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Capacity Development
Program in Environment
Management (CDEM)
Module 4: Integrated
Solid Waste
Management
6th February to ...
Overview of
Waste
Streams
Malavika Gopinath, IIT- Bombay
Pranay Krishnan, EMC
6th February 2017
 ‘substances or objects which are disposed of or are
intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed
of by the ...
Municipal Solid Waste
 ‘Solid or semi-solid
domestic waste, sanitary
waste, commercial
waste, institutional
waste, cateri...
5
As per the latest CPCB data available (2014) the net MSW generation in the
country is estimated to 143,000 tonnes/day (5...
6
IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
47%
8%
8%
1%
1%
5%
30%
MSW Composition for
India
(CPCB, 2014)
Organic
material
Paper
Rubber
Metal
Glass
Rags
Others
& Iner...
E-waste
 ‘electrical and electronic equipment, whole or in
part discarded as waste by the consumer or bulk
consumer as we...
9
• Globally, it is estimated that the total amount e-waste generated in
2014 was 41.8 million metric tonnes (MMT) which i...
10
• India sold 300 million CFLs in 2010, and considering that the average life of a
CFL in India is 4 years10, about 300 ...
Biomedical Waste
 ‘Any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis,
treatment or immunisation of human beings or anima...
•For Maharashtra, the generation of BMW in 2010
was reported to be 47 tonnes/day (MPCB,2010)
•average BMW generation per b...
Hazardous Waste
 ‘Any waste which by reason of characteristics such as
physical, chemical, biological, reactive, toxic,
f...
 Daily hazardous waste generation in India (for
2014) was reported to be 21650 tonnes/day (CPCB,
2016)
 For Maharashtra,...
Construction & Demolition
Waste “Building materials, debris and rubble resulting from
construction, re-modelling, repair ...
 C&D waste quantity is influenced by the rate of
urbanization involving factors such as
development of public infrastruct...
Source: Jindal, 2016
Total Solid Waste Generation (2014)
17
MSW is the most significant in terms of quantity!
However, if ...
Non-urban waste
streams
 Non-urban waste generation is highly influenced by economic
activities or geographical factors a...
Wastewater
Wastewater is defined as “a combination of one or more
of:
 Domestic effluent consisting of blackwater (excret...
 Constituents of wastewater may include:
 Plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)
 Pathogenic microorganisms ...
21
“Waste Intensity Map” showing
Intensity/Risks and Relative Mass for Key
Waste Streams in India
IntroductiontoWastestrea...
Waste Collection
 MSW collection is the obligatory responsibility of local
governments
 They may be contracted to privat...
Waste Transportation
 MSW maybe transported to transfer stations from
where they are taken to treatment locations (mostly...
Sorting & segregation
 Waste sorting centers, also known as materials recovery
facilities, receive, separate and prepares...
MSW Treatment
25
IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
Decentralization in MSWM
26
IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
MSW collection & treatment in
India
27
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 AndhraPradesh/…
ArunachalPradesh
Assam
Chhattisgar...
MSW Disposal
28
IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
 all waste management system requires a final
disposal-...
MSWM in Mumbai
Population -12.5 million
Net area -603 sq. km
MSW generation - 6600
MT/day (0.528
kg/capita/day)
Mumbai War...
Snapshots from decentralised MSWM in Mumbai
RUR’s Tumbler Composting
Unit, Ashok Towers, Mahim
Earthen Composter at Dr.
Ro...
Module Coordinator:
Dr.Prasad Modak, Ekonnect
Knowledge Foundation
Address:
504/505, 5th Floor, Balarama Building,
Bandra ...
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Overview of waste streams

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Overview of waste streams

  1. 1. Capacity Development Program in Environment Management (CDEM) Module 4: Integrated Solid Waste Management 6th February to 10th February 2017 K.J.Somaiya College, Mumbai
  2. 2. Overview of Waste Streams Malavika Gopinath, IIT- Bombay Pranay Krishnan, EMC 6th February 2017
  3. 3.  ‘substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law’ – Basel Convention, 1989  Working definitions vary from country to country- we will focus on definitions in the Indian context  Urban wastes primarily consists of waste generated from residential, commercial, and institutional entities It includes municipal solid waste, bio-medical waste, e- waste, commercial & institutional wastes and construction & demolition wastes. 3 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  4. 4. Municipal Solid Waste  ‘Solid or semi-solid domestic waste, sanitary waste, commercial waste, institutional waste, catering and market waste and other non residential wastes, street sweepings, silt removed or collected from the surface drains, horticulture waste, agriculture and dairy waste, treated bio- medical waste.’ -Solid Waste Rules, 2016  Exclusions: industrial waste, bio-medical waste and e-waste, battery waste, radio-active waste generated in the area under the local authorities 4 Source: Moss et.al, 2010 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  5. 5. 5 As per the latest CPCB data available (2014) the net MSW generation in the country is estimated to 143,000 tonnes/day (52.2 million tonnes annually) For Maharashtra, the daily generation is around 21,000 tonnes/day and for MCGM, it is estimated to be 8,600 tonnes/day IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  6. 6. 6 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  7. 7. 47% 8% 8% 1% 1% 5% 30% MSW Composition for India (CPCB, 2014) Organic material Paper Rubber Metal Glass Rags Others & Inert Daily MSW Generation for India (CPCB, 2014) 7 •waste composition varies greatly across the world, depending on the level of socio- economic development •as income levels increase % of organic fractions tend to decrease •even within India, across rural and urban areas, the MSW composition differs greatly
  8. 8. E-waste  ‘electrical and electronic equipment, whole or in part discarded as waste by the consumer or bulk consumer as well as rejects from manufacturing, refurbishment and repair processes’  E-waste generation has increased significantly due to the frequent upgrades in the electronic goods & rapid obsolescence 8 • As per CPCB estimates, India generated around 800,080 tonnes of e-waste in 2014 (Jindal, 2016) IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  9. 9. 9 • Globally, it is estimated that the total amount e-waste generated in 2014 was 41.8 million metric tonnes (MMT) which is forecasted to increase to 50 MMT per annum in 2018 • In Asia, e-waste generated was 16.0 MMT in 2014 with China generating the highest (6 MMT) followed by Japan (2.2 MMT) and India (1.7MMT) Note: • Additionally, 0.05 MMT is imported • E-waste generation is expected to reach 5.2 MMT as per ASSOCHAM MMT – Million metric tonnes per annum 0.15 0.33 0.43 0.8 1.7 3.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2005 2007 2009 2012 2014 2015 WastegenerationinMillionMetricTons E-waste generation estimates in India CPCB MAIT- GTZ ELCINA CPCB UNU Leading recycler ASSOCH AM1.8 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  10. 10. 10 • India sold 300 million CFLs in 2010, and considering that the average life of a CFL in India is 4 years10, about 300 million CFLs would have entered the waste stream in 2014 alone. • 1066 million CFLs would have been disposed of by 2014, in the next 2 years, another 748 million CFLs will enter the waste stream. IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  11. 11. Biomedical Waste  ‘Any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological or in health camps’ Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016  Exclusions- radioactive wastes ,wastes covered under the MSW Rules, lead acid batteries, hazardous wastes, e- waste, hazardous microorganisms.  BMW is not the same as hospital waste  definition of BMW varies vastly across countries -most common health care wastes generated are used bandages, syringes, scalpels and laboratory wastes 11 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  12. 12. •For Maharashtra, the generation of BMW in 2010 was reported to be 47 tonnes/day (MPCB,2010) •average BMW generation per bed in hospitals is reported to be 1.5 kg/day for India (range: 0.5-2 kg/day) (Rameshbabu et.al, 2009) 40% 10% 1%4% 45% Healthcare Waste Composition for India Bandages, linen and other infectious waste Plastics Sharps & metal waste Glass General waste Source: Patil and Shekdar, 2001 12 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  13. 13. Hazardous Waste  ‘Any waste which by reason of characteristics such as physical, chemical, biological, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive, causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or in contact with other wastes or substances’ Hazardous Waste Management Rules, 2016  Examples of HW include spent catalysts, used oils, spent chemicals, sludge from wastewater treatment etc. 13 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  14. 14.  Daily hazardous waste generation in India (for 2014) was reported to be 21650 tonnes/day (CPCB, 2016)  For Maharashtra, the HW generation in 2015 was reported at 4503 tonnes/day & for MCGM, it is around 466 tonnes/day (MPCB, 2016)  Hazardous waste can also be generated from homes (spent medicines, used batteries, lamps, insect repellants, aerosol spray, home cleaning chemicals etc.)- contamination of MSW due to these household hazardous waste streams is of concern because they can affect MSW treatment processes 14 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  15. 15. Construction & Demolition Waste “Building materials, debris and rubble resulting from construction, re-modelling, repair and demolition of any civil structure.” C&D Waste Management Rules, 2016  Components of C&D waste are typically concrete, asphalt, wood, metals, gypsum wallboard, and roofing  C&D waste generation for India (2012) was around 188,000 tonnes/ day (AWMO,2017) 15 Source: Bhattacharya et.al., 2013 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  16. 16.  C&D waste quantity is influenced by the rate of urbanization involving factors such as development of public infrastructure projects, growth of residential and commercial properties, and foreign direct investments (GWMO, 2015) 16 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 700.00 kg/capita/annum Per capita C&D waste generation for select Asian Countries (2012) IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  17. 17. Source: Jindal, 2016 Total Solid Waste Generation (2014) 17 MSW is the most significant in terms of quantity! However, if C&D waste is also considered, it will dominate in terms of quantity. Why? IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  18. 18. Non-urban waste streams  Non-urban waste generation is highly influenced by economic activities or geographical factors an area as opposed to urban waste streams such as MSW i.e., some regions generate certain specific waste types while others may not  Ship-breaking waste is only generated in regions that have ports and shipyards, while mining wastes are produced in regions with large mining activities  Other examples include agricultural waste, disaster wastes , marine litter & debris etc. 18 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  19. 19. Wastewater Wastewater is defined as “a combination of one or more of:  Domestic effluent consisting of blackwater (excreta, urine and faecal sludge) and greywater (kitchen and bathing wastewater);  Water from commercial establishments and institutions, including hospitals;  Industrial effluent, stormwater and other urban run-off;  Agricultural, horticultural and aquaculture effluent, either dissolved or as suspended matter” (Corcoran et al. 2010). 19http://www.unwater.org/fileadmin/user_upload/unwater_new/docs/UN-Water_Analytical_Brief_Wastewater_Management.pdf IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  20. 20.  Constituents of wastewater may include:  Plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium)  Pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths)  Heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc)  Organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides); and biodegradable organics (BOD, COD)  Micro-pollutants (e.g. medicines, cosmetics, cleaning agents) 20 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  21. 21. 21 “Waste Intensity Map” showing Intensity/Risks and Relative Mass for Key Waste Streams in India IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  22. 22. Waste Collection  MSW collection is the obligatory responsibility of local governments  They may be contracted to private operators or collectives of informal workers through various PPP models (for e.g. In Pune, the collection is carried out by KKPKP)  Collection rates vary across countries and even across cities within the same countries- in low-income countries, it is not uncommon to find collection rates below 50 percent), while high-income countries reach close to 100 percent (e.g., Singapore and South Korea)  In India, data for 105 cities show that collection rates vary between 40 to 100 percent 22 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  23. 23. Waste Transportation  MSW maybe transported to transfer stations from where they are taken to treatment locations (mostly in the case of centralized processing) or directly to landfills for disposal  Waste transportation accounts for the maximum expenditure in MSW management! 23 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  24. 24. Sorting & segregation  Waste sorting centers, also known as materials recovery facilities, receive, separate and prepares recyclable materials  Waste sorting centers play a key role in ISWM, and therefore should be considered a key element in modern sustainable waste management  They provide waste pickers a safer environment to work in, encourage communities to recycle, reduce the amount of reusable and recyclable material that is sent to a landfill, thereby increasing the life of the landfill, and reduce GHG emissions.  The waste is separated by product, and the various items are then prepared for recycling, composting, treatment, and/or disposal 24 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  25. 25. MSW Treatment 25 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  26. 26. Decentralization in MSWM 26 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  27. 27. MSW collection & treatment in India 27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 AndhraPradesh/… ArunachalPradesh Assam Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana HimachalPradesh Jammu&Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala MadhyaPradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim TamilNadu Tripura UttarPradesh Uttrakhand WestBengal % Collection % (out of total generated) Treatment % (out of total generated) National average -82% Collection -26% Treatment For MCGM- 100% collection- 40% treatment IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement
  28. 28. MSW Disposal 28 IntroductiontoWastestreamsOverviewofMSWmanagement  all waste management system requires a final disposal- therefore landfills are inevitable  the trend shows that more developing countries in Asia are investing in the establishment of sanitary landfills than on the treatment of waste  Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) - solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed
  29. 29. MSWM in Mumbai Population -12.5 million Net area -603 sq. km MSW generation - 6600 MT/day (0.528 kg/capita/day) Mumbai Ward Map- Source: MCGM Source: Zurbrügg et al. 2004 -Rs15-20lakh per day on collecting and transporting garbage and debris -municipal and private vehicles making about 2,000 trips every day(Gokaldas 2012) -lack of treatment and direct dumping of MSW (also BiomedicalWaste) -frequent fires in landfills -in several wards of Mumbai, a growing movement to formalize the waste-picking sector - NGOs such as Sthree Mukti Sanghatana, FORCE are actively involved inWM -Advanced Locality Management (ALM) is local management of solid waste by citizens who organise themselves to manage their waste -many private service providers (eg. RUR Greenlife, Flycatcher technologies, Sampurn(E)arth Solutions, Mumbai Goes Green )
  30. 30. Snapshots from decentralised MSWM in Mumbai RUR’s Tumbler Composting Unit, Ashok Towers, Mahim Earthen Composter at Dr. Roshani Sanghani’s Clinic in Khar West Sunsaar’s Bin Composter at Blooming Heights, Pali Hills SMS worker at TISS Biogas plant maintained by Sampurn(E)arth
  31. 31. Module Coordinator: Dr.Prasad Modak, Ekonnect Knowledge Foundation Address: 504/505, 5th Floor, Balarama Building, Bandra Kurla Complex, Near MMRDA Office Bandra (East) Mumbai – 400 051 Tel : 91 022 6221 5944/5946 Website: www.ekonnect.net Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EkonnectKnowl edgeFoundation/?ref=hl Ekonnect Knowledge Foundation is a not for profit company offering education and awareness on Environment, CSR & Sustainability. CDEM is a program conceived and organized by K.J.Somaiya in partnership with and support of MMR-EIS. This module 4 is part of the 5 module diploma certificate offered under this program. 31

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