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Unlock Bengaluru 2018: Roadmap to the Townships and Campuses of the Future

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By Jaya Dhindaw, WRI India; Sahana Goswami, WRI India, and Sumedha Malaviya, WRI India

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Unlock Bengaluru 2018: Roadmap to the Townships and Campuses of the Future

  1. 1. ROADMAP TO THE TOWNSHIPS AND CAMPUSES OF THE FUTURE Urban Design & Mobility | Energy | Water
  2. 2. AGENDA Source: *Mckinsey • Context • Challenges • Sectoral Solutions for Action • Panel 1- Roadmaps for Sustainability • Panel 2- Group Discussion and convening Lunch
  3. 3. CONTEXT • 700-900 million Sq. mts of residential and commercial space to be built every year – one Chicago every year!* • High and growing private investment in the real estate sector, an industry nationally responsible for 7% of GDP. • Massive private sector engagement needed to construct new building stock. Source: *Mckinsey Municipal boundary Urban Area (2005-06) Urban Area (2011-12)
  4. 4. • 466% increase in the built up area of Bengaluru from 1973 to 2000. • As per 2014 data over 5,000 acres of Bengaluru was under development in the periphery, designed to be car dependent, relying on diesel-fueled power and would survive on purchased water. Image Data Source: Global Land Survey and LandSat (USGS), Open Streets Map, NHAI, BBMP, BDA 1990 2000 2010 2015 INCREASE IN URBAN FOOTPRINT OF BANGALORE (1990 TO 2015) CONTEXT
  5. 5. CONTEXT
  6. 6. • Unsustainable forms of urban development, including large, sprawling “gated communities”. • High real estate with cheaper land on urban periphery. • No government oversight or regulation, no requirement for supporting infrastructure; private provision is the norm. • Location and price still key determinants in real estate, low market demand for green housing, lack of consumer awareness, and principal-agent problem in residential sector. CHALLENGES
  8. 8. Figure 1 – Bangalore’s Piped Water Access • 70% of water demand met by Cauvery- 100 km away, pumped uphill to height of 540m. • BWSSB network coverage not uniformly extended to periphery. • Disproportionate dependence on ground water (extraction>rainfall), tanker water. WATER SCENARIO Maximum access Least access
  9. 9. SANITATION SCENARIO • Gated communities often without access to sewage networks. • Use of small-scale STPs hampered by power outage, high cost of backup power. • Desludging vehicles dump waste in adhoc manner. • Lack of coordination between agencies. Figure 2 – Sewerage Network of Bengaluru
  10. 10. ENERGY CONSUMPTION SCENARIO • Bengaluru consumes 35% of Karnataka’s power- residential sector makes up 26% of power sales. • Little research and data on energy use within gated communities particularly for common area amenities. • No existing policies for improving efficiency of existing buildings.
  11. 11. ELECTRICITY • Domestic Consumption will increase from 8,000 to 13,500 MKWh between 2013 to 2031. • Percapita consumption will almost double from 880 to 1,500 KWh. • 1.67 billion sq.ft of roof top space. • 50% of this space generate 8450 KWh. • Even 20% generates 3400 KWh. -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Annual Energy Demand Growth between 2013-2021 in BMAZ/BESCOM (Million KWhr) Commercial Industrial WaterSupply Hospitals & Education Domestic
  12. 12. 2013- 2014 Apr 2017 Jun 2017- Mar 2018 July 2018 Evaluating township development in Bengaluru city and utilizing the data as sample to craft suitable practices Guidebook prepared through feedback from workshops UnlockBLR 2017 + 2 workshops UnlockBLR 2018 Next Steps 2018-19 STUDY TIMELINE
  14. 14. • Safety concerns while travelling to and from development • Poor road and pedestrian networks • Lack of services • Poor access to public transport • Car-centric lifestyle • Availability of open spaces and parks • Distributed services and facilities • Green practices • Safety within the premise CHALLENGES OPPORTUNITIES
  15. 15. Policy and regulations Development control regulations not supportive of compact and connected developments No disincentive to build in peripheral areas despite service delivery issues Implementation Lack of technical capacity to implement/ upgrade to sustainable solutions; security concerns Capacity Lack of motivation and capacity of for monitoring, service provision and operations Financial sustainability Good practices are usually expensive to put in place (cap-ex); no incentives for developers BARRIERS
  16. 16. Household Apartment Complex Neighborhood/Utility /Municipality Design Safe access to public transport Complete streets Charging Infrastructure Adopt a road for maintenance Shared public spaces Sustainable building materials Mobility Buses for last mile Space for shared mobility solutions Xeriscaping Electric vehicles DESIGN + MOBILITY SOLUTIONS
  17. 17. Solution New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Safe access to public transport New build and Existing Leads to greater public transit use; vibrant station areas Complete Streets New build and existing Encourages walking and cycling (non- motorized) use URBAN DESIGN
  18. 18. Solution New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Shared public spaces New build and Existing Public spaces offer social and environmental benefits impacting micro-climate Xeriscaping New build and Existing Saves water needed for landscaping while providing green cover Sustainable building materials New build and Existing Reduces burden on environment and efficient resource utilization URBAN DESIGN
  19. 19. Solution New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Space for shared mobility solutions New build and Existing Discourages personal vehicle ownership and shared rides Adopt a road New build and Existing Roads are better maintained with optimal resources Electric vehicles New build and Existing Reduces emissions MOBILITY
  20. 20. Solution New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Buses to aid last mile connectivity. New build and Existing Reduces reliance on private modes for city-region connectivity Make gated developments porous by allowing public road networks New build Street grids reduce vehicle miles travelled and hence pollution; enable walking/cycling Charging infrastructure provision in communities New build and Existing Encourages electric mobility uptake reducing pollution MOBILITY
  21. 21. WATER
  22. 22. • Increasing water stress leading to innovation in water efficiency, reuse and demand management practices • Switch from linear supply and service delivery models to circular practices to optimize resource use • Improve implementation of RWH and aquifer recharge systems OPPORTUNITIES
  23. 23. Policy and regulations Mandatory on-site treatment and reuse limits option of aggregation for wastewater management Institutional overlaps and multiple tariffs Implementation No differential between adapters of good practices and defaulter Lack of technical capacity to implement/ upgrade to sustainable solutions Capacity building Lack of capacity of for monitoring, service provision and operations Financial sustainability High O&M costs (including energy costs) associated with the maintenance of installed systems BARRIERS
  24. 24. WATER/WASTE WATER SOLUTIONSRainfall Storm Water Management Rain Water Harvesting Collection in Urban Wetland/ Lakes Recharge Wells Permeable Pavements Household Apartment Complex Neighborhood Individual Metering & Water Billing Data Visualization Drip Irrigation Xeriscaping Use of Water Efficient Fixture Efficiency Measures Segregation of Grey & Black Water Use of Treated Grey Water for Flushing Treatment of Grey Water Treatment of Black Water • Horticulture • Road Washing • Construction Reuse of Treated Water Waste Water Reuse
  25. 25. SOLUTION` SCALE NEW BUILD/RETROFIT SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS Permeable Pavements Neighbourhood New build & retrofit Infiltration for shallow groundwater recharge Recharge Wells Household, Apartment Complex, Neighbourhood New build & retrofit Infiltration for groundwater recharge Collection in urban wetlands and lakes Neighbourhood New build & retrofit Infiltration for groundwater recharge Reduced urban flooding (sponge city concept) STORM WATER MANAGEMENT
  26. 26. SOLUTION SCALE NEW BUILD/RETROFIT SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS Rain Garden Apartment Complex, Neighbourhood New build Infiltration for groundwater recharge Reduced urban flooding (sponge city concept) Rainwater Harvesting Apartment Complex New build & retrofit Infiltration for groundwater recharge Water supply augmentation STORM WATER MANAGEMENT
  27. 27. SOLUTION SCALE NEW BUILD/RETROFIT SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS Xeriscaping Neighbourhood New build & retrofit Reduced water consumption and water demand Possible reuse of treated grey water Individual Metering & Water Billing Apartment Complex New build Leak detection and control Reduction in consumption Reduction in energy costs EFFICIENCY MEASURES
  28. 28. SOLUTION SCALE NEW BUILD/RETROFIT SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS Data visualisation Apartment Complex New build & retrofit Map individual/ household trends Track and reward conservation efforts Drive behavioural change Identify leakages and wastage Use of water efficient fixtures Household New build & retrofit Water use reduction Water cost reduction Reduced energy (pumping) costs EFFICIENCY MEASURES
  29. 29. SOLUTION SCALE NEW BUILD/RETROFIT SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS Segregation of black & grey water Household, Apartment Complex New build & retrofit Treated grey water for flushing Household New build Reduce fresh water demand Move towards circular water use Treated black water for -Horticulture -Road washing -Construction Neighbourhood New build & retrofit Reduce fresh water use Cost reduction in construction projects REUSE OF WASTEWATER
  30. 30. Energy – Water Nexus Optimum Pump Sizing Pressure Level – Service Level Adjustment Deragging and Clogging Prevention Energy Efficient Pumps (Pumps with VSD) Prevention of Scaling and Fouling Close-loop Automation ENERGY-WATER NEXUS
  31. 31. ENERGY
  33. 33. Policy and regulatory Low tariffs, lack of baseline data, no regulations for existing buildings Capacity and implementation Limited awareness, weak or no capacity for implementation, low motivation and interest Financial No incentives, financial options or risk mitigation instruments BARRIERS
  34. 34. Household Apartment Complex Neighborhood/Utility /Municipality Smart Metering Enforcement of building codes Common Area EE-RE Solutions Energy Efficient Appliances and energy conservation Common Area Rooftop Solar PV Solutions Use of Rooftop Solar PV Data collection and benchmarking Implementing EE guidelines ENERGY SOLUTIONS
  35. 35. Solution Scale New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Adopting energy conservation building codes and EE guidelines Apartment complex New Preventing lock-in effect of inefficient buildings Utility demand Side energy management enabled by better data collection Household and Apartment complex Existing Managing energy use in existing buildings through Demand Response and energy efficiency CLEAN ENERGY
  36. 36. Solution Scale New Build/ Existing Sustainability Benefits Solar PV for common-area energy needs in residential buildings Household, Apartment complex, neighbourhood and utility New build and existing Generating ‘’clean’’ energy Information, awareness and capacity building Household, Apartment complex and neighbourhood New build and existing Behavior change towards sustainable choices CLEAN ENERGY
  37. 37. PANEL I
  38. 38. Short Medium Long-term Disclosure of annual energy use for gated communities through crowdsourcing Research on Integrated Resources Management for gated communities Mandatory disclosure of annual energy use for gated communities, once every 2 years Creating tool/platform for monitoring energy use at gated community level Generating recommendations and priorities from data collected through the tool Zoning regulations to encourage RE generation. These changes must be brought in gradually and involving all stakeholders. Working with BESCOM for benchmarking energy use for all consumers Utility-driven data disclosure on electricity consumption of individual households Preliminary/high-level scorecard for gated communities Utility-driven smart metering for all Engagement with KERC for advocacy around specific regulations for large sized gated communities e.g. mandatory X% generation from RE ACTIONS TO ACCELERATE CLEAN ENERGY
  39. 39. TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLY MANAGED WATER / WASTEWATER SECTOR Short-term Medium-term Long-term Communication of good practices on visible platforms Layout plans developed by architects and builders for municipal approval to include water plan. Generate metrics for assessing good practices and development of platform for peer learning and sharing of good practices in the water-wastewater sector. Focus on big conversation items such as Day Zero for Bangalore to bring about awareness on the water stress and risks faced by communities Mapping and modelling at city scale (includes water audits), aquifer status etc., catchment zones. Enforcement of a transparent monitoring system Water awareness for end users/ consumers to assess systems provided by developers and capacity to manage recurring O&M issues Identifying micro watersheds allows for the possibility of development of common pool activities (such as community aquifer management; aggregation of wastewater streams for management at scale. Sharing roadmap of stakeholder with concerned stakeholders such as BAF, other apartment associations and RWAs
  40. 40. Short Medium Long-term Buses, new mobility solutions to aid last mile connectivity (Eg: Metrobikes) Government to pilot an initiative to showcase better mobility practices ( Eg: Partnering with CREDAI) Master plan and Development Control regulations to promote compact and connected developments Opening data availability technology-based applications (Eg: BMTC, BBMP data) RWAs can take over a road for maintenance once data is accessible Increase the cost of personal vehicle ownership Integrate the ticketing system for different transport modes Greater responsibility between communities for shared amenities (Eg: public spaces) ROADMAP FOR SUSTAINABILITY
  41. 41. PANEL II