Maize/legume intercrop Crop residue retention Maize/legume rotation Conservation agriculture 2011 (N=613) 2013 (N=535)
  19. ADOPTION OF MAIN SAIPS BY GENDER OF HHEAD (% HHLDS): KENYA 79 71 71 47 59 82 59 53 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Improved maize variety Maize legume intercropping Inorganic fertilizer Crop residue on the farm Male (N=447) Female (N=88) N=535
  20. Country Research communities Targeted and reach Country Target Reached Target Achieved Male Female Total Ethiopia 54 54 10,454 8,781 1,673 10,454 Kenya 38 30 8,913 5,364 8,236 13,600 Tanzania 38 40 8,913 6,715 3,128 9,843 Malawi 36 36 8,022 2,177 2,263 4,440 Mozambique 36 36 8,022 6,222 2,419 8,641 Total 202 196 44,323 29,259 17,719 46,978 Adoption monitoring of technologies/ practices 97% of targeted communities have been reached So far the project has reached 106% of the targeted households
  21. Adoption monitoring of technologies/ practices Country Target and actual adoption Country Targeted adopters Farmer who have Tried Male Female Total Ethiopia 3,800 3,192 608 3,800 Kenya 3,240 1,401 2,066 3,467 Tanzania 3,240 2,088 1,199 3,287 Malawi 2,916 1,137 1,089 2,226 Mozambique 2,916 3,763 2,026 5,789 Total 16,112 11,581 6,988 18,569
  22. Maximum impact through adoption of suites of technologies Additionalincomeduetomultipleadoptionof SIPsinMalawi(inUSD/ha) Note:V-Improvedmaizevarieties;I-legume-maizeintercropping,andR-legume-maize rotation). Input into Agronomist and breeders work
  23. Key lessons • Link farm production with better domestic value chains, often the first step in international trade opportunities • Focus on competitiveness, driven by increased productivity as well as efficient value chains • Engage agribusiness from the start in order to understand market forces, risk and research priorities
  24. Key lessons • Integrate value chains activities with technologies, capacity building and local policy analysis, in innovation platforms • Consult women during project design and implementation • Understand the incentives of all chain members and value chain dynamics within the broader market and trade context
  25. Take home messages Four critical aspects of SI which require particular attention: • systems research and development – beyond disciplinary components; • innovation systems bridging research and scaling out; • policies, institutions and business partnerships; and • monitoring and evaluation of sustainable intensification systems.
  26. SI: The Building Blocks
  27. Come join the SIMLESA Family- with a passion for Impact- They are the future GAME CHANGERS in Agricultural Research and Development
  28. Sustainable intensification through CA in Africa is not only necessary but urgent Acknowledgment SIMLESA Partners including Farmers ACIAR and CIMMYT Colleagues