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algae classification
algae classification
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Algae[1]

  1. 1. Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial Systems General Biology, Systematics, Ecology, and Environmental Impact
  2. 2. Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial Systems • Polyphyletic group: multiple genealogies • Prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria) and Eukaryotic algae (protistans; not true plants) • Autotrophy • Body form: unicellular, filamentous, and multicellular • Diverse group: Over 26,900 eukaryotic algal species described.
  3. 3. Divisions (Phyla) of Algae • Prokaryotic Algae – Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae) – not the first photosynthetic organisms, but ancient (3.5 billion years based on fossil record) – one organelle is present in the form of simple, flattened vesicles called thylakoids (2 photosystems present) – Chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins; prochlorophytes are related species that possess chlorophyll a, b, and (c) – Carbohydrate Reserve: Starch
  4. 4. Single-celled to filamentous blue-green alga or cyanobacterium
  5. 5. Colonial Cyanobacterium • Gleocapsa
  6. 6. Filamentous to semi-multicellular Cyanobacterium • Nostoc
  7. 7. Filamentous Cyanobacterium • Oscillatoria
  8. 8. Divisions of Eukaryotic Algae • Division Rhodophyta (red algae) • Division Chlorophyta (green algae) • Division Chromophyta (= Chrysophyta - golden brown algae, yellow-green algae, diatoms; and Phaeophyta - the brown algae, for example, kelps) • Division Haptophyta • Division Dinophyta (= Pyrrophyta - dinoflagellates) • Division Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) • Division Euglenophyta (Euglena spp.)
  9. 9. Photosynthetic Pigments & Food Reserves Rhodophyta Chlorophyll a; Starch (α-1,4-linked phycoerythrobilin glucan) Chlorophyta Chlorophylls a & b Starch Chromophyta Chlorophylls a, c1, c2; Chrysolaminarin or fucoxanthin laminarin (β-1,3-linked glucan) Haptophyta Chlorophylls a, c1, c2; Chrysolaminarin fucoxanthin (β-1,3-linked glucan) Dinophyta Chlorophylls a, c2; Starch peridinin Cryptophyta Chlorophylls a, c2; Starch phycocyanobilin Euglenophyta Chlorophylls a, b Paramylon (β-1,3- linked glucan)
  10. 10. Unicellular Green Alga
  11. 11. Conjugation – Sexual Reproduction
  12. 12. Filamentous Green Alga
  13. 13. Colonial Green Alga
  14. 14. Multicellular Green Algae Ulva - sea lettuce
  15. 15. Desmid - Cosmarium
  16. 16. Diatoms
  17. 17. Dinoflagellate Algae • Cellulose-containing armor plates that give them a sculpted appearance • most species found in salt-water environments • common cause of red tides - algal blooms
  18. 18. Euglenoids
  19. 19. Red Algae Smithora naiadum - a epiphyte on eel and surf grass Porphyra - nori use to wrap uncooked fish & Pikea robusta other food items
  20. 20. Brown algae Fucus sp. Nereocystis luekeana
  21. 21. Alaskan Kelp Forest
  22. 22. Beneficial Aspects of Algae • Food for humans • Food for invertebrates and fishes in mariculture • Animal feed • Soil fertilizers and conditioners in agriculture • Treatment of waste water • Diatomaceous earth (= diatoms) • Chalk deposits • Phycocolloids (agar, carrageenan from red algae; alginates from brown algae) • Drugs • Model system for research • Phycobiliproteins for fluorescence microscopy
  23. 23. Detrimental Aspects of Algae • Blooms of freshwater algae • Red tides and marine blooms • Toxins accumulated in food chains • Damage to cave paintings, frescoes, and other works of art • Fouling of ships and other submerged surfaces • Fouling of the shells of commercially important bivalves
  24. 24. Red tide bloom • Prorocentrum micans bloom • Associated with Hurricane Floyd, which ended a dry summer • surface of water slick with this dinoflagellate 9-21-1999
  25. 25. Algal Bloom: Before and After 9-23-1999 9-29-1999
  26. 26. Red Tide
  27. 27. Satellite Imagery of Red Tides
  28. 28. Toxic Phytoplankton & Human poisoning • Paralytic shellfish poisoning - saxitoxin • Neurotxic shellfish poisoning - brevetoxin • Ciguatera fish poisoning - ciguatoxin and maitotoxin • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning - okadaic acid • Amnesic shellfish poisoning - domoic acid • Cyanobacterial neurotoxins - anatoxins • Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins - microcystin, nodularin • Dermatitis - lyngbyatoxin, aplysiatoxin
  29. 29. Bird Sudden Death Syndrome
  30. 30. Bird Sudden Death Syndrome • DeGray Lake, Arkansas; Eagles migrate to area in October and stay through March • Eagles eat fish, the American coot, and other prey items • Winter 1994-1995, 29 eagles were found dead or died of a neurological malady • Winter 1996-1997, pattern repeated itself, leaving 26 bald eagles dead • Die-off of eagles has been reported in North Carolina and Georgia • Coots have been reported to suffer similar symptoms and mortality outbreaks • Why? No one knows? Algal toxins?

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